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Viromandui

(555 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica, Northern France, settled in the region of Picardie on the so-called 'sill of Vermandois', on the upper courses of the Samara (the modern Somme) and Isar(a) [2] (the modern Oise; Liv. Per. 104; Plin. HN 106; Ptol. 2,9,11; Oros. 6,7). In part surrounded by dense forests, the V. had as neighbours to the north and north-east the Nervii and Atrebates [1], to the west the Ambiani and Bellovaci, and to the south the Suessiones. During Caesar’s Gallic War, they…

Samara

(101 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Picardy (France), modern Somme, rises north-east of St. Quentin and flows into the mare Britannicum (English Channel) at Abbeville. The form S. itself is not attested but reconstructed from the name of the city Samarobriva. Other forms of the name: Sambra (Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8: classis Sambrica), Somena (Ven. Fort. 7,4,15), Sumena (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), Sumina, Sumna, Summana ( cf. [1. 1335 f.]). In Not. Dign. Occ. loc. cit., the modern Somme is referred to as Sambra [2]; in Ptol. 2,9,2, the river is called Φροῦδις/ Phroûdis. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliog…

Nemetacum

(436 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Main site of the Atrebates, modern Arras (Dép. Pas de Calais), on a summit at the confluence of the Scarpe and the Crinchon; swamps in the south and east and a steep drop to the north gave it natural protection. N. is probably identical with Nemetocenna, Antonius' [I 9] camp, which acted as Caesar's winter quarters in 51/0 BC (Caes. B Gall. 8,46,6; 52,1 [Hirtius]). There is evidence of a pre-urban La Tène period settlement and there was an Atrebatic oppidum (42 ha.) 5 km away near Etrun at the confluence of the Scarpe and the Gy. N. was an Augustan foundation…

Helvetum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (It. Ant. 252; 350; Ἔλκηβος; Élkēbos, Ptol. 2,9,18). Previously often equated with  Helellum (Tab. Peut. 3,4) or Alaea (Geogr. Rav. 26) and already confused with this in It. Ant. 354, but its location should not be pinpointed as near Ehl in the Alsace but as being on the right bank of the Rhine on the Mons Brisiacus-Argentoratus route near modern Riegel, district of Emmendingen [1]. Forts from the Claudian and Vespasian periods, which as a continuation of the series of forts on the Upper Danube secured the link with the Rhine. After the conquest of the   Decumates agri

Grand

(338 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Far from any significant roads on the inhospitable high plateau between Marne and Maas (Mosa) (Dept. Vosges), G. owed its existence to a forest sanctuary of the Leuci of interregional importance. After the Roman conquest, the healing god  Grannus, who had been absorbed by the Apollo cult (Claudius Marius Victor, Alethia 3,204-209), gave his name to the new vicus (AE 1937, 55). Laid out orthogonally, G. was enclosed by a circular pomerium (‘sacred city boundary’), today voie close; inside, there is an 18-ha. precinct surrounded by an irregular, six-sided en…

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Geidumni

(34 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 as being subject to the Nervii. Their home in Flanders cannot be located with certainty. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Caesaromagus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Civitas, main centre of the  Bellovaci on a loop of the river Thérain, modern Beauvais (Oise). There is no archaeological evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement in this location ( Bratuspantium), nor for the assumption -- derived from the name C. -- that it was founded by either Caesar or Augustus. The beginnings of Gallo-Roman urbanism probably lay in the early 1st cent. AD, more significant traces of building structures point to the …

Eburones

(234 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Gallia Belgica, the most important one amongst the Germani Cisrhenani (Caes. B Gall. 2,4); they were clients of the Treveri in the south; in between the two were the lands of the Germanic  Condrusi and Segni (Caes. B Gall. 4,6; 6,32). In the north, the E. shared a border with the coastal people of the Menapii (Caes. B Gall. 6,5). The core of their areas of settlement between Maas and Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 5,24) comprised the northern Ardennes, the Eiffel and the plains ex…

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Morini

(575 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘sea people’). A people in Gallia Belgica in the modern Pas de Calais, whose territory in the north and west stretched to the sea. Their northeastern border with the neighbouring Menapii followed the Aa upstream to east of Saint Omer, southwards to meet the Leie, and a little upstream along this, where at Merville it met the one-time territory of the Atrebates [1]. From here it probably reached the old boundary of the bishopric of Arras in a southern direction to the s…

Treveri

(1,654 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Geography A tribe living in Gallia Belgica between the Meuse in the west and the Middle Rhine in the east, their territory bordered in the north by the Ardennes, the Luxembourg Eisling and the Middle Eifel; the southern boundary ran along the southern edge of Belgian Lorraine and Luxembourg, through the north of the Saarland and along the Nahe. Between the mountainous, densely wooded and rather settlement-hostile border areas in both north and south (Hunsrück) lay fertile hilly terrain, river valleys and bays with ideal conditions for settlement. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Sabis

(253 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in northern Gaul River in northern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18), where in 57 BC Caesar fought against the Nervii and their allies, the Atrebates [1] and Viromandui ( ibid. 2,16-27), on his way from Samarobriva. The river's identification and location are contested. Older scholarship identified the S. with the Sambra [1] (modern Sambre), suggesting that the battle took place 6 km outside of Maubeuge near Hautmont-Boussières [1; 2]. Recently these claims have been countered by topological, historica…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Orolaunum

(271 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Present-day Arlon-Arel (Belgium, province of Luxembourg), vicus of the civitas of the Treveri, probably the main town of one of their pagi . It was built by the sources of the Semois at the crossing point of the important major roads from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum (Itin. Anton. 366,2; [1]) and from Divodurum to Aduatuca. In view of the threat from barbarians the settlement was transferred to the northern hill town (present-day St. Donat) at the end of the 3rd/beginning o…

Levaci

(52 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] In Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 a people of Gallia Belgica - mentioned in the context of the events of the winter of 54/53 BC - who were immediate neighbours of the Nervii, with whom they had a relationship of dependence; cannot be localized more precisely. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Ambiani

(108 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Coastal people in  Gallia Belgica in modern Picardy, main town was  Samarobriva; participated in the Gallic coalitions against  Caesar of 57 and 52 BC, were finally subjugated in 51 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 7,75,1-3; 8,7,3-4). Their settlement areas between the  Bellovaci in the south and  Morini in the north (Ptol. 2,9,4) encompassed the Somme basin, bordered in the north by the Canche, in the north-east and south-east by the Somme watershed; the Catuslougi [1] documented on the southern border, the Bresle valley, were considered as   pagus of the A. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Bratuspantium

(63 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Oppidum of the  Bellovaci, mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 2,13, localization uncertain. It is a matter of dispute whether it was a settlement on the same location as -- and preceding -- the capital of the civitas  Caesaromagus, or whether is was a Celtic settlement in a completely different location (Bailleul sur Thérain, Breteuil sur Noye). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Argentorate

(155 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Modern Strasbourg, epigraphically first mentioned at the time of Vespasian (CIL XIII 9082). A smaller military installation from the Augustan period was replaced by a legionary fortress following  Varus' defeat in AD 9, where the   legio II was garrisoned until  Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43. After use by detachments from other units, recent archaeological research points to A.'s use once again as a permanent garri…

Tervanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Civitas, capital of the Morini (Tab. Peut. 2,2;  It. Ant. 376; 378 f.: Tarvenna; Ptol. 2,9,8: Ταρουάννα/ Tarouánna), which developed at a ford across the Leie/Lys from a river island to the northern bank. Archaeological finds remain lacking, since the vieille ville was razed in 1553 at the behest of Charles V; the modern town of Thérouanne (in the département of Pas-de-Calais) is farther to the south. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography R. Delmaire, Notes sur l'évolution urbaine de Thérouanne, in: Rev. archéologique de Picardie 1984, 223-228  Id. et al., Le Pa…
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