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Sündenbock

(399 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[English Version] . Im Rahmen des Rituals zum großen Versöhnungstag (Lev 16, vgl.23,26 ff.; Num 29,7 ff.) wird ein Ziegenbock, der sog. S. (Vulgata caper emissarius, franz. bouc émissaire, engl. scapegoat), vom Hohepriester Aaron durch Handaufstemmung (Handauflegung: II.) mit den Sünden der Israeliten beladen und durch einen dafür bereitstehenden Kultaktanten in eine »abgelegene Gegend« bzw. in die »Wüste« gebracht (Lev 16,8.10.21f.), wo er nach rabb. Tradition zu Tode kommt (mJoma).Während für den in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnten Namen Azazel (עֲזָאזֵל Lev 16,8.10.26) …

Scapegoat

(456 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd

Brunner, Hellmut

(206 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] (May 11, 1913, Frankfurt am Main– Feb 18, 1997, Tübingen) received his doctorate under Alexander Scharff from Munich in 1936, habilitated in 1942, was assistant to the Protestant theology faculty at Tübingen beginning in 1950, named extraordinary professor in 1960, Professor of Egyptology in 1964, and emeritus since 1978. Brunner was the founding father of Egyptology at Tübingen and made important contributions to the study of Egyptian language ( Abriß der mittelägyptischen Grammatik, 2

Kraus, Hans-Joachim

(274 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1918, Essen – Nov 14, 2000, Essen). After earning his doctorate in Heidelberg (1944) and his Habilitation in Bonn (1948; associate professor of Old Testament there from 1951), Kraus accepted an appointment as professor of OT in Hamburg in 1954, and was professor of Reformed theology in Göttingen from 1968 onward. The son of an Essen pastor, he grew up in Wuppertal. He was instrumental in establishing the Protestant theological faculty in Hamburg and became the successor of O. Weber …

Kingship, Divine

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] I. Concept and Terminology – II. Religio-historical Aspects – III. Theological Significance

Jacob, Benno

(325 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1862, Breslau [Wrocław] – Jan 24, 1945, London). After doctoral studies (diss.: Das Buch Esthe…

Biblical Theology

(5,039 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Welker, Michael
[German Version] I. Exegesis – II. Fundamental theology I. Exegesis 1. “Biblical Theology” (BT) is not an unambiguous term. It means either “the theology contained in the Bible” or “theology in accordance with the Bible, with ¶ scripture” (Ebeling 69–70). In the first sense, BT is a historical conc…

Cain and Abel

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Zchomelidse, Nino
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Art History I. Old Testament Cain and Abel, the children of the first human couple Adam and Eve, are the protagonists of one of the characteristic fraternal narratives of the book of Genesis (cf. Jacob and Esau). Their names are semantically associated with the pre- or non-priestly Paradise narrative of Gen 3*: While the meaning “transitoriness” may be discerned in the name Abel (הֶבֶל, Gen 4:2, 4, 8f., 25), the name Cain (קַיִן, Gen 4:1–25, Tubal-Cain Gen 4:22 [a descript…

Atonement

(3,742 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Stuhlmacher, Peter | Gunton, Colin E.
1. OT and Judaism 1.1. Atonement is a central concept in biblical theology. Along with the traditional misunderstanding of appeasing an angry deity, the penal definition of making good an offense and the viewing of the cultus as a human work have impeded a more releva…

Sacrifice

(4,171 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten | Janowski, Bernd | Hahn, Ferdinand
1. General 1.1. Words and Concept The English words “sacrifice” and “offering” come from Lat. sacrificium and offero.

Light and Darkness

(2,010 words)

Author(s): Tröger, Karl-Wolfgang | Janowski, Bernd | Erlemann, Kurt
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament I. Religious Studies Light and darkness, day and night, the rising and setting of the life-giving sun determine the vital rhythm of nature and human beings; they find expression in feelings, in language and thought, in symbols and myths. Light is on the side of the gods, the sphere of the divine, the spirit. As a religious symbol, light represents life, salvation, and bliss. Darkness is ambiguous: it can …

Image of God

(2,928 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Markschies, Christoph | Wielandt, Rotraud
[German Version] I. Old Testament and Judaism – II. Christianity – III. Islam I. Old Testament and Judaism 1. Only in three passages does the Old Testament speak of humankind's being made in the image of God (collective use of הָ]אָדָם]/[ ] ʾādām in Gen 1; cf. Gen 1:27: male and female): in the relationship between God and human beings in Gen 1:26f. and 9:6, and in the relationship between human beings in Gen 5:1, 3 (all P). Substantially the same idea is conveyed in Ps 8:6–9*; for later treatment of the theme, Sir 17:3–7 and Wis 2:23f. are significant. Throughout most of Christian history, being made in the image of God was generally treated as referring to the physical form, spiritual nature, or responsiveness of human beings; since Irenaeus of Lyon, the concept was interpreted by the use of the lexemes …

Vorwort zur vierten Auflage

(1,040 words)

Author(s): Dieter Betz, Hans | Browning, Don | Janowski, Bernd | Jüngel, Eberhard
Mit der vierten Auflage erreicht die RGG eine fast hundertjährige Geschichte. Alle vier Auflagen zusammen spiegeln sowohl als Gesamtdarstellungen als auch in den einzelnen Artikeln das 19. und 20. Jahrhundert wider wie kaum ein anderes Dokument der religionswissenschaftlichen und theologischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Bei aller Verschiedenheit der Auflagen lassen sich Gemeinsamkeiten unschwer erkennen. Schon die Planung der ersten Auflage (1909–1913) in den Jahren 1904–1906 verband die Absicht, den Forschungsstand des 19. Jahrhunderts …

Shekhina

(1,363 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Reeg, Gottfried | Dan, Joseph | Moltmann, Jürgen
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentMit Sh. (שְׁכִינָה), einer nachbibl. Nominalbildung der Wurzel שׁכן…

Wein

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Staubli, Thomas | Janowski, Bernd | Figal, Günter | Jüngel, Eberhard
[English Version] I. Archäologisch und religionsgeschichtlichDie wilden Vorläufer der Kulturpflanze (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. vinifera) finden sich bes. im nordöstlichen Mittelmeerraum und im Schwarzmeerraum. Früheste Belege für Weintraubensammlung, vermutlich von wilden Stöcken, sind 9000 Jahre alt (Çayönü, Tell Aswad und Jericho). Früheste Hinweise auf Weinkulturen stammen vom Ende des 4.Jt. v.Chr. in Ägypten (Omari, Abydos, Saqqara). Trauben wurden gegessen, meistens aber zu W., in Südmesopotamien …

Sühne

(3,009 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Janowski, Bernd | Röhser, Günter | Stolina, Ralf | Stroh, Ralf
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichWährend im »Sühneversuch« als Instrument zur gütlichen Beilegung eines Rechtsstreits die juristische Dimension von S. nachklingt, verweist die Bedeutung des Sühnebegriffs (Beschwichtigung, Besänftigung) zunächst ganz allg. auf die (Wieder-)Herstellung eines ungestörten Zustands bzw. einer »heilen« Beziehung. Im Unterschied zu Versöhnung (engl. atonement; zumeist auf jüd.-christl. Sühnevorstellungen bezogen) ist S. (engl. exp…

Expiation

(3,758 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Janowski, Bernd | Günter, Röhser | Stolina, Ralf | Stroh, Ralf
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religious Studies While (re)conciliation as an instrument for reaching an amicable settlement in a lawsuit has echoes of the legal ¶ dimension of expiation, the meaning of expiation (appeasement, pacification) refers first of all to the (re)establishment of an undisturbed state or of a “sound” relationship. In contrast to atonement (Reconciliation: II), which is essentially rooted in Jewish and…

Divine Judgment

(4,102 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd | Janowski, Bernd | Necker, Gerold | Zager, Werner | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies 1. The judgment discussed here is not in response to a specific transgression or lapse on the part of an individual; it is a judgment upon his or her entire life, taking place only after death and determining the fate of the ¶ deceased in the next world. Because this notion implies the idea of a just recompense, it has the quality and function of a theodicy that seeks…

Wine

(2,151 words)

Author(s): Staubli, Thomas | Janowski, Bernd | Figal, Günter | Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] I. Archaeology and Religious Studies The wild predecessors of cultured vines ( Vitis vinifera vinifera) are found especially in the north-eastern Mediterranean region and in the area of the Black Sea. The earliest evidence of collecting grapes, presumably from wild stocks, is 9,000 years old (Çayönü, Tell Aswad and Jericho). The earliest indications of vine cultivation come from the end of the 4th millennium …

Shekhinah

(1,527 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Reeg, Gottfried | Dan, Joseph | Moltmann, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Old Testament The word shekhinah (שְׁכִינָה), a postbiblical noun from the root שׁכן/ škn, “settle, dwell,” denotes an aspect of…

Laying-On of Hands

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Lips, Hermann v. | Biehl, Peter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – …

Psalms/Psalter

(13,915 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski , Bernd | Hartenstein , Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Scope The book of Psalms is a unique collection of 150 poetic texts compiled to make a work sui generis. Its Hebrew title תְּהִלִּים(סֵפֶר) /( sēper) tĕhillîm, “(Book of) Praises,” is already…

Stellvertretung

(2,811 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichDer urspr. in der Rechtssprache beheimatete Begriff S. wird v.a. im Rahmen der christl. Theol. reflektiert, doch scheint er durchaus geeignet, auch in der Religionswiss. Anwendung zu finden, wenn auch eine eingehende syst. Behandlung bislang noch nicht geleistet wurde. Im allgemeinsten Sinne ist dann von S. zu sprechen, wenn das eigentlich betroffene oder agierende Subjekt (sei es ein Gott, eine Einzelperson, z.B. der König, oder ein Kollektiv) durch j…

Vergeltung

(3,967 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Janowski, Bernd | Bendemann, Reinhard v. | Volkmann, Stefan | Buß, Johanna
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichV. – die Erwiderung von Gutem durch Gutes und Bösem durch Böses, in der Rel. in Form von göttlichem bzw. schicksalhaftem Lohn oder Strafe für menschliches Verhalten in diesem Leben oder nach dem Tod – ist ein Aspekt der Reziprozität, des Prinzips von Leistung und Gegenleistung (Verdienst). Richard Thurnwald verwies als erster auf die Bedeutung der Reziprozität für das soziale Handeln und das Weltbild in ethnischen Gesellschaften. Nicht nur die Erwiderung eines Geschenkes, Arbeitshilfe auf Gegens…

Substitution

(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term substitution, originating in the language of law, is used primarily in Christian theology, but it is well suited for use in religious studies as well, even though so far there has been no detailed systematic treatment of it. In the most general sense, we speak of substitution when the true subject affected or acting (God, an individual like the king, or a collective) is represented by another ¶ entity (a person or group, an animal, or an object) as a substitute involved (actively or passively) in the action, acting for the…

Lament

(3,175 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Janowski, Bernd | Bayer, Oswald | Baldermann, Ingo | Kuhn, Peter
[German Version] Lament I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Judaism I. Religious Studies Lament has its roots in human experience; it gives voice to suffering and mourning, in ritual, poetic, or informal form. Its end is not theoretical, like theodicy, but practical: people react to the experience of situations perceived as mentally, physically or socially painful and process these experiences individually or collectively. The prototypical occasion for mournin…

Retribution

(4,477 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Janowski, Bernd | Bendemann, Reinhard v. | Volkmann, Stefan | Buß, Johanna
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Retribution – recompense of good with good and evil with evil, in religion as reward (Payment) or punishment for human conduct, imposed in this life or the next by God or fate – is an aspect of reciprocity, the principle of quid pro quo (Merit). Richard Thurnwald was the first to point out the significance of reciprocity for social action and worldview in ethnic societies. It goes beyond reciprocating with a gift or assistance, or exchanging daughters between exogamous groups; the moral, legal, and religi…

Chaos

(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science I. History of Religions 1. So-called chaos research (see VI below) has renewed a positive meaning of the term with the model of the “creative” self-organization of matter (thus without the goal-oriented will of an ordering creator). Previously, since Late Antiquity, a negative evaluation of chaos had prevailed: Since creation demonstrates the existence of God, chaos was a negative in relation to the Creator God in a dualistic system, as disorder ( confusio: Augus…

Hereafter, Concepts of the

(5,151 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Janowski, Bernd | Necker, Gerold | Haase, Mareile | Rosenau, Hartmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Art History I. Religious Studies All cultures have concepts of a hereafter or beyond (“the next world”), although they are extremely diverse. They involve a realm of existence different from the visible earthly world but nevertheless thought of as real. Concepts of the hereafter are part of cosmology and therefore are related to the real world: the hereafter may be localized above or below the earth, in inaccessib…

Eternal Life

(6,584 words)

Author(s): Braun, Hans-Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Vouga, François | van den Brom, Luco J. | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Judaism ¶ I. Religious Studies Concepts of the hereafter do not, of themselves, necessarily contain statements concerning eternal life. On the contrary, concepts of the hereafter develop with dynamics of their own and thus variability. Eternal life and …

Psalmen/Psalter

(12,190 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Plank, Peter | Völker, Alexander | Et al.
[English Version] I. Begriff und Umfang der Psalmen/des PsaltersDas Buch der Pss ist eine einzigartige Zusammenstellung von 150 poetischen Texten zu einem Werk sui generis. Seine hebr. Bez. תְּהִלִּים (סֵפֶר)/(sepær) t ehilli^m, »Buch der (Lob-)Preisungen«, findet sich schon in Qumran (ältester Beleg: 4QM a [= 4 Q 491] 174 [1.Jh. v.Chr.]). Ähnlich wie in den ca.100 Jahre jüngeren ntl. Stellen Lk 20,42; Apg 1,20 (βι´βλος ψαλμω˜n̆/bi´blos psalmō´n) scheint damit zunächst im technischen Sinn eine Schriftrolle mit Pss gemeint zu sein (vgl. die Frgm. 4QPs)…

Weltbild

(9,960 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Ahn, Gregor | Janowski, Bernd | D. Furley, William | Sellin, Gerhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. PhilosophischDas Wort »W.«, das schon im frühma. Deutsch nachweisbar ist, bez. i. allg. ein »vorstellungsmäsziges bild der welt, wie es sich aus der gesamtheit der welteindrücke und weltanschaulichen vorstellungen ergibt« (DWb 28 [= 14,1,1], 1955, 1553). So ist die Bedeutung des Wortes mit der von »Weltanschauung« verwandt und kommt in der Philos. auch meist zus. mit diesem vor. Dabei wird das W. sowohl als Voraussetzung wie als Resultat der Weltanschauung verstanden. W. Dilth…

Worldview

(11,663 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Ahn, Gregor | Janowski, Bernd | Furley, David J. | Sellin, Gerhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Philosophy The word Weltbild (“worldview”; more lit. “world picture”) is already found in early medieval German; it is defined as a “conceptual view of the world that emerges from the totality of impressions made by the world and ideas of one’s Weltanschauung” ( DWb 28 [14.1.1], 1955, 1553). Its meaning is thus related to the meaning of Weltanschauung . Philosophy usually treats both together. A Weltbild can be understood as both a premise and a product of a Weltanschauung. W. Dilthey called a Weltbild “the basis of one’s appreciation of life and understanding…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion …

Schöpfung

(10,029 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich 1.GrundfragenLeben, Natur, Umwelt und Zeitenlauf (Zeit/Zeitvorstellungen) sind für jede Gesellschaft Alltagserfahrungen. Zur Wirklichkeit gehört aber auch das Risiko, wonach dieser natürliche Lebensraum bedroht und bedrohlich ist. Chaos und Tod gehören zum Kosmos (Welt). Die Realität ist ambivalent. Evolutionstheoretisch gehört zu den entscheidenden Symptomen der Entwicklung vom vormenschlichen zum humanen Existenzbereich, daß diese Risikoerfahrung ritue…

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …
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