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(509 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda | Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] I. In the Liturgy The paten (Lat. patena, from Gk πατάνη/ patánē, “flat dish”) serves as a container for the consecrated bread of the Eucharist; it is a functional parallel to the chalice holding the wine (Liturgical vessels, Liturgical implements). Originally it was as a platter on which the bread was broken and arranged; after the change to smaller hosts in West, it was reduced to a flat plate for a host, 12–20 cm in diameter, fitted to the top of the chalice (unlike the δίσκος/ dískos used in the East). In Catholic and Evangelical church practice, paten and chal…


(380 words)

Author(s): Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] The term paraments (from Lat. parare, “prepare”) denotes all the textiles used in the church and its worship, including the vestments of the liturgical ministers and the cloth furnishings of the altar, the liturgical vessels (Liturgical implements), the church furniture, and the church interior. They underline the sacral dimension of the liturgy and lend it solemnity. The development of paraments began in the 4th century and had spread throughout the West by the 9th century. It was the liturgical vestments and insignia above all that c…

Offering Bag

(369 words)

Author(s): Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Art History I. Liturgy The offering bag is used during worship to collect alms for the charitable outreach of the church. Its use is based on the Early Church practice of alms or oblations (Mass) offered by members of the congregation during the offertory (Collections: II). In the churches of the Reformation, deacons were chosen to collect alms in the offering bag after the sermon; the bags were kept in the “common chest” and later distributed by the deacons to the poor o…


(498 words)

Author(s): Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Art History Sacred Objects I. Liturgy Nowadays, the liturgical use of banners in the Catholic Church is mostly limited to processions. The former custom of decorating the triumphal cross with a victory banner during Eastertide was derived from the symbolism of the banner as the victory banner of the risen Lord. The Rituale Romanum 9, I, 5 requires church banners to be real banners. Ecclesiastical organizations are allowed only flags and pennants. The church does no…