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Ḳawmiyya

(15,445 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J. | Brett, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Dodd, C.H. | Wheeler, G.E. | Et al.
(a.), nationalism. 1. In the Arab world east of the Mag̲h̲rib. The term derives from ḳawm , a term of tribal provenance used to denote a group of people having or claiming a common ancestor, or a tribe descended from a single ancestor. One’s ḳawm is simply one’s people, either genealogically determined or mythologically and folklorishly depicted. In this century, ḳawmiyya refers to the movement of nationalism among the Arabs of the Ottoman dominions in the Fertile Crescent that were conquered by the Allies in the Great War. The use …

Istiḳlāl

(2,800 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
In Arabic istiḳlāl is a fairly recent addition to the political vocabulary. Despite its use in common parlance, viz., anā mustaḳill (“I am independent”, that is, free or unfettered), or sometimes to refer to economic independence, that is, autarky ( istiḳlāl iḳtiṣādī ), it is primarily associated with the national independence movements among the Arabs of this century. It is with these movements that this article is concerned. After World War I, the peace settlement regarding the Ottoman dominions imposed by the Allied Powers in 1919-20 gave Britain and France w…

Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a

(1,789 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
, Khedive of Egypt, 1863-79, second son of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] and grandson of Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], was born in Cairo on 31 December 1830. He received his early education in the private palace school founded by his grandfather for his family, where he studied Arabic, Persian and Turkish. At fourteen, he spent some time in Vienna, where he was sent for treatment of an eye complaint. Two years later, in 1846, he was sent to Paris to join one of the Egyptian educational missions under the preceptorship of the …

Ḥusayn Kāmil

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
(1853-1917), Sultan of Egypt under the British Protectorate from December 1914 to October 1917. A son of Khedive Ismāʿīl [ q.v.], he was born in Cairo. When he was eight years old, he entered the school at the Manyal Palace specially opened by his father for his sons and the sons of notables. In 1867, he accompanied his father to Istanbul on a visit to the Ottoman Sultan. Soon afterwards he visited Paris, and stayed at the court of Napoleon III. He returned briefly to Egypt for ¶ the official opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, after which he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Vic…

Is̲h̲tirākiyya

(3,316 words)

Author(s): Harris, G.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | P. J. Vatikiotis
, from is̲h̲tirāk , sharing, the modern Arabic term for socialism. The word seems to have been first used in this sense in 19th century Turkish, in the form is̲h̲tirāk-i emwāl , literally “sharing of property”, whence is̲h̲tirakd̲j̲i̊ , a socialist, and is̲h̲tirākī , socialistic. In Turkish the term fell into disuse, and was replaced by Sosyalist . Adopted in Arabic, it soon gained universal currency in the Arab lands. (Ed.) The Ottoman Empire and Turkey : Among Turks interest in socialism began toward the end of the igth century, but it was only afte…

Ḥukūma

(18,623 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | Tourneau, R. le | Et al.
, in modern Arabic “government”. Like many political neologisms in Islamic languages, the word seems to have been first used in its modern sense in 19th century Turkey, and to have passed from Turkish into Arabic and other languages. Ḥukūma comes from the Arabic root ḥ.k.m , with the meaning “to judge, adjudicate” (cf. the related meaning, dominant in Hebrew and other Semitic languages, of wisdom. See ḥikma ). In classical usage the verbal noun ḥukūma means the act or office of adjudication, of dispensing justice, whether by a sovereign, a judge, …

Fārūḳ

(2,911 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P. J.
, King of Egypt, son of King Fuʾād (1923-36) [see fuʾād al-awwal ] and Queen Nazlī ¶ ( née Ṣabrī), grandson of the Khedive Ismāʿīl (1863-79) [see ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a ], was born in Cairo on 21 D̲j̲umādā al-ūlā 1338/11 February 1920. He was proclaimed Crown Prince on 13 April 1922, officially named Prince of the Ṣaʿīd (Upper Egypt) on 12 December 1933, and proclaimed King of Egypt on 28 April 1936 in succession to his father who died on that day. He officially ascended the throne on 6 May 1936. On 20 January 1938 he married Ṣafī…

K̲h̲idīw

(410 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
, K̲h̲edive , title of the rulers of Egypt in the later 19th and early 20th centuries, deriving from Persian k̲h̲idīw , k̲h̲adīw “lord, prince, ruler”. The use of the Arabic form of the title k̲h̲idēwī “khedival” is associated with Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], wālī or viceroy of Egypt 1863-79, even though his predecessors, ʿAbbās I Pas̲h̲a (1848-54) and Saʿid Pas̲h̲a (1854-63) used it unofficially on occasion. Certain government departments, in particular the Department of the Interior, even under Ismāʿīl’s grandfather, …

Fārūḳ

(3,102 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P. J.
, roi d’Égypte, fils du roi Fuʾād (1923-36 [ q.v.]) et de la reine Nazlī (née Ṣabrī), et petit-fils du khédive Ismāʿīl (1863-79 [ q.v.]), naquit au Caire le 21 d̲j̲umādā I 1338/11 février 1920. Il fut déclaré prince héritier le 13 avril 1922, officiellement nommé prince du Ṣaʿīd le 12 décembre 1933 et proclamé roi d’Égypte le 28 avril 1936, le jour même de la mort de son père. Il monta officiellement sur le trône le 5 mai suivant. Le 20 janvier 1938, il épousa Ṣafīnāz Ḏh̲ū l-Fiḳār, fille du juge Yūsuf Ḏh̲ū l-Fiḳār, vic…

Ḥukūma

(19,027 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A. K. S. | Vatikiotis, P. J. | Tourneau, R. Le | Et al.
, en arabe moderne, «gouvernement». Comme beaucoup de néologismes politiques des langues islamiques, le mot semble avoir, dans son sens moderne, été d’abord employé dans la Turquie du XIXe siècle et avoir passé du turc en arabe et dans les autres langues. Ḥukūma vient de la racine arabe h.k.m. avec le sens de «juger, adjuger» (cf. sens connexe, qui domine en hébreu et dans d’autres langues sémitiques, de sagesse [voir Ḥikma]). Dans l’usage classique, le nom verbal ḥukūma signifie l’acte ou la fonction de dispenser, de rendre la justice, que ce soit par un souverain, un j…

K̲h̲idīw

(412 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P. J.
, Ḵh̲édive, titre des gouvernants de l’Égypte à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècles; ce terme vient du persan k̲h̲idīw/ k̲h̲adīw «seigneur, prince, souverain», et l’usage de la forme arabe k̲h̲idēwī «khédivial» remonte à Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], wālī ou vice-roi d’Égypte de 1863 à 1879, bien que ses prédécesseurs ʿAbbās Ier Pas̲h̲a (1848-54) et Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a (1854-63) l’aient officieusement employée à l’occasion. Certains départements ministériels, en particulier celui de l’Intérieur, dès l’époque du grand-père d’IsmāʿīI, Muḥammad ʿAlī le Gran…

Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a

(1,866 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J.
khédive d’Égypte (1863-79), deuxième fils d’Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] et petit-fils de Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], naquit au Caire le 31 décembre 1830. Il fit ses premières études à l’école privée du palais fondée par son grand-père pour les membres de sa famille et y étudia l’arabe, le persant et le turc. A 14 ans, il passa quelque temps à Vienne pour suivre un traitement ophtalmologique. Deux ans plus tard, en 1846, il fut envoyé à Paris pour se joindre à une mission d’étudiants égyptiens sous le préceptorat de l’A…

Ḳawmiyya

(15,972 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P. J. | Brett, M. | Lambton, A. K. S. | Dodd, C. H. | Wheeler, G. E. | Et al.
(a.), nationalisme. I. — Orient arabe. Le mot ḳawmiyya dérive de ḳawm, terme d’origine tribale employé pour désigner un groupe possédant ou prétendant posséder un ancêtre commun, ou une tribu descendant d’un même ancêtre; le ḳawm d’un individu est simplement sa famille, généalogiquement établie ou considérée comme telle par la mythologie et le folklore. A l’époque actuelle, ḳawmiyya s’applique d’abord au mouvement nationaliste né parmi les Arabes des possessions ottomanes du Croissant Fertile conquises par les Alliés durant la Grande Guerre; l’emploi …

Ḥusayn Kāmil

(1,063 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P. J.
(1853-1917), sultan d’Égypte de décembre 1914 à octobre 1917 sous le protectorat britannique. Fils du Khédive Ismāʿīl [ q.v.], il naquit au Caire et entra à l’âge de huit ans à l’école du palais de Manyal spécialement fondée par son père pour ses enfants et ceux des notables. En 1867, il accompagna son père à Istanbul pour une visite au sultan ottoman, puis il se rendit à Paris où il séjourna à la cour de Napoléon III. Après un bref retour en Égypte pour l’inauguration officielle du Canal de Suez, en. 1869, il fu…