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al-D̲j̲annābī

(136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Abū Muḥammad Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan b. Sinan al-Ḥusaynī al-Hās̲h̲imi , 10th/16th-century author of an Arabic historical work dealing with eighty-two Muslim dynasties in as many chapters, entitled al-ʿAylam al-zāk̲h̲ir fī aḥwāl al-awāʾil wa’l-awāk̲h̲ir , usually called Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-D̲j̲annābī . A Turkish translation and abridgment were prepared by the author himself. Whether the accepted form of the mak̲h̲laṣ is correct or should be rather D̲j̲anābī cannot be decided in the absence of information as to whence it was derived. Al-D̲j̲an…

Ibn Manda

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a famous Iṣfahānī family of ḥadīt̲h̲ scholars and historians which was active for nearly three centuries. Descended from a Sassanian official, D̲j…

Intiḥār

(2,136 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, “suicide”, expressed more technically in Arabic by

Muḳābala

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W. | Rosenthal, F. | Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), a technical term in a number of different disciplines. 1. In astronomy. Here it corresponds to Gr. διάμετρος, in the Almagest άχρόνυκτος, Lat. oppositio, the term for the opposition of a planet and the sun or of two planets with one another. In opposition, the difference in longitude between the two heavenly bodies is 180°; while the modern use is to take no note of the deviations of latitude from the ecliptic, al-Battānī expressly emphasises ( Opus astronomicum, ed. Nallino, iii, 196) that we can only have the true muḳābala whe…

Nard

(981 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
(p.), a word of Persian origin designating the game of backgammon (trictrac). The form attested in Pehlevi treatises, nēv-artak̲h̲s̲h̲ēr “brave Ardas̲h̲īr’’, was contracted to nardas̲h̲īr (widely attested in Arabic) and the latter abridged to

Dawla

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, 1) an Arabic word signifying the period of an individual’s rule or power but also often employed in the meaning of “dynasty”. The root d-w-l may occur in Akkadian dālu “to wander around aimlessly” ( The Assyrian Dictionary , iii, 59) and Syriac dāl “to move, to stir” (Brockelmann, Lex . Syr .2, 144 b). However, the basic meaning of Arabic d-w-l is cl…

As̲h̲ʿab

(243 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, nicknamed “the Greedy”, a Medinese comedian who moved in the circles of the grandchildren of the first four caliphs and flourished in his profession in the early years of the 8th century. He is said to have survived until 154/771. The historical information about him is rather plentiful; though contaminated by much legendary material, it permits us to get a glimpse at the life of a professional entertainer in the Umayyad per…

Ibn S̲h̲arya

(762 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, ʿAbīd/ʿUbayd al-D̲j̲urhumī , sage and antiquary, frequently cited as a relater of quasi-historical traditions. The form of his name is not certain. The manuscripts appear to vacillate between ʿAbīd and ʿUbayd. ʿUmayr occurs by mistake (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr,

Ibn Ḳuṭlūbug̲h̲ā

(715 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Ḳāsim b. Ḳuṭlūb…

Sīfawayh al-Ḳāṣṣ

(272 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, a humorist of the 2nd/8th century. Ḳāṣṣ [ q.v.] “storyteller” is employed here, as was quite common, in the same sense as other less ambiguous terms for jester; he was also described as the prototypical mug̲h̲affal “irresponsible wit”. No decision is possible as to whether his nickname should be vocalised Sīfawayh or Sayfawayh, and the identification with another ḳāṣṣ called ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, suggested on the basis of one shared remark by the recent editor of Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī, Ḳuṣṣāṣ , is probably unwarranted. Sīfawayh was credited with jokes and social comment, including i…
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