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(72 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] River in Campania (Lycophr. 718; Γλάνις; Glánis, Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,3), that in antiquity probably flowed into the mare Tyrrhenum near Liternum. Its floods endangered Acerrae (Verg. G. 2,225 with Serv.). Two Neolithic settlements (4th/3rd millennia BC) only 4 km from the river near Gricigliano and Orta di Atella suggest a considerable population density in the Campanian plain since the 4th millennium. Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 713.

Mons Gaurus

(146 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Volcano in Campania north east of the Campi Phlegraei (Plin. HN 3,60: Gaurani montes). Proto-Apennine settlements (vase finds) were probably destroyed by a volcanic eruption. The Romans were victorious over the Samnites there in 343 BC (Liv. 7,32,2). Thereafter part of the ager Campanus, and from 194 BC incorporated in the territory of Puteoli. Evidence of numerous villae rusticae. The wine produced there enjoyed a good reputation (Plin. HN 14,38; 64: Calventina vines). Nicomachus Flavianus, son-in-law of Symmachus ( cos. AD 391), owned a villa there (Symm. Epist…


(1,305 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome [German version] A. Foundation period Inland town in Campania, modern Santa Maria Capua Vetere; the modern city of Capua corresponds with  Casilinum. According to literary tradition, it was founded in 800 BC, together with Nola (Vell. Pat. 1,7,3f. as against Cato and his foundation date of 471 BC); according to Liv. 4,37,1, C.…


(128 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Statio on the via Popilia (Tab. Peut. 7,1), after which Sala Consilina is named, in the liber regionum of 120 praefectura Consiline in provincia Lucaniae. Inhabited market site (Cassiod. Var. 8,33) near an old spring (Marcellianum). In the 5th cent. AD an episcopal seat. The old fortification mentioned in Pliny (Plin. HN 3,95) may possibly be associated with Padula in the Tanagro valley (thus already in [3]), where a fortified embankment was found on a hill and prehistoric graves in the valley (archaic g…


(103 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villa Locality on the slopes of Vesuvius to the north of Pompeii (probably pagus Augustus Felix Suburbanus), with a site of important archaeological finds. Graves of the fossa culture; resettled after the volcanic eruption of AD 79 (thermal springs of Via Casone Grotta, 2nd/3rd cents. AD). Large number of archaeological finds from various villae; archaeological evidence of wine, olive and grain cultivation in the imperial period. Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples) Bibliography A. Heron de Villefosse, Le trésor de B., in:…


(377 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] ( Aurunci). The Greeks called southern Italy Hesperia, later Ausonia (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35,3). Their progenitor was Auson, son of Odysseus and Circe or Calypso ( ausonikoí; Serv. Aen. 8,328 and 3,171). The Latin form Aurunci is derived from Αὐσονικοί (Serv. Aen. 7,727; rhotacism), extant in Sessa Aurunca (Liv. 9,25,4). The Aurunci were regarded as a prehistoric indigenous population: in the north of Campania (Str. 5,4,3), in Nola (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 61), in Sorrento (Diod. Sic. 5,7) [1], in the west of Calabria (Hellanicus FG…


(83 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Locality to the north of Pompeii on the southern slopes of Vesuvius, with a large number of villae. Probably constituted, together with Boscoreale, the pagus Augustus Felix Suburbanus, which is attested by inscriptions. Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples) Bibliography T. Asaka, Note on the plan of the villae rusticae in the vicinity of Pompeii, in: Opuscula Pompeiana 3, 1993, 25-54 B. H. von Blankenhagen, C. Alexander, The Augustan Villa at B., 1990 E. R. Knauer, Roman Wall-Paintings from B., in: Metropolitan Museum Journal 28, 1993, 13-46.


(127 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Villa Settlement in the   Campi Phlegraei , c. 2 km from Baiae, probably the modern Bacoli. Its name seems to have been derived from the stables ( boaulia), where Hercules kept Gerion's oxen (Serv. Aen. 6,107) [1. 5-19]. Remains of numerous villae (literary evidence: Cic. Fam. 8,1,14 [Pompeius], Varro, Rust. 3,17,5 [Hortensius]); in the 4th cent. AD, Symmachus mentions his villa in B. as a particular favourite: Epist. 1,1,2 [2. 11-13]. Nero, who had inherited the villa of Hortensius, had his mother Agrippina …


(951 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] A. Region The name of the region (Scyl. 10; Varro, Rust. 1,10,1; 1,20,4; 2,6,5) probably derived from  Capua, its most significant town; C. was bounded by mons Massicus and Sinuessa in the north, mons Lactarius and Surrentum in the south, and the hill country at the foot of the Samnite mountains in the east. In the Augustan age, C. also encompassed the ager Picentinus as part of the regio I (Str. 5,4,13; Plin. HN 3,60ff.; Schol. Juv. 3,219, Latium et Campania; 226; Serv. Aen. 8,9,564). C. comprised of the following districts from north to south: the ager Falernus between Sin…


(34 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Statio on the via Valeria (It. Ant. 309,4), starting-point of the via Claudia Valeria (CIL IX 5973); modern S. Felicità in Cerfenna near Collarmele. Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 455.


(192 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] (Παλαίπολις; Palaípolis). Probably a fort of Cyme [2] (Liv. 8,22,5), possibly the original name of Neapolis [2]. P. is particularly the nickname of Parthenope, the original centre of Naples on the Pizzofalcone. In 327 BC (Liv. 8,22,8), P. was occupied by the Roman consul Q. Publilius Philo who on that account celebrated a triumph a year later (CIL I2 p. 171; Liv. 8,22,8; 23,1-8; 25,10; 26,7). In 1949 a necropolis was excavated in the via Nicotera in Naples whose first phase is characterized by Greek ceramics from the mid-7th cent. BC to the first half of the 6th cent. BC. …


(207 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
(Εὐνοστίδαι; Eunostídai). [German version] [1] Attic deme (?) of the phyle Ptolemais Attic deme (?) of the phyle Ptolemais, first attested to in 201/0 BC (IG II2 2362), cf. the inscriptions of 108/7 BC (IG II2 1036 l. 37; [1. 159; 2]). In AD 154/5 (IG II2 2067) and AD 173/4 (IG II 2 2103) ephebes of the phyle Ptolemais from Εὐν and Εὐ, respectively, are mentioned. Position unknown. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 C. A. Hutton, The Greek Inscriptions at Petworth House, in: ABSA 21, 1914/16, 155-165 2 Traill, Attica 90, 114 No. 12. [German version] [2] Phratry in Naples Phratry in Naple…


(616 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Villa | Etrusci, Etruria Campanian coastal town between Neapolis and Pompeii on a height between two rivers (Sisenna, HRR fr. 53; Str. 5,4,8). Municipium of the regio I, tribus Menenia. H. was struck by an earthquake in AD 62 and possible aftershocks before being buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. From 1709 looting by prince E. d'Elbœuf; systematic research only began with R. J. de Alcubierre (1738-1756) who used shafts and tunnels; excavations in 1927-1958 by A. Maiu…

Mons Lactarius

(106 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] Mountain ridge in Campania branching off the mons Appenninus. The name ML may be derived from the plentiful milk production (Gal. De methodo medendi 5,127; Symm. Epist. 6,17; Cassiod. Var. 11,10). Many Roman villae are preserved (Tramonti, Ravello, Amalfi, Positano, Minori, Stabia, submerged by the Vesuvius eruption AD 79). Narses was victorious over Teja here in AD 553 (Proc. BG 4,35). Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples) Bibliography Nissen 2, 767  J. Beloch, Campanien, 21890  E. Renna, Vesuvius Mons, 1992, 79 n. 135  M. Romito, Una villa rustica romana a Polvica di…


(198 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Punic Wars Town in the border region between ager Falernus and ager Campanus, three miles north of  Capua (Tab. Peut. 6,3; in Str. 5,3,9 instead of 24 erroneously 19 miles; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 15,4), at the strategically important bridge of the via Appia across the Volturnus; thus also of importance in 216 BC in the war against Hannibal (Liv. 23,17ff.). After its recapture by the Romans in 214 BC (Liv. 24,19), it became a praefectura (Fest. 262,10), but its importance quickly dwindled (Plin. HN 3,70). I…