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Vindolanda

(108 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort about 40 km to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne, modern Chesterholm, founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) [1]. The fort was renovated under Hadrian; Hadrian's Wall runs 3 km to the north of it (Limes II, with map). The fort was also renovated a century later. A large vicus developed to the west of it in the 2nd and 3rd cents. [2. 1700; 3]. The most significant find from V. is the Vindolanda Writing Tablets. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 P. Bidwell, The Roman Fort of V. at Chesterholm, 1985 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions …

Cantiaci

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe in the area of Kent and East Sussex. Its name is derived from the region of Cantium. Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1 tells of four indigenous kings; this account allows the conclusion that there were a number of sub-tribes. The tribal centre was  Durovernum, also important was Durobrivae (modern Rochester). Numerous villae were built in C. in the early Imperial Age, especially in eastern and southern Kent. In the 3rd cent.,  Rutupiae,  Dubrae, Regulbium (modern Reculver) and  Portus Lemanae (modern Lympne) were garrisons of the classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bib…

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Viroconium

(158 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιροκόνιον/ Ouirokónion). Roman legionary camp, in c. AD 55 laid out in connection with military operations in the valley of the upper Sabrina (modern Severn) [1. 292 f.]; modern Wroxeter in Shropshire, England. Abandoned in c. AD 74, as late as the end of the 1st cent., V. developed into the capital of the civitas Cornoviorum [2]. In AD 128/9, The city acquired a forum [1. 288] and, no later than the middle of the 2nd cent., thermal baths [3]. Numerous private houses were built from the 2nd cent. onwards. In the 4th cent., the …

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Londinium

(806 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Commerce | Limes | Rome | Rome | Britannia (modern London). The Roman city of L. - the name possibly contains the Celtic personal name Londinos - lay, probably without pre-Roman precursors, at the most suitable crossing point of the Tamesis (Thames), which drew the attention of the Romans at the time of the invasion in AD 43. The early settlement was on hills on both sides of the swampy valley of the Walbrook that flows from the nor…

South Cadbury

(53 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, used for a short time in the middle of the 1st century AD by the Roman army. Resettled and fortified in the late 5th century. Ceramics were imported from the Mediterranean, other goods from Gaul. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography L. Alcock, Cadbury Castle, 1995.

Scotti

(80 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ( Scoti, 'Scots'). A Celtic people - wild and bellicose according to Roman reports - which originally settled in the north of Hibernia (Ireland) (Oros. 1,2,81 f.). In the late 4th cent. AD, groups of them ferried across to Britannia (Amm. 18,2,3; 26,4,5; 27,8,1; 29,4,7). The S. had been Christianised before AD 431 in Hibernia by the deacon Palladius (Prosp. 1301) and came to develop a very active monastery culture. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1985.

Sutton Hoo

(77 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] In one of the burial mounds at SH near Woodbridge in Suffolk a wooden ship was found with a rich treasure (Gaulish, Scandinavian and Eastern English goods, Byzantine silver bowls, including one with the stamp of Anastasius [1] I, also Frankish coins of the period around AD 625). It is presumably the tomb of Rædwald (6th/7th cent. AD), a king of East Anglia. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Bruce-Mitford, The S. H. Ship-Burial, 3 vols., 1975-1983.

Magi

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Fort in north-western Britannia (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,14; 40,49) with a numerus Pacensium as a garrison (4th cent. AD). Site contentious but an altar (CIL VII 1291) built by vik(ani) Mag... in Old Carlisle refers to it. It is, however, conceivable that M. was the fort in Burrow Walls and Maglona was the one in Old Carlisle (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,13; 40,29). Both forts were held right through to the 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort and Settlement at Old Carlisle, in: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeolog…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Ictis

(143 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British island connected to the mainland at low tide where, according to Diod. Sic. 5,22,2, the inhabitants of Belerion (Land's End in south-west-Britain) sold Tin from their mines - this was the beginning of the tin trade between Britannia and the Mediterranean region. The location of I. is still under debate. Possibilities include St. Michael's Mount in Mounts Bay, Cornwall [1. 176], which is connected to the mainland at low tide, and Mount Batten in the Plymouth Sound, Devon, w…

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltauvi [2]. The forum and the basilica were built under Hadrian (AD 117-138), the baths in c. AD 150. Parts of the baths have survived as the Jewry Wall, as…

Deva

(180 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Modern Chester. Legionary camp, originally set up for the legio II Adiutrix in c. AD 75 [1] as a wooden/earthen fort, with baths (stone); water pipes of lead date the completion to AD 79. The legio XX Valeria Victrix took over the camp in c. AD 86/7. The rebuilding in stone began in c. AD 102. A large amphitheatre situated outside the walls was constructed in the 2nd cent. [2]. West of the camp on the bank of the Dee is a mooring place. The fortress wall was renovated …

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Tintagel

(81 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A headland on the northern coast of Cornwall, for a long time connected with King Arthur and his court. Limited settlement in the late Roman period was followed by more intensive settlement from the late 5th cent. AD onwards with many imports from the eastern Mediterranean, particularly amphorae and fine pottery. At that time T. was evidently the residence of the kings of the Dumnonii. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography C. Thomas, The Book of T.: Arthur and Archaeology, 1993.

Rutupiae

(242 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Harbour town in far southeastern Britannia, modern Richborough (Kent), on the now silted-up channel between the island of Tonatis (modern Isle of Thanet) and the mainland of Kent [1]. The settlement, captured by the invading army of the emperor Claudius [III 1] in AD 43, was used as a central military supply base until the late 1st cent. AD. Between AD 80 and 90, a triumphal arch was erected here, probably to celebrate the northern conquests of the Flavian governors [1. 40-73]. Th…

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Lactodurum

(65 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Present-day Towcester, Northamptonshire; It. Ant. 2; 6. Late Iron Age settlement; from the mid 1st cent. AD a Roman army station. The town was protected in the 2nd cent. by the construction of a rampart and ditch; stone fortifications were added in the 3rd cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Margidunum

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] On the great Roman road of the Fosse Way between Lincoln and Leicester lay various Roman settlements; one of the largest was M., near East Bridgeford, Nottinghamshire. Originally a Roman fort (late Claudian/early Neronian period), abandoned in around AD 70 [1; 2]. M. probably served as a military supply base, since the local iron ore was intensively smelted. After the end of the military occupation, the civilian settlement continued on both sides of the Fosse Way, possibly in conjunction with a mansio (or mutatio). Residential and other buildings were modest. Th…
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