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Paralus

(47 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Πάραλος; Páralos). [German version] [1] Son of Pericles Son of Pericles [1] from his first marriage. He died of the plague in 430/429 BC (Plut. Pericles 36,8). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] (Athenian ship of state), see Salaminia (Athenian ship of state) see Salaminia

Lysicles

(112 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Λυσικλῆς; Lysiklês). L. was a friend of Pericles and like the latter supported aggressive Athenian policy in relation to Sparta (Aristoph. Equ. 765: predecessor of Cleon). A L. was (in 432 BC ?) the petitioner for a decree regarding naval weapons and regarding Apollo of Delos (IG I2 128 l. 3; supplements in SEG 21, 37, IG I3 130a). After 429 BC, L. married Pericles' widow Aspasia (Plut. Pericles 24), in 428/7 as a strategos he fell in battle in Caria (Thuc. 3,19,1f.). Aristophanes has him appear in the ‘Equites’ as a small cattle wholesaler (Aristoph. Equ. 132 with schol.). Wil…

Hirtia

(98 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Sister of  Hirtius. In 46 BC she was evidently offered by her brother to Cicero as a possible wife after his divorce from Terentia. Cicero declined on the grounds that marriage and philosophy are incompatible (Hieron. Adversus Iovinianum 1,48), and married the young and rich Publilia. H. is probably alluded to in a letter written by Cicero (Att. 12,11) dated November 46 BC, in which he informs Atticus that he had never seen anything so ugly ( nihil vidi foedius). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography J. Kerschensteiner, Cicero und Hirtius, in: FS S. Lauffer, vol. 2,…

Actorius

(44 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] A. Naso, M., author of a work about  Caesar and his time. This work was obviously directed against Caesar, accused him of participating in the so-called first Catiline conspiracy and also contained gossip (Suet. Iul. 9,3; 52,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Hegesaretus

(45 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Ἡγησάρετος; Hēgēsáretos). Thessalian from Larissa, described as princeps civitatis by Cicero in a letter of recommendation from the year 46 BC (Fam. 13,25). Leader of the Pompeian factio in Thessaly (Caes. B Civ. 3,35,2). Presumably pardoned by Caesar. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Ariovistus

(676 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] King of a Germanic people. Plin. HN 2,170 calls him (without explicitly mentioning the name A.) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. B. Gall. 1,31,10 and Front. Strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum and Liv. per. 104 dux. The Roman terms are imprecise (the term Suebi was only a collective designation for Germanic tribes on the right Rhine bank, the Boti are unknown), maybe A. was a ruler of the Triboci, who lived in Alsace and the Palatinate [2. 510: Tribocorum instead of Botorum]. Our knowledge depends almos…

Bucilianus

(38 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Participant in the conspiracy against Caesar (App. B Civ. 2,474; 493). Briefly mentioned in Cicero (Att. 16,4,4; 15,17,2) in connection with his plans to flee in the summer of 44 BC. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Allienus

(78 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] From 61 to 59 BC legate of Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,1,10), in 55 tribunus plebis (MRR 2, 217), in 49 praetor (Cic. Fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In this function he supported  Caesar during his African campaign in January 46 with troops (Bell. Afr. 34,4). In 44/43 he was first legate of Trebonius, then of Dolabella (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Furfanius Postumus, T.

(65 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] In 52 BC, judge in the case against Annius [I 14] Milo (Cic. Mil. 75) regarding the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Praetor perhaps already in 55 or earlier ([1. 268f.]; MRR 2,295: 46 [?]), promagistrate in Sicily 50-49, proconsul there as well in 45 (MRR 3,96). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, The lex annalis under Caesar, in: Phoenix 25, 1971, 246-271.

Proteas

(178 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Πρωτέας/ Prōtéas). Son of Andronicus, Macedonian, probably the same as P., the son of Lanice, nurse of Alexander [4] the Great. In 334/3 BC, by order of Antipater [1] he gathered ships off Euboea and the Peloponnese to protect the islands and mainland. In early summer 333, he succeeded in surprising a Persian forward unit under Datames off the island of Siphnos and capturing eight of its ten ships (Arr. Anab. 2,2,4-5). To do so, P. covered over 120 nautical miles in two night sail…

Hirtius, Aulus

(470 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] H.'s early career is shrouded in mystery. He probably served as a legate in Gallia from c. 54 (Cic. Fam. 16,27,1-2). He became a devoted follower of Caesar, to whom he owed his further advancement (Cic. Phil. 13,24). In 49 he accompanied Caesar to Spain, in 47 he stayed with him in Antioch; apart from that he defended Caesar's interests in Rome. The office of people's tribune in 48 is not certain. His introduction of a law aimed against the followers of Pompey ( rogatio Hirtia, CIL I2 2,604), later to be abolished (Cic. Phil. 13,32), must fall into the year 46, when…

Iccius

(54 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Ruler of the  Remi ( primus civitatis), allied with Rome since 57 BC; in the same year, as he was in command of Bibrax, he held the city against an assault by the Belgae until the arrival of assistance from Rome (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,1; 6,4; 7,1).  Caesar Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Vercingetorix

(616 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Celt from the people of the Arverni, born in c. 82 BC. His father Celtillus, whom the Romans considered the 'first man' ( princeps) in all of Gaul, was - like Arminius - murdered by members of his tribe, because he aspired to be king (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,1). Knowledge of V. is concentrated entirely on the year 52 BC; the main source, Caesar (= C.), is problematic, because he personalizes the Celtic resistance in V. and does not confront V. without Roman prejudices when recognizing his military performanc…

Caesar

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historical [German version] A. Youth and early career C. Iulius Caesar was born in 100 BC on the 13th of Quintilis (from 44 BC: Iulius/July); his mother was Aurelia, a daughter of L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119 BC; [1. 327]). His father became praetor in 92 BC, and died 85 BC. Nothing is known of C.'s childhood and early youth. As it was the custom for the Roman aristocracy, C., too, presumably spent his first years in the care of his mother, followed between the ages of 7 and 15 by elementary schooling and grammatical tuition (G…

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again strategos, he resisted together with other generals the peace terms negotiated by Theramenes during the blockade of Athens and, therefore,…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Pericles

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Περικλῆς; Periklês). [German version] [1] Athenian Politician Athenian politician. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] A. Descent and early career P. was probably born between 495 and 490 as the son of Agariste [2] (according to Hdt. 6,131, she dreamt that she would bear a lion), a member of the Alcmaeonid family, and Xanthippus. P. had two sons (Xanthippus and Paralus [1]) from his first marriage and a third son P. from his union with the Milesian Aspasia [2]. Later tradition numbered Anaxagoras [2], Zeno of …
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