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(1,491 words)

Author(s): Zingsem, Vera | Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion; Ethics I. Religious Studies The term matriarchate is an artificial modern coinage based on Latin mater and ancient Greek archḗ, the latter in the double sense of “beginning” and “rule.” It first appeared in ethnological works and studies of the history of law toward the end of the 19th century. Writers of that period (J.J. Bachofen and others; see II below) used such terms as gynecocracy or Mutterrecht (“mother ¶ law”) (Matriarchy). Since pure matriarchates are few and far between, other terms have also g…

Sölle, Dorothee

(376 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1929, Cologne – Apr 27, 2003, Göppingen). After studying classical and Germanic philology, philosophy, and Protestant theology, she taught in a Gymnasium and was an adviser in higher education. She received her habilitation in Cologne in 1971; from 1975 to 1987 she was professor of systematic theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York; in 1994 she received an honorary professorship from Hamburg. From the late 1960s on, she was active in organizing political nighttime prayers in Cologne, in church conferences, in the peace movem…

Feminism and Feminist Theology

(4,420 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Wilmes, Hedwig | Janowski, J. Christine | Kuhlmann, Helga | Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J. | Tammen, Silke | Et al.
[German Version] I. Cultural History – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Feminism, Art, and Religion – VIII. Religious Feminism in North America I. Cultural History 1. The term Feminism is a theory, a praxis, and a worldwide movement whose goal is to achieve equal influence for women in all areas of the state, society, and culture, ¶ together with equal rights for women and men. The term was probably coined by the early socialist Charles Fourier (1772–1837), who was the first to…

Women and Men

(1,896 words)

Author(s): Bird, Phyllis | Wischmeyer, Oda | Wannenwetsch, Bernd | Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] I. Old Testament The Genesis creation accounts present humankind (םדָאָ/ ʾādām) as irreducibly male-and-female (Gen 1:26f.; 5:1–2). But they also recount the subordination of woman to man and introduce an account of origins borne by male lineages and male actors (Gen 2–3; 5:1,3ff.). The story of the “Fall” (Gen 3) “explains” and universalizes the patriarchal social order of the author’s day: the disobedience of the primal pair has disrupted their original and intended relationship, so that …


(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…


(262 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Helga
[English Version] Sölle, Dorothee (30.9.1929 Köln – 27.4.2003 Göppingen), Studium der klassischen Philol., Germanistik, Philos. und Ev. Theol.; Gymnasiallehrerin und Studienrätin im Hochschuldienst. 1971 Habil. in Köln; 1975 bis 1987 Prof. für Syst. Theol. am Union Theological Seminary in New York, 1994 Ehrenprofessur in Hamburg. – Seit Ende der 60er Jahre engagierte sich S. bei den Kölner polit. Nachtgebeten, auf Kirchentagen, in der Friedens-, Frauen- und Ökologiebewegung sowie in der Solidarität…