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Dying

(2,372 words)

Author(s): Bormuth, Matthias | Henning, Christian | Gestrich, Reinhold
[German Version] I. Biology and Medicine – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology I. Biology and Medicine Ancient and medieval medicine was, for the most part, only interested in dying from the point of view of the pr…

Skepticism

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Bormuth, Matthias | Rudolph, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term skepticism denotes an attitude informed by doubts regarding certain beliefs. In the realm of philosophy, these doubts have to do primarily with the existence or knowableness of the external world and the knowableness or motivating force of moral norms. Since ancient Greece, a distinction has been made between academic skepticism and Pyrrhonian skepticism. The former was cultivated at Plato’s Academy (I) and used against the defenders of dogmatism; it argued the impossibility of absolutely certain knowledg…