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Twelve, The (Disciples)

(1,216 words)

Author(s): Koch, Dietrich-Alex
[German Version] The Synoptic Gospels describe a circle of twelve disciples appointed by Jesus who accompany him at all times, and whom he also instructs to act in his name (Mark 3:13–19). However, this task assignment does not explain why there are twelve disciples. Although the “Twelve” are explicitly mentioned as companions of Jesus in a number of situations (Mark 9:35; 10:32; 11:11; 14:17; Matt 11:1; Luke 8:1), the specific role of the “Twelve” remains unclear (cf. Mark 6:7 [sending out of the…


(4,151 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Koch, Dietrich-Alex | Brändle, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies 1. Terminology The terms inspiration (from Lat. inspiratio, “insufflation”) and theopneusty come from the NT. Prophecy comes through the Holy Spirit (2 Pet 1:21); in 2 Tim 3:16, the adjective ϑεόπνευστος/ theópneustos) ¶ describes Scripture as being “inspired by God.” In many religions, we encounter the idea that communications enter the human sphere through the mediation of other entities. Plato ( Phaidr. 265) was already systematizing m…