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Reitz, Johann Heinrich

(187 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1655, Oberdiebach – Nov 25, 1720, Wesel), Reformed theologian. After studies in Heidelberg (1675), Bremen (1678), Herborn, and Leiden (1679), he became rector in Frankenthal. In 1681 he became a pastor in Freinsheim, in 1689 inspector in Ladenburg, in 1694 pastor in Asslar, and in 1695 court chaplain and inspector in Braunfels. Under the influence of B.C. Klopfer and H. Horch, he was won to the cause of separatism and chiliasm (Millenarianism) and was removed from office …

Porst, Johann

(276 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1668, Oberkotzau, near Hof – Jan 9, 1728, Berlin). After studies at Leipzig from 1689 to 1692, Porst served as a private tutor in Neustadt an der Aisch, where his reading of P.J. Spener’s penitential sermons converted him to Pietism and led him to organize conventicles. In 1695 he relocated to Berlin and found a place in the group associated with Spener, who supported him. In 1698 he was appointed pa…

Egard, Paul

(199 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (c. 1580, Kellinghusen, Holstein – 1655, Nortorf), a Holstein pastor; after studies in Rostock, he was initially deacon, then rector in Rendsburg, and, from 1610, pastor in Nortorf. Egard was a dedicated advocate of inner-Lutheran church critique, the author of edifying books and of practice-orientated interpretations of the Bible. As a supporter and defender of J. Arndt ( Ehrenrettung Johannis Arndten

Rogall, Georg Friedrich

(115 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] …

Stenger, Johann Melchior

(190 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 26, 1638, Erfurt – Mar 7, 1710, Wittstock). After studying in Jena (1654), Leipzig, Wittenberg, Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1658), and Erfurt, Stenger became a deacon at the Predigerkirche in Erfurt in 1666. His terministic teaching regarding repentance and grace, for which he relied primarily on Sonthoms Güldenes Kleinod (E. Sonthom), set off the “Stenger controversy,” which precipitated a crisis in “early Erfurt Pietism” (Wallmann), which P.J. S…

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, corresponden…

Anton, Paul

(209 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 12, 1661, Hirschfelde – Oct 20, 1730, Halle). Anton began his studies in Leipzig in 1680; in 1681 he became acquainted with P.J. Spener. In 1686, together with A.H. Francke, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, the nucleus of the Pietist movement in Leipzig. In 1695 Anton was called to Halle as professor of theology and …

Lange, Joachim

(298 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1670, Gardelegen, Altmark – May 7, 1744, Halle). After attending school in Osterwieck, Quedlinburg (1687), and Magdeburg (1689), Lange entered the university at Leipzig in the fall of 1689. There he joined A. Francke and the Collegium Philobiblicum and because a private tutor for C. Thomasius. In 1690 he followed Francke to Erfurt and in 1692 to Halle; in 1693 he moved to Berlin and joined the circle around P. Spener, K. v Canstein, and J. Schade. After receiving his master's degree in absentia from Halle, he was appointed principal in Köslin, Farther Pom…

Hellmund, Egidius Günther

(312 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1678, probably in the region of Neunheilingen near Langensalza – Feb 6, 1749, Wiesbaden). After studying in Jena and Halle, where he aligned himself with the Pietism of A.H. Francke, Hellmund was a Saxon-Weimarian military chaplain in the War of the Spanish Succession (1700–1707), then adjunct pastor in Berka/Werra, pastor in Daaden, Westerwald (1708), and pastor in Wetzlar (after 1711). Confronted with the vigorous hostility of his anti-Pietist colleague, J. Geibel and th…

Mengering, Arnold

(197 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1596, Halle an der Saale – Jan 2, 1647, Halle an der Saale). After studying in Wittenberg (from 1615) and Jena (from 1619), Arnold Mengering officiated as pastor in the area of Magdeburg from 1622 onward (1622: Colbitz, 1624: Sudenburg, 1627: Löbejün). In 1627, he became cathedral preacher in Halle, was deposed and expelled in 1630 following recatholicization of the cathedral during the Thirty Years War, was appointed third court chaplain in Dresden in 1631, and court chap…

Michaelis, Johann Heinrich

(246 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1668, Klettenberg, South Harz – Mar 10, 1738, Halle). After a commercial apprenticeship in Braunschweig, Michaelis attended the Latin school in Nordhausen; in 1688 he began the study of oriental languages in Leipzig. There he became a disciple of A.H. Francke, whom he followed to Halle in 1692. He received his master's degree there in 1694 and was appointed to the philosophical faculty as adjunct in 1696. After a study year in 1699 with H. Ludolf in Frankfurt am Main, whe…

Elers, Heinrich Julius

(203 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 28, 1667, Bardowick near Lüneburg – Sep 13, 1728, Halle/Saale), already at school (Lüneburg 1688) and as a theology student (1689 Leipzig) was a friend and supporter of A.H. Francke, on whose side he was involved in Pietistic disputes (Pietism: I, 1). From 1690 to1694 he was an informant in Arnstadt; he…

Ammersbach, Heinrich

(196 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (1632, Halberstadt – Jul 17, 1691, Halberstadt). In 1658, after studying at Jena, Ammersbach was chosen to be pastor in Halberstadt. He held this office throughout his lifetime. Beginning in the early 1660s, he published – mostly at his own expense and often using the pseudonym Heinrich H…

Quandt, Johann Jakob

(241 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1686, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Jan 17, 1772, Königsberg), began his studies in Königsberg in 1701 and moved to Leipzig in 1706 (M.A. in 1707), Halle, and Jena, along with an educational journey through Germany and the Low Countries, devoted primarily to the study of eastern languages. In 1710 he became a lecturer at Königsberg, and he received his Dr. theol. from Rostock in 1715. In 1…

Molinos, Miguel de

(275 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Jun 29, 1628, Muniesa, province of Teruel, Spain – Dec. 28/29[?], 1696, Rome) studied from 1646 onward at the Jesuit college of Valencia, where he held a benefice in the Church of San Andrés, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1652. Residing in Rome from 1663, Molinos's role as confessor and spiritual adviser in the style of quietist mysticism made him the focus of a large crowd of followers, which also included cardinals and Pope Innocent XI. His

Wittenberg, University of

(976 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (founded as Leucorea). After the division of Wettin Saxony in 1485, in which Leipzig (Leipzig, University) went to the Albertine line, the city of Wittenberg developed into the official residence of the Ernestine line and hence the capital of Electoral Saxony. On Oct 18, 1502, under the elector Frederick the Wise the University of Wittenberg was founded as the official university of electoral Saxony. It was granted imperial privileges on Jul 6, 1502; papal privileges were not gran…

Böhme, Anton Wilhelm

(220 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 1, 1673, Ösdorf – May 27, 1722, Greenwich, England) studied in Halle from c. 1693 and became the informatory at the Waldeckian court in Arolsen. Involved in Waldeck's Pietism dispute (1699/1700), he lost his office in 1700 because of spiritualist and separatist tendencies. After a stay once again with A.H. Francke in Halle, he went to London in …

Rambach

(367 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] 1. Johann Jakob (Feb 24, 1693, Halle – Apr 19, 1735, Giessen). From 1712, Rambach studied in Halle; in 1715 he worked on J.H. Michaelis’s edition of the Biblia Hebraica; from 1719 (together with G.A. Francke), he studied in Jena (esp. under J.F. Buddeus), where in 1720 he gained his M.A.; in 1723 he became assistant in the Halle faculty of theology; in 1726, assistant professor; in 1727, full professor of theology in Halle; in 1731, Dr.theol.; from 1731, professor and general superintendent in Giessen. Ramba…

Breithaupt, Joachim Justus

(225 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1658, Northeim near Göttingen – Mar 16, 1732, Berge Monastery near Magdeburg) studied (1676–1683) in Helmstedt and Kiel (where he lived in the house of C. Kortholt with A.H. Francke) and became associate professor of homiletics there in 1684. In 1685, he became court preacher and consistorial counselor in Meinigen. After a stay with P…

Horneck, Anton

(193 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Anthony; 1641, Bacharach – Jan 31, 1697, London). After his studies at Heidelberg (1659–1661) he lived in England and became a member of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1664. In 1665, he became court tutor to the son of the duke of Albemarle and the latter's protégé. In 1671, he was appointed preacher at Savoy Chapel, where he attracted a large congregation and was much sought after as a pastor. In 1689, he became the court chaplain of William III. Horneck was a cofounder of the Reli…

Saldenus, Guilielmus

(171 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Willem; May, 1627, Utrecht – Aug 2, 1694, The Hague). After studying in Utrecht, Saldenus filled pulpits in Renswoude (1649), Kokkengen (1652), Enkhuizen (1655), Delft (1664) and The Hague (1677). As a pupil of G. Voetius, influenced by W. Ames and English edifying literature, he supported the Puritan wing of the Nadere Reformatie, advocating Sunday observance and…

Koelman, Jacobus

(222 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Nov 23, 1631, Utrecht – Feb 6, 1695, Utrecht). After studying in Utrecht, he was chaplain to the embassies in Copenhagen and ¶ Brussels from 1657. From 1662, he was pastor in Sluis, Zeeland. As a student of G. Voetius and significantly influenced by (English and Scottish) Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), Koelman became the programmatist and militant defender of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie. He pushed fo…

Gedicke, Lambert

(208 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Lampertus; Jan 6, 1683, Gardelegen – Feb 21, 1735, Berlin). From his student years in Berlin (where J. Lange was rector), Gedicke was influenced by Pietism, encouraged in particular by C.H. von Canstein and A.H. Francke. After studying at Halle, he was appointed preceptor at Francke's orphanage (to 1708). After brief service as a private tutor in Berlin, in 1709 he was appointed chaplain of the Garrison regiment; in 1710 he took part in the Brabant campaign during the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1713 ¶ he was appointed chaplain of the Wartensleben regiment and chaplain of the Garrison Church in Berlin. Appointed chief military chaplain in 1717, as supervisor of all the Prussian military chaplains he helped shape the Prussian military chaplaincy and provided an important contact between Halle Pietism and the Berlin court. Gedicke wrote devotional books for soldiers as well as some hymns (in particular “Wie Gott mich führt, so will ich gehn”) and edited the first Prussian military hymnal. Udo Sträter Bibliography T. Wotschke, “L…

Halle, University of

(794 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] The initiative to establish a university in Halle goes back to Albert of Brandenburg, who in 1531 obtained the founding privilege from the papal legate cardinal L. Campeggio. Lack of money and the introduction of the Reformation in the archdiocese of Magdeburg forestalled these plans, which were directed against Wittenberg University (Wittenberg, University of). When in 1680 the archdiocese fell to Brandenburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, the founding plans were revived and were rea…

Francke

(1,774 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Jacobi, Juliane
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Mar 12, 1664, Lübeck - Jun 8, 1727, Halle/Saale). a. Life and work Francke grew up in a religious atmosphere shaped by Johann Arndt's Wahres Christentum and English edifying literature. In Gotha, where his father accepted an appointment as court counselor in 1666, he became acquainted with the ecclesiastical, educational, and social reforms put in place by Ernest the Pious in his territory. He began his studies at Erfurt but moved to Kiel in 1679, where his favorite teacher was C. Kortholt…

Niemeyer

(648 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Sep 1, 1754, Halle – Jul 7, 1828, Halle), great-grandson of A.H. Francke. Following school at the Pädagogium Regium of the Frankische Stiftungen (Francke institutions), he began to study philosophy, classical philology, and theology in Halle. In 1776 he began teaching in the Halle schools. After receiving his doctorate, he began lecturing in 1777; in 1779 he was…

Olearius

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Hasse, Hans-Peter | Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika | Sträter, Udo | Kadelbach, Ada
[German Version] 1. Johannes (Kupfermann; Sep 17, 1546, Wesel – Jan 26, 1623, Halle). After studying at Marburg (1566) and Jena (1570, M.A. 1573), Olearius began teaching at the Gymnasium in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad) in 1574. In 1577 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and in 1578 professor of theology at Helmstedt (1579 Dr.theol.). In 1581 he was appointed superintendent in Halle, where he set the organization of the church in order and occasionally held theological d…

Pietism

(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity …
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