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(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…


(838 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
(Σωτίων; Sōtíōn). [German version] [1] Several individuals of the same name It is uncertain to how many individuals, and in what combinations, the following reports of S. should be referred. (1)-(5) are linked by an interest in marvels and anecdotes [1.128, 2.167f.]; (5), (9) and (10) indicate a Peripatetic who may be distinct from (11); (4) and (10) indicate a date in the first half of the 1st century AD, and the other reports are consistent with this. (1) Author of a "little book" (Phot. Bibl. cod. 189,145b28-36), Diverse reports on marvellous rivers, springs and lakes.' The identificat…


(1,854 words)

Author(s): Piccione, Rosa Maria | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
Iohannes of Stobi in Macedonia (Ἰωάννης Στοβαῖος/ Iōánnēs Stobaîos), author of an Anthology dated to the 5th cent. AD. His name Iohannes makes a Christian background likely [11. 197]. [German version] I. Work: content and structure The collection of excerpts, the Anthology (Ἀνθολόγιον/ Anthológion; Suda s.v. Ἰωάννης Στοβεύς), contained, according to Photius, 'extracts, sayings and teachings in four books' (Phot. Bibl. cod. 167) - bk. 1: physics (and metaphysics), bk. 2,1-6: logic (and epistemology), bk. 2,7 ff. and bk. 3: ethics proper,…


(624 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] (αἵρεσις; haíresis). Important term in the historiography of ancient philosophy and medicine, later in the history of Christian dogma. Its original meaning is ‘selection’, either concretely (e.g. ‘election’ of an official), or rather abstractly (e.g. ‘decision’). In a first extension of meaning hairesis means ‘disposition’ or ‘inclination’ based on repeated decisions or choices; in a second extension of meaning hairesis means ‘line of thought’ or ‘school of thought’ and plays an important part in the historiography of ancient philosophy. Latin equivalents are d…


(933 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
(Ἄρειος; Áreios) [German version] [1] Didymus Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher, 1st cent. BC Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher and confidant of Augustus of the 1st cent. BC,  Arius [3]. Several sources from later antiquity refer to the works of a Didymus or A. In his Praeparatio Evangelica, Eusebius quotes from ἐκ τῶν Διδύμῳ Περὶ τῶν ἀρεσκόντων Πλάτωνι’ συντεταγμένων (11,23,2-6) and also from several fragments concerning Stoic physics ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιτομῶν Ἀρείου’ Διδύμου (Book 15); Stobaeus names hi…


(1,109 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] The term doxography denotes the method which is frequently used by ancient writers in the realm of philosophy of recording the views or opinions (δόξαι, dóxai) of philosophers. It can also refer to texts or passages that contain such accounts. The term doxography is derived from the neologism doxographus, which the German scholar Hermann Diels (1848-1922) introduced and which literally means ‘writer of opinions’. In his work Doxographi Graeci (1879), Diels collected various ancient documents that summarize the philosophical doctrines of the ancien…


(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …


(1,578 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀέτιος; Aétios). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Troezen Son of Anthas, mythical king of Troezen; his successors colonized Halicarnass and Myndus in Caria (Paus. 2,30,8 f.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Doxographer of 1st cent. AD Doxographer of 1st cent. AD. Although historically elusive, A. played a central role in the doxographic tradition of antiquity, because he wrote the only detailed doxographic manual to have been handed down fairly complete ( Doxography). Large parts of the work can be quite accur…


(179 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[German version] (Ἱππόβοτος; Hippóbotos). Hellenistic writer on the history of philosophy, place of activity unknown, cited 15 times in  Diogenes [17] Laertius, also in Clement of Alexandria, Porphyrius, Iamblichus, and the Suda, also named in POxy. 3656. The titles of two works are known: ‘On the Schools of Philosophy’ (Περὶ αἱρέσεων; Perì hairéseōn; Diog. Laert. 1,19; 2,88) and ‘Lists of Philosophers’ (Περὶ φιλοσόφων ἀναγραφή; Perì philosóphōn anagraphḗ, ibid. 1,41). In the first work H. states that there are nine ‘schools of philosophy’ ( Hairesis). The ‘Li…


(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…


(937 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
(Ἀντισθένης; Antisthénēs). [1] Student of Socrates [German version] A. Life and work Son of an Athenian of the same name and of a Thracian, pupil of Socrates,   c. 445 BC, died c. 365. According to some witnesses A. had been initially a pupil of Gorgias and taught rhetoric himself. As [8] has shown, these testimonia are not fully reliable. At the latest at the beginning of the 420s, A. became a follower of Socrates. Plato mentions him among those, who were present at the death of Socrates (Phd. 59b). In the first 10 to 15 yea…


(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …


(888 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[1] Schüler des Sokrates, um 400 v. Chr. [English version] A. Leben und Werk Sohn eines Atheners gleichen Namens und einer Thrakerin, Schüler des Sokrates,  ca. 445 v. Chr., gest. ca. 365. Einigen Zeugnissen zufolge soll A. zunächst Schüler des Gorgias gewesen sein und auch selbst Rhet. gelehrt haben. Wie [8] gezeigt hat, ist auf diese Zeugnisse jedoch nicht unbedingt Verlaß. Spätestens zu Beginn der 20er Jahre schloß sich A. Sokrates an. Platon nennt ihn unter denen, die beim Tod des Sokrates zugegen waren …


(591 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[English version] (αἵρεσις). Wichtiger Begriff der ant. Philos.- und Medizingeschichtsschreibung, später der christl. Dogmengeschichte. Seine urspr. Bedeutung ist “Auswahl”, entweder konkret (z.B. “Wahl” eines Beamten), oder eher abstrakt (z.B. “Entscheidung”). H. bedeutet in einer ersten Bedeutungserweiterung “Veranlagung” oder “Neigung”, die auf wiederholten Entscheidungen oder Wahlen beruht; In einer zweiten Bedeutungserweiterung heißt h. “Denkrichtung” oder “-schule” und spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in der ant. Philosophiegeschichtsschreibun…


(4,506 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Kyniker D. [14] von Sinope, der Philosophiehistoriker D. [17] Laertios. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] makedon. Truppenkommandant in Attika seit 233 v. Chr. Athener (?) [1. 341,1], seit 233 v.Chr. maked. Truppenkommandant in Attika, soll beim Gerücht vom Tod des Aratos [2] von den Achaiern Korinth gefordert haben (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63]; ermöglichte nach dem Tod des Demetrios [3] II. im J. 229 mit der Preisgabe des Piraeus und anderer Garnisonen…


(1,074 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[English version] Mit dem Begriff D. wird die Methode der Aufzeichnung von Ansichten oder Meinungen (δόξαι, dóxai) von Philosophen bezeichnet, die von ant. Schriftstellern im Bereich der Philos. häufig angewandt wurde. Er kann sich auch auf Texte oder Passagen beziehen, die solche Darstellungen enthalten. Der Begriff D. leitet sich von dem Neologismus doxographus ab, den der deutsche Gelehrte Hermann Diels (1848-1922) einführte und der wörtlich “Aufzeichner von Meinungen” bedeutet. In seinem Werk Doxographi Graeci (1879) sammelte Diels verschiedene ant. Dokumente, di…


(157 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden)
[English version] (Ἱππόβοτος). Hell. Philosophiegeschichtsschreiber unbekannten Wirkungsortes, zitiert 15mal bei Diogenes [17] Laertios, des weiteren bei Clemens von Alexandria, Porphyrios, Iamblichos und der Suda; auch genannt in POxy. 3656. Zwei Werktitel sind bekannt: ‘Über die philos. Schulrichtungen (Περὶ αἱρέσεων; Diog. Laert. 1,19; 2,88) und ‘Philosophenlisten (Περὶ φιλοσόφων ἀναγραφή, ebd. 1,41). Im ersteren Werk stellt H. fest, es gebe neun “philos. Schulrichtungen” (Hairesis). Die “Liste…


(2,629 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς). [English version] [1] Heros in Megara Heros in Megara. Er soll in einer Schlacht, einen Jüngling tapfer mit seinem Schild deckend, gefallen sein. An seinem Grab wetteiferten die Knaben, wer den süßesten Kuß geben konnte. Dieser jeweils im Frühling stattfindende Agon hieß Diokleia (schol. Pind. O. 7,157; 13,156a; Theokr. 12,27-33 mit schol.: Aition). Die Küsse stellten vielleicht im Heroenkult wiederholte Abschiedsküsse dar ([1]; dagegen [2]). Nach schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 war der Agon von Al…


(924 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
[English version] [1] Didymos Doxograph, Stoiker?, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Doxograph, vielleicht identisch mit dem stoischen Philosophen und Vertrauten des Augustus aus dem 1. Jh. v. Chr., Areios [3]. Verschiedene Quellen aus der späteren Ant. verweisen auf die Schriften eines Didymos oder A. Eusebios bietet in seiner Praeparatio Evangelica ein Zitat aus ἐκ τῶν Διδύμῳ ›Περὶ τῶν ἀρεσκόντων Πλάτωνι‹ συντεταγμένων (11,23,2-6) und verschiedene Fragmente zur stoischen Physik ἀπὸ τῶν ›Ἐπιτομῶν Ἀρείου‹ Διδύμου (Buch 15); Stobaios nennt ihn zu Beginn zweier E…


(1,030 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀέτιος). [English version] [1] myth. König von Troizen Sohn des Anthas, mythischer König von Troizen; seine Nachkommen besiedeln Halikarnaß und Myndos in Karien (Paus. 2,30,8 f.). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Doxograph, 1. Jh. Doxograph des 1. Jh. n. Chr. Obwohl histor. kaum faßbar, spielt A. eine zentrale Rolle in der doxographischen Tradition der Ant., weil er das einzige ausführliche doxographische Handbuch verfaßte, das einigermaßen vollständig überliefert ist (Doxographie). Große Teile des Werkes können au…
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