Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Koch, Guntram" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Koch, Guntram" )' returned 53 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Via Appia

(110 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] Via Appia, a via publica laid out in 312 bce by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus, in part on top of earlier roads. It ran from Rome to Brundisium (Brindisi), then continued along the Via Egnatia to the Balkans; for centuries, therefore, it was the most important link joining Rome to Asia Minor and the Levant (Trade and traffic in the Mediterranean world). Impressive sections lined with tombs and other structures are preserved near Rome. Guntram Koch Bibliography M. Rathmann, DNP XII/2, 2002, 159f. I. de Portella et al., eds., Via Appia antica, 2003; ET: The Appian Way: Fro…

Lascaux Grotto

(263 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] is a long, multi-branched cave located in the vicinity of Montignac (Dordogne, near Périgueux) that was discovered in 1940. Its walls and ceilings are decorated with the most extensive cylce of paintings ever discovered in a prehistoric cave. At first, they were very well preserved, but have suffered greatly from algae. The cave was closed in 1963 and a viewing copy was installed nearby. Almost 1,500 individual depictions have been counted. Animals, especially wild horses, but als…

Baalbek

(174 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] (Heliopolis) in the northern Biqaʾ (Bekaa valley, Lebanon) was an ancient Phoencian cult site for Baal. Construction of the monumental temple of Zeus, the largest in antiquity, began in the 3rd century bce and was completed between the 1st and 3rd cent. ce; in the 2nd cent. ce further temples were erected, while the city acquired colonnaded streets and public buildings. According to Eusebius of Caesarea ( Vita Constantini III 58), Constantine the Great had a temple to Aphrodite torn down to make room for a church (locat…

Via Egnatia

(98 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] Via Egnatia, a via publica laid out around the mid-2nd century bce by Cnaeus Egnatius, in part on top of older roads. It continued the Via Appia, leading from the Adriatic ports of Dyrrhachion (Durres) and Apollonia (in modern Albania) through Thessalonica and Philippi to Constantinople/Byzantium (Istanbul). It was thus the most important land route connecting Rome and the Balkans, Asia Minor, and the Levant; it continued to play a significant role into the early Middle Ages. Guntram Koch Bibliography M. Rathmann, DNP XII/2, 2002, 161f. M. Fasolo, La via egnatia, vol. …

Seleucia-Ctesiphon

(249 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] (Tell Omar) was founded c. 300bce by Seleucus I on the right (west) bank of the Tigris, on the site of the earlier Upi (Opis). Babylonians, Greeks, Macedonians, and Jews are said to have settled there, bringing its eventual population to some 600,000. In the first half of the 2nd century bce, the Parthians built their new capital Ctesiphon on the east bank of the Tigris; c. 230/240 ce the Sasanids likewise built a capital Veh-Ardashir (Coche) south of Ctesiphon. Legend traces the earliest Christian community in Seleucia-Ctesiphon back to the apost…

Salona

(153 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[English Version] Salona, nahe bei Split (Kroatien) gelegen, war eine illyrische Stadt, die unter Iulius Caesar röm. Kolonie wurde. In der Kaiserzeit blühte S., da es einen vorzüglichen Hafen und recht gute Verbindungen ins Landesinnere hatte, und wurde Hauptstadt der Provinz Dalmatia. Das Christentum verbreitete sich in S. früh und intensiv. Bereits aus dem 4.Jh., v.a. dann aus dem 5./6.Jh. ist in der Stadt, ihrer Umgebung und auf der vorgelagerten Insel Brattia (Brac) eine größere Anzahl von Kir…

Qalaat Seman

(283 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[English Version] Qalaat Seman, bedeutende frühchristl. Pilgerstätte (Wallfahrt/Wallfahrtsorte: III.) im nördlichen Syrien, ca.40 km von Aleppo. Zentrum war die Säule, auf der der Mönch Symeon Stylites d. Ä. von 415 bis 459 n.Chr. sein Leben in »stasis«, d.h. »Stehen«, verbracht hat; sie soll zuletzt ca.18 m hoch gewesen sein. Schon zu Lebzeiten war Symeon weithin berühmt, zog zahlreiche Pilger an, und Bilder von ihm waren bis nach Rom verbreitet. Nach seinem Tode, wahrscheinlich zw. 475 und 491 n…

Parenzo

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[English Version] (Porecˇ), kroatische Hafenstadt an der Westküste Istriens, seit der B-Zeit besiedelt; im 2.Jh. v.Chr. röm., unter Tiberius (14–37 n.Chr.) »colonia«. Noch heute wird das Stadtbild durch das System der sich rechtwinklig kreuzenden Straßen und das hervorgehobene Forum bestimmt. Die Anfänge des Christentums in P. liegen im Dunkeln. Um 550 ließ Bf. Euphrasius eine Kirche errichten; Vorgänger sind eine große röm. Villa des 3.Jh. sowie Kirchen aus dem späten 4. und dem frühen 5.Jh. Sehr…

Wilpert

(108 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[English Version] Wilpert, Joseph (Giuseppe; 22.8.1857 Eiglau, Schlesien – 10.3.1944 Rom), kath. Priester, seit 1926 Prof. in Rom; Autor von drei monumentalen Werken, die Monumente in Rom erschließen und bis heute Grundlage der Beschäftigung mit frühchristl. Kunst sind. Guntram Koch Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Die Malereien der Katakomben Roms, dt. und ital., 1903 Die röm. Mosaiken und Malereien der kirchl. Bauten vom 4. bis 13.Jh., 4 Bde., 1916, teilweise Nachdr. mit Nachträgen: Die röm. Mosaiken der kirchl. Bauten vom 4. bis 13.Jh., hg. von W.N. Schumacher, 1976 I sarcofagi crist…

Sator-Quadrat

(200 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[English Version] (Sator arepo tenet opera rotas). Das »S.« begegnet seit der Mitte des 1.Jh. n.Chr. im gesamten Röm. Reich, zunächst mit ROTAS, später mit SATOR beginnend. In MA und Neuzeit ist es im Volksglauben auf Amuletten sowie als Beschwörungs- und Zauberformel sehr verbreitet. Die fünf Zeilen mit je fünf Buchstaben können von allen vier Seiten und in alle Richtungen gelesen werden:   ROTAS SATOR   OPERA AREPO   TENET TENET   AREPO OPERA   SATOR ROTAS Die Deutung ist fraglich; christl. ist die Formel nicht, sie wird aber seit dem 5./6.Jh. von Christen verwend…

Sarkophag/Urne/Ossuar

(711 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Freigang, Christian
[English Version] I. Bronzezeit bis Spätantike Es sind zu unterscheiden: S. für die Aufnahme der Leichen, U. für die Asche der verbrannten Toten, O. oder Ostothek für spätere Bestattung der Knochen der Toten, wenn das Fleisch verwest war (s.a. Bestattung). Diese Behältnisse wurden in der Regel vergraben, waren also nicht sichtbar und deshalb schlicht. In einigen Gegenden und zu bestimmten Zeiten kam die Sitte auf, sie aus Marmor oder anderen Gesteinen zu fertigen und mit figürlichen oder dekorativen …

Tur ʿAbdin

(297 words)

Author(s): Tamcke, Martin | Koch, Guntram
[English Version] I. Kirchen- und theologiegeschichtlich Die »Berge der Knechte« im Südosten der Türkei erlangten ihre Bedeutung durch das Mönchtum, dessen Anfänge hier mit Jakob von Nisibis und Augin von Clysma im 4.Jh. zu fassen sind. Im östlichen Teil, Izla, fanden sich die Klöster der Nestorianer. Von hier ging die ostsyr. Mönchsreform im 6.Jh. unter Abraham von Kaškar im sog. Großen Kloster auf dem Izla aus. Die Berge sind das Zentrum des syr.-orth. Mönchtums (syrische Klöster). Dessen Kloster i…

Trier

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Seibrich, Wolfgang
[English Version] I. Archäologische Denkmäler Augusta Treverorum wurde unter Kaiser Augustus um 17 v.Chr. an der Stelle des Hauptortes des Stammes der Treveri gegründet; es blühte wegen der günstigen Straßenverbindungen und der Lage an der Mosel schnell auf. Unter Kaiser Constantius Chlorus und seinem Sohn Konstantin d.Gr. (ca.285 bis 312) und dann nochmals unter Valentinian I. und Gratian (ca.364 bis 383) war T. kaiserliche Residenz. Bald nach 400 begann der Niedergang, um 470 wurde T. fränkisch. –…

Bozrah (Hauran, Syria)

(361 words)

Author(s): Wenning, Robert | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Pre-Christian Period – II. Christian Archaeology I. Pre-Christian Period Bozrah (or Bostra; Arab. Bushra ash-Sham), in the southeast of the Hauran, is a crossroads of many long-distance routes. It is mentioned in Egyptian texts from the 2nd millennium. First settled in the Early Bronze Age, it was captured by Judas Maccabeus (Maccabees) (1 Macc 5:28). In the 1st century bce and the 1st century ce, it was on the edge of the Nabatean territory in southern Auranitis and was the site of an important …

Trier

(1,623 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Seibrich, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Archaeological Monuments Augusta Treverorum was founded around 17 bce under Emperor Augustus, on the site of the main settlement of the tribe of the Treveri; it soon prospered by virtue of favorable road links and its situation on the Moselle River. Trier was an imperial residence under Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his son Constantine the Great (i.e. from about 285 to 312), and again under Valentinian I and Gratian (c. 364–383). Trier’s decline began soon after 400, the city becoming…

Tur ʿAbdin

(326 words)

Author(s): Tamcke, Martin | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Church History The “Mountains of the Servants (of God)” in southeastern Turkey gained their fame from monasticism, which began in the 4th century with Jacob of Nisibis and Augin of Clysma. Mount Izla, in the east, was home to the monasteries of the Nestorians (Nestorianism); the so-called Great Monastery on Izla was the fountainhead of the East Syrian monastic revival in the 6th century under Abraham of Kashkar. The mountains are the heart of Syrian Orthodox monasticism (Syrian mo…

Hand of God and Hand of Humans in Art

(952 words)

Author(s): Schroer, Silvia | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Ancient to Pre-Roman Times – II. From Roman Times I. Ancient to Pre-Roman Times From its earliest beginnings, ancient art reflected the central role of the hand in sign language. Hands were raised in prayer, incantation, greeting, blessing, and in delivering a blow. Hands were raised in entreaty and in mourning, or were thrown in the air in triumph. Hostility was averted with an extended hand and fingers or the fist. Parties to a contract shook the right hand as a sign of binding commitment…

Sarcophagus/Urn/Ossuary

(793 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Freigang, Christian
[German Version] I. Bronze Age to Late Antiquity It is important to distinguish between a sarcophagus to hold a dead body, an urn for the ashes of a person who has been cremated, and an ossuary to hold the bones of the dead after the flesh has decayed (see also Burial). These receptacles were generally buried; they were not visible and were therefore simple. In some areas and in some periods, it became customary to make them out of marble or other kinds of stone and decorate them with representational or ornamental reliefs. In Greek areas sarcophagi were the exception (6th–4th cents. bce). The Etruscans used sarcophagi and urns with reliefs in great numbers (6th–1st cents. bce). Among the Romans, during the republic there were very few sarcophagi, but they became a little more common in the 1st century ce; urns appeared in the early imperial period, enjoyed a heyday in the later 1st century ce and decreased well into the 3rd century. In Rome and many provinces of the Empire, sarcophagi appeared in great numbers from the early 2nd century to the early 4th century, with various forms of figuration. In Asia Minor, s…

Carthage

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner | Koch, Guntram
[German Version] I. Names – II. Geography – III. History and Society – IV. Religion and Literature I. Names Even though in ancient literary contexts Carthage was occasionally called Tyre, Tarshish, Kaine Polis, Kadmeia, O…

Ephesus

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Günther, Matthias
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Church History I. Archaeology Early evidence of settlement in the area of Ephesus dates back to the 5th millennium bce. The city itself was founded sometime after 1200 bce by Ionian Greeks. Lying at the mouth of the River Cayster (though now approx. 10 km from the sea), Ephesus grew wealthy as a seafaring and trading town. Impressive architectural remains still testify to it…
▲   Back to top   ▲