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Jesuati

(159 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (later: Clerici apostolici S. Hieronymi), was a community founded around 1355 by Giovanni Colombini (died 1367) and his first associate, Francesco Vincenti. Initially, only laypersons lived together in poverty and penitence, with no fixed rule; they saw their vocation in praising God and in active love for their neighbor. The name derives from the exclamation in prayer, “O Gesù!” In 1367, the Jesuati obtained papal approbation and thereafter established monasteries in central and nort…

Thomas Becket, Saint

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1120 [?], London – Dec 29, 1170, Canterbury). After studying in Paris, Thomas, the son of a merchant, was accepted into the household of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, who named him archdeacon of Canterbury in 1154. In 1155 Henry II appointed him as his chancellor. Thomas was ambitious and lived lavishly but was considered highly talented and incorruptible. As Henry’s confidant, he carried out the king’s policies even against the interests of the church. That changed …

Bilney, Thomas

(331 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1495, Norfolk – Aug 19, 1531, Norwich) studied both kinds of law in Cambridge. He was ordained as a priest in 1519 and became a fellow of Trinity Hall in 1520. Under the influence of the Latin translation of the New Testament by Erasmus, Bilney began to devote himself to biblical studies. 1 Tim 1:15 helped him to a new understanding of the Christian faith, which freed him from anxiety about his salvation, so that an encounter with Lutheran thinking must be assumed as a preparation for his conversion. In the following period Bilney preached against saint and image ¶ veneration…

More, Sir Thomas

(432 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Morus; Feb 6/7, 1477/1478, London – Jul 6, 1535, London), prominent English Humanist, politician, and controversial theologian (Controversial theology). The son of a jurist, he attended school in London and subsequently became a page in the household of Cardinal Archbishop John Morton (1420–1500), who sent him to Oxford to study. In spite of his academic interests, his father insisted on an additional legal training at the Inns of Court. Thomas More worked as a lawyer from 1501 o…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. …

Manton, Thomas

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1620, Lydeard St. Lawrence – Oct 18, 1677, London). After studying at Wadham College, Oxford (BA 1639), Manton, the son of a clergyman, began to preach and rapidly became the undisputed leader of the Presbyterians in London. He rose ¶ to become a scribe for the Westminster Assembly and often preached before the Long Parliament. After the fall of O. Cromwell, he sympathized with the Restoration under Charles II, but when the hopes of the Nonconformists (Dissenters) for concessions from the Anglicans were dashed, he refu…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Ebner, Christina

(268 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Good Friday, 1277, Nuremberg – Dec 27, 1356, Engelthal Convent). The patrician's daughter entered the Engelthal Convent (Dominican) at the age of twelve. Her uncompromising conceptualization of the imitatio Christi and cloistered lifestyle led to corporal suffering and isolation within the community. Beginning in 1291, Ebner had extraordinary spiritual experiences that brought her fame in subsequent decades even outside her convent (1350…

Elizabeth of Schönau

(202 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1129 – Jun 18, 1164), of noble descent, entered the double monastery at Schönau (Nassau; OSB) as a twelve-year-old. Five years later, she took her vows there. Elizabeth became magistra of the congregation of nuns in 1157. Plagued by illnesses and anxieties, Elizabeth received many “revelatory visions” (Ruh) in ecstatic episodes beginning in 1152; the visions followed the liturgical year. Her brother, Ekbert (monk at Schönau beginning i…

Wolsey, Thomas

(383 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1472 [?], Ipswich – Nov 29, 1530, Leicester). After studying at New College, Oxford, ordination to the priesthood (1501), and a term as court chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, Wolsey, the son of an innkeeper and butcher, became chaplain to Henry VII in 1507. Under Henry’s successor, Henry VIII, his career in church and state began: appointed adviser to the king in 1511, in 1514 he was made bishop of Lincoln and later in the year archbishop of York. In 1515 he was made lor…

Magdalenes

(176 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] Since the 12th century, individual convents were founded under the patronage of Mary Magdalene to accommodate converted prostitutes and save women in jeopardy. The order of the Penitent Sisters of Blessed Mary Magdalene (Poenitentes Sorores Beatae Mariae Magdalenae) traces back to the initiative of the Hildesheim canon Rudolph of Worms, who founded convents for these penitents throughout the empire, beginning in 1226. Affirmed by Gregory IX in 1227 and subject after 1232 to the Ru…

Pole

(296 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Pole, Reginald (3.3.1500 Stourton Castle, Staffordshire – 17.11.1558 Lambeth, heute Stadtbezirk von London), Abkömmling des Hochadels und mit Heinrich VIII. von England verwandt, wurde in seiner Ausbildung an den Universitäten Oxford und Padua vom König gefördert. Er trat in Verbindung mit engl. und ital. Humanisten (Th. Morus, P. Bembo) und korrespondierte mit Erasmus von Rotterdam. Auf Druck der Familie nach England zurückgekehrt, setzte er seine Studien in der Kartause Sheen fo…

Thomas Becket

(287 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (21.12.1120 [?] London – 29.12.1170 Canterbury). Der Sohn eines Kaufmannes wurde nach dem Studium in Paris 1143 in den Haushalt des Erzbf. Theobald von Canterbury aufgenommen, der ihn 1154 zum Archidiakon von Canterbury weihte; 1155 machte Heinrich II. ihn zu seinem Kanzler. Th. war ehrgeizig und pflegte einen aufwendigen Lebensstil, galt aber als hochbegabt und unbestechlich. Als Vertrauter des Königs setzte er dessen Politik auch gegen die Interessen der Kirche durch. Das änder…

Wolsey

(344 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] , Thomas (1472 [?] Ipswich – 29.11.1530 Leicester). Nach dem Studium in Oxford (New College), der Priesterweihe (1501) und einer Zeit als Hofkaplan des Erzbf. von Canterbury wurde der Sohn eines Gastwirtes und Metzgers 1507 Kaplan Heinrichs VII.; unter dessen Nachfolger (Heinrich VIII.) begann seine Karriere in Kirche und Staat: Seit 1511 königlicher Berater, wurde er 1514 Bf. von Lincoln und später im Jahr Erzbf. von York, 1515 Kardinal und Lordkanzler. Obwohl W. Warham als Erzbf…

Ridley

(260 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Ridley, Nicholas (um 1502, Willimoteswick [?], Northumberland – 16.10.1555 Oxford), studierte seit 1518 in Cambridge (Pembroke Hall; B.A. 1521, M.A. 1526); 1524 machte ihn sein College zum Fellow. In diese Zeit fällt auch die Priesterweihe in Ely. Nach einer weiteren Studienzeit in Paris und Löwen setzte R. seine akademische Karriere in Cambridge fort (B.D. 1537, D.D. und Wahl zum Master von Pembroke Hall 1540); er verließ die Stadt jedoch bereits 1537, denn Th. Cranmer, den R. sp…

Parker

(242 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Parker, Matthew (6.8.1504 Norwich – 17.5.1575 Lambeth). Der Sohn eines wohlhabenden Webers studierte am Corpus Christi College in Cambridge (1522–1528), dem er zeitlebens verbunden blieb (1544 Master; Stiftung seiner Sammlung ma. Hsn.). In Cambridge wurde P. auch für den Protestantismus gewonnen (Th. Bilney, H. Latimer). 1535 machte Anne Boleyn, Mutter Elisabeths I., den mittlerweile renommierten Prediger zu ihrem Kaplan. Gleichzeitig verfolgte P. seine akademische Karriere (1544 …

Westminster

(449 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] I. Römisch-katholisches Erzbistum Nach der Reformation in England hatte die röm.-kath. Minderheit unter zahlreichen verfassungsmäßigen und sozialen Benachteiligungen zu leiden. Auch nach der Gleichstellung der Katholiken 1829 blieben antikath. Vorurteile zurück. Seit den 80er Jahren des 17.Jh. nahmen vier Bischöfe, die als Apostolische Vikare dienten, kath. Interessen in England wahr; 1840 kamen vier weitere hinzu. Diverse Faktoren, zumal der Zustrom irischer Einwanderer, das Aufko…

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…
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