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Senatus consultum Hosidianum

(270 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Senatorial decision, named after the AD 47 suffect consul, Cn. Hosidius [4] Geta [1. 609-612]. It provided for public regulation of private construction work (Building law B.). The bronze tablet with the text of the SC was excavated at Herculaneum around 1600 and is now lost. Like the somewhat later SC Volusianum (AD 56), which was recorded on the same tablet, the SC Hosidianum penalized the purchase of domus and villae for the purpose of demolition with subsequent resale at a higher price of the materials and land, to stop the speculation in urban…

Ordo

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
in Latin referred both to an order (e.g. the marching order or that of a legal process) as well as to groups or corporations, into which several or many persons were organized (also in the plural ordines), e.g. the Roman equites ( ordo equester). [German version] I. Procedural law In a procedural context the term ordo is traditionally used in the composition of the ' ordo iudiciorum' (Cod. Iust. 7,45,4). It signified the proper types of legal procedure (cf. still today: 'proper' jurisdiction) both of the formulary procedure ( formula ) as well as of the actions at law proceedings ( legis actio

Tabula Hebana

(219 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The five bronze fragments, belonging together, of the TH (from Heba in Etruria) can - just like the Tabula Siarensis found in Siarum (in the province of Seville) in 1980 and other fragments from Todi and Rome - be related to a dossier containing a senatus consultum and a law, based on it, of the consuls of AD 20 ( lex Valeria Aurelia) with decrees for the honouring of Germanicus [2], who had died in AD 19. The dossier provides insight into the functioning of the comitia centuriata during the Imperial period and into the mobilisation of public loyalty for the imperi…

Aesculetum

(52 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Grove of oaks ( aesculus) in Rome, to whose branches the coronae civicae were bound. It lay in the western Campus Martius, opposite the island in the Tiber, by the Lungotevere Cenci. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography S. Panciera, Ancora tra epigrafia e topografia, in: L'Urbs. Espace Urbain et Histoire, 1987, 62-73.

Praedium

(215 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Derived from the Latin praes, 'bondsman', who acted as guarantor with his property for another in the leasing of public duties (and from time out of mind probably also in civil law: cf. Lex XII tab. 1,4). Praedium is used almost synonymously with fundus (Large estates); where more closely defined, a praedium is usually denoted by the place in whose territory it lay, a fundus by the name of the original owner (e.g. praedium Nomentanum, fundus Sextilianus). Praedium includes the estate in the literal sense as well as the buildings on it. Depending on the location or owner,…

Quirites

(218 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Populus Romanus Quirites (or, later, Quiritium) was the official term for the Roman citizenry. It contains the name of the city ( Romanus) and that of the populus ( Quirites), as with Ardea ( Ardeates Rutuli) and Lavinium ( Laurentes Lavinates), where the name of the city stood alongside that of the people living there. The singular form, Quiris, survives only in archaic formulae (Fest. 304: ollus Quiris). The etymological derivation of the term is still disputed. The Romans themselves wished to separate Quirites neither from the god Quirinus nor the Quirinal Hil…

Lex de imperio Vespasiani

(396 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A bronze plaque in the Capitoline Museum in Rome contains the end of the lex de imperio Vespasiani, the so-called enabling law for Vespasianus, with which the Senate decreed at the end of AD 69 - after the death of Vitellius - to Vespasian cuncta principibus solita (‘all that is usual for emperors’, Tac. Hist. 4,3,3), and which was put before the comitia at the beginning of 70 [1. 104f.]. The inscription (from the Lateran?), which no-one could read at the time because of its classical capital letters, served Cola di Rienzo in 1347 for the foundation…

Municipal law

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the field of  legal texts in cuneiform, the political structure of the Mesopotamian confederation, that at times comprised small territorial states and at times large states stretching over the whole of southern Mesopotamia, created regional peculiarities that are demonstrated above all in the form of documents as well as in substantive law. The essential parameters of the legal system were defined by the structure of the society (Social structure), economy and f…

Foedus Cassianum

(240 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alliance entered into with the Latins after the victory over them at the Lacus Regillus in 493 BC by the consul Sp.  Cassius [I 19] Vecellinus, which was extended to the Hernici in 486. The document was still preserved at the time of Cicero on a bronze column (the original?) in the Forum (Cic. Balb. 53). The historicity of the text is acknowledged today, as is the early dating, contrary to earlier research [1. 68f.; 2. 299-301]. The main conditions are found in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,95: peace …

Octoviri

(199 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A collegium of eight municipal officials (Municipium) in cities of eastern Central Italy: Amiternum, Nursia, Trebula Mutuesca, Interamnia Praetuttianorum and Plestia. From the end of the Republic, when octoviri are first documented epigraphically, for the most part the office broke down into individual groups. In Trebula Mutuesca, for instance, there were two VIIIviri duovirali potestate, VIIIviri aedilicia potestate, VIIIviri aerarii and VIIIviri fanorum each (CIL IX 4883, 4891, 4896). It is clear that the six-official scheme then usual in …

Tabula Heracleensis

(256 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Herakleiensis). Bronze tablet (1·84 m × 0·38 m), broken into two parts, found in the area of ancient Heraclea [10] in Lucania. On the front sides of both parts, there are late 4th cent. BC regulations for the administration by public authorities of the estates of two temples, one of Dionysus and one of Athena. The end of a 1st cent. BC Latin text is preserved on the back of one of these tablets. Since the expected sanctio is missing, it can not be a law and therefore also not, as formerly presumed (as e.g. [1. 113-120]), a Caesarian l ex Iulia municipalis. The surviving pa…

Populus

(216 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The populus in historical times describes the totality of adult, male Roman citizens, i.e. excluding women and children as well as foreigners and slaves. From the late Republic, populus ( Romanus) became a synonym for the res publica ( Romana), the Roman state (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39: est igitur ... res publica res populi), the populus being defined as the amalgamation of a group united in recognition of the law and of common purpose (v. [2. 315-318]). It was thus entirely possible that other populi might exist within the territory of the Roman state (v. Quirites; cf…

Tablettes Albertini

(117 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Archive of 53 (45 surviving) wooden tablets written in ink  from southern Numidia (between Capsa and Theveste), named after their publisher, E. Albertini: largely legal documents from the Vandal period (484-496 AD), predominantly sales of plots of land, providing important information on legal culture, language and above all the writing of the period. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography E. Albertini, Documents d'époque vandale découverts en Algérie, in: CRAI 1928, 301-303  Id., Actes de vente du Ve siècle trouvés dans la région de Tébessa (Algérie)…

Quinqueviri

(127 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Collegia made up of five ( quinque) men ( viri) below the magistrate level ( magistratus ); in Rome and Italy, they were frequently called ad hoc to settle public affairs. The only long-term office was the collegium of the quinqueviri cis Tiberim, who served as night watch on behalf of the tresviri [1] capitales and later of the aediles ; this function of the quinqueviri is also attested in Italian municipia . From AD 376, the five senators of the quinquevirale iudicium served as judges in capital charges against senators under the chairmanship of a praefectus urbi . …

Lex Irnitana

(446 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Only Latin city law extant in large sections, for a Latin municipium from the time of Domitian (end 1st cent. AD); found during illegal excavations in El Saucejo in the south of the modern province of Seville in southern Spain in 1981, and purchased by the authorities for the National Museum of Archaeology in Seville (initial publication: [2], with English translation; authoritative text: [4]). Of the original ten bronze tablets (H 58 cm, B 91 cm), six (III, V, VII-X) are almost completely extant, if also partially in pieces. We thus possess c. 70% of the entire text, ta…

Tabulae Caeritum

(280 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] In the TC Roman censors registered citizens from whom they had withdrawn the active or passive right to vote, by means of a nota censoria and/or by transfer into another tribus ( tribu movere). The term TC is explained from the original inclusion in this list of those citizens of the Etruscan city of Caere who were liable for military service. Presumably Caere gave its name to the list because in c. 390 BC it is supposed to have been the first community to receive civitas sine suffragio: Caere had provided help to Rome during the Gaulish attack in c. 390 BC and had in thanks b…

Socii (Roman confederation)

(849 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition The term "Roman confederation" or "Italic Federation" (Beloch) refers to the Roman manner of governing Italy during the Republic. The Romans themselves apparently had no name for this structure, in documents one encounters the paraphrase socii nominisque (or nominisve) Latini quibus ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent [1]. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Participants Geographically, the confederation comprised the Apennine peninsula without the islands. The Ligurian and Gallic tribes of Upper Ita…

Civitas

(630 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Community Civitas is the totality of the cives, just as societas is that of the socii. Its meaning is largely synonymous with   populus , but it was rarely used by the Romans for their own state (instead: populus Romanus) but instead was the official expression for all non-Roman communities, tribes and Greek poleis with republican constitutions. A people of the state is the characteristic of a civis, almost always a defined territory with a certain  autonomy ( suis legibus uti) and mostly an urban centre. Classification was according to the legal basis of the re…

Sigla

(182 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Sigla, earlier notae, is the Latin name for abbreviations. Since the time of the Greeks, S. for names, titles, places etc. have been found on coins, conditioned by the small space available. In Greek inscriptions, on the other hand, S. are, at least in pre-Roman times,  extraordinarily rare. This is in stark  contrast to their extensive use amongst the Etruscans and above all the Romans, where some types of information - such as first names, tribus, former offices and set phrases fo…

Funerary inscriptions

(433 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Funerary inscriptions (FI) (now probably approaching a number of 200,000, cf. [3. 124,1]) emerged in the context of the cult of the dead with the purpose of marking the grave of a specific person so that sacrifices for the dead could be performed at the correct place. Furthermore, they soon took on the function of keeping alive the memory of this person and his achievements. They are located above ground at the burial site, or, in communal graves, on the urn holding the ashes, on the sarcophagus, or on the lid of the loculus (the burial niche). In addition to the inscrip…

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…

Coloniae

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition A colonia was a settlement of citizens (with the addition of a greater or lesser proportion of non-citizens) for the military and political securing of Roman rule, later for providing for veterans and occasionally the Roman proletariat, almost always in a conquered city, the citizens of which would also be involved in the colony in some way (cf. the definition in Serv. Aen. 1,12). Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Founding and constitution Coloniae are founded on the basis of the people's law by public officials, mainly IIIviri coloniae deduc…

Vici magistri

(456 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
(Singular vici magister). Elected leaders of vici (Vicus) in the city of Rome and in Italian cities. [German version] I. Rome VM are recorded as early as the Republic; their identification with the magistri collegiorum mentioned in Asconius (p. 6 Clark) cannot be doubted ( pace [2]). Their duties were the cult of the Lares Compitales (Lares [1] C) and organizing the Compitalia on 1 January. In the late Republic they were involved in the political activities of the collegia [1] and for a number of years were banned, until Clodius [I 4] permitted them again. They presumably…

Lapis niger

(186 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Block of black marble found at Rome in 1899 during excavations in the Forum Romanum in front of the Curia Iulia. It is probably the niger lapis in comitio from Fest. 184 L. The upper section of the stone is damaged; on five sides it bears a fragmentary inscription, difficult to read and dating from the (early?) 6th cent. BC (probably the lex sacra of the Volcanal, the surrounding sacred precinct), which mentions a ‘king’ ( recei), his ‘herald’ ( calator) and iouxmenta (draught animals? carts?). This may be the inscription which Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. …

Pomerium

(595 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The pomerium was the line, important in religious law, which at Rome and its colonies ( coloniae ) divided the urbs from the ager, i.e. the city in the strictest sense from its surrounding territories. Even in antiquity, the meaning of the word was obscure. According to point of view, it was etymologically explained as the line 'behind' ( post or pone murum) or 'in front of' ( promoerium) the city wall (Varro Ling. 5,143 and Gell. NA 13,14,1 versus Fest. 295), but neither etymology is likely to be tenable The establishment of the pomerium constituted the climax of a city f…

Foedus Gabinum

(148 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alleged treaty from the time of king Tarquinius Superbus (end 6th cent. BC), which was still extant in the Augustan period on a shield covered in cowhide in the temple of Semo Sancus; documented in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4 and on coins of two Antistii (family from Gabii, C.  Antistius [II 7] Vetus and C. Antistius Reginus) from the Augustan period: FOEDUS P.R. CUM GABINIS (RIC2 1, 68 no. 363 and 73 no. 411). Main content was an isopoliteia between Rome and Gabii. According to Varro (Ling. 5,33) the ager Gabinus represented an exceptional feature of augural law between the age…

Foedus

(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Vicesima

(488 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (derived from Lat. viginti, 'twenty'; literally, 'the twentieth part'). In Rome, V. was the term referring to five-per-cent taxes [IV]; esp. important were the V . manumissionum or libertatis (manumission tax) and the V. hereditatium (inheritance tax). According to the annalistic tradition (Liv. 7,16,7; on this [3]), the V. manumissionum or libertatis was already decided upon in 357 BC by the Roman army through a vote according to tribus near Sutrium and was afterwards approved by the Senate. Probably from the beginning, it was…

Latin League

(159 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A federation of towns ( populi) in Latium Vetus that was organized around the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris on mons Albanus , but in part also around that of Diana of Aricia. The rights of members were regulated in the foedus Cassianum . The federation came increasingly under Roman control, first during the time of the Tarquinian kings and then in the 4th cent. BC. In 338 the majority of its members was annexed and the remainder became the prisci Latini. Latini, Latium (with map) Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, 1995, 293ff. H. Gals…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

SPQR

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stands for s(enatus) p(opulus)q(ue) R(omanus) and was the usual title of the Roman state as embodied in its two governing bodies, the 'Senate and People of Rome' (i.e. not, as in Greece, the people alone, e.g. hoi Athēnaîoi), from the 1st cent. BC. Before this, the populus was in first place (first evidence in the decree of Aemilius [I 32] Paullus for Lascuta, early 2nd cent. BC: ILS 15; cf. Pol. 21,10,8). From the time of Augustus, SPQR appears on inscriptions as the author of consecrations (e.g. of buildings and monuments), later also as the recipient of dedications. …

Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre

(304 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Text of a decision of the Senate dated 10 December AD 20, recording the trial of Cn. Calpurnius [II 16] Piso and the verdict of the senatus against him. Piso had been accused of the murder by poison of Germanicus [2] and of maiestas [C], and had taken his own life on 8 December. The SC, 176 lines in length, starts, after the prescript and verdict motion ( relatio) of Tiberius, with describing the facts of the case, and goes on to recount the penalties imposed on Piso and his 'followers' ( comites), Visellius Karus and Sempronius Bassus and the acquittal of Piso's childr…

Quattuorviri

(440 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
Colleges of civil servants in Rome, Italy and the west of the Roman empire, consisting of four ( quattuor) persons ( viri) who could be charged with a variety of duties. [German version] I. Rome 1) The college of the quattuorviri viarum curandarum (initially probably called quattuorviri viis in urbe purgandis) had the task of providing for the street cleaning within the city walls. They belonged to the 'twentymen' ( vigintiviri), a group of offices held by young senators prior to the first magistrateship of the c ursus honorum . The nature of their task makes t…

Vindolanda Writing Tablets

(302 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Wooden tablets ( tablets), a few millimetres thick and inscribed in ink, first identified in the fort of Vindolanda (modern Chesterholm) on Hadrian's Wall in Britain in 1973. Since the first examples were found more than a thousand of these tablets - mostly about 90 mm by 200 mm in size - have been excavated there, together with hundreds of wax tablets. The invariably damp boggy ground in Vindolanda certainly favoured their preservation, but such tablets have also been found in other Roman military camps (e.g Carlisle;  cf. [4]) since, and can be assumed in others. In analog…

Vicus

(271 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Related to Greek * oikos (cf. oikos ) and Old High German wick, the Latin word vicus means 'a number of houses' and described both a village within an agricultural area ( Pagus ) and a group of houses on a street in a city (and hence often also used as a street name, e.g. in Rome; cf. [6]). Vici were able to create wealth, had their own cults and their own officials. According to Festus (p. 502 and 508 Lindsay) some had their own political organization and held courts ( partim habent rem publicam et ius dicitur), others had only the right to hold markets. They were the visible centres of p…

Leiden System

(156 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Agreement of 1931 regarding the use of text-critical symbols in the apparatus of editions of Greek and Latin texts, papyri, inscriptions, etc. The most important of these are square brackets [ ] for marking the supplementation of no longer extant letters, round brackets ( ) for resolving ancient abbreviations, and curving brackets   so that letters incorrectly placed by the scribe can be eliminated and double brackets [[ ]] to mark symbols that were deliberately erased in ancie…

Inscriptions

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Hallof, Klaus (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General In the more restricted sense, inscriptions are texts - usually of monumental character - that, because of their function, are intended to last, as well as texts that are written on other-than-usual writing materials, e.g. clay tablets,  papyrus,  ostraka, etc. Inscriptions are closely tied to other texts by commonalities of writing, form and content. Therefore, despite specific research efforts, ancient oriental epigraphy has not developed as an independent…

Tabulae Iguvinae

(195 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Seven bronze tablets, found in 1444 in Iguvium (modern Gubbio), between 87 cm × 57 cm and 40 cm × 28 cm in size, some written on one side, some on both. The earlier ones are in a local right-to-left alphabet, borrowed from Etruscan, and the later ones in Roman letters, but all are in the Umbrian language. Their origin is from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC to the beginning of the 1st, and they represent the sacred archive of a priesthood, the Fratres Atiedii (cf. the Arvales Fratres in Rome), in which details of sacrifices by the priesthood fo…

Quadragesima

(382 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (sc. pars). The quadragesima (τεσσαρακοστή/ tessarakostḗ, 'one fortieth') was a toll at the rate of 21/2% of the declared value of traded goods levied at the Roman imperial frontier or at customs frontiers within the empire. The term denotes, in particular, the import and export duties in the customs regions of Asia, Gaul and Hispania, but from a relatively early date, quadragesima could be used to refer simply to any toll(Quint. Decl. 359). While the customs region in Asia probably comprised only that province (ILS 1330; quadragesima portuum Asiae: ILS 1862), the Ga…
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