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(886 words)

Author(s): Blum, Erhard | Niehoff, Maren
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Ancient Judaism I. Bible Isaac (יִצְחָק/ yiṣḥāq, “he laughs/smiles,” presumably a short form of the theophoric יִצְחָק־אֵל/ yiṣḥaq-ʾel, “El/God laughs/smiles”) is the second patriarch of Israel in the Genesis narratives: the son of Abraham and Sarah (Gen 21:1…


(1,848 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Niehoff, Maren | Campanini, Saverio
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism I. Old Testament 1. Name The anthroponym Jacob (יַעֲקוֹב/ yaʿaqôb) is attested as a common name throughout the ancient Near East from Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 2nd millennium as ia( ) qub-( ēl) to late 1st-millennium Palmyra as yʿqwb. As a sentence name it derives from the verbal root ʿqb (Old South Arab. and Eth.: “protect”; Ug.: “be near”), so that the theophoric form may be translated “God protects” or “God is near.” In the Hebrew Bible, only the hypocoristic form without a theophoric subject ¶ occurs. The Hebrew Bible derives the n…


(5,249 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Kraus, Wolfgang | Niehoff, Maren | Klein, Birgit
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Judaism I. Old Testament 1. History of scholarship For the biblical tradition of the Torah, Moses, born in Egypt (Exod 2:1–10), was the founder of Israel's religion and its lawgiver at Sinai (Exod 3f.; Exod 19 – Num 10), the designer of its judicial system (Exod 18*), the leader of the people in Egypt and during the exodus (Exod 2; 5–15) and ¶ the subsequent journey from Egypt to the land of Moab (Exod 16f.; Num 10 – Deut 34), who before his death (Deut 34:5f.) put the Torah into writing (Deut 31:9) and w…


(3,088 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Maren R.
Im nordägyptischen Alexandria bestand vom 3. Jahrhundert v. d. Z. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert d. Z. eine bedeutende jüdische Gemeinde, die ein ausgeprägtes jüdisches Selbstverständnis mit der Integration in die Umgebungskultur vereinte. Jüdische Gelehrte entwickelten die Grundlagen für eine jüdische Religionsphilosophie und säkulare Bibelauslegung. Damit wurde die jüdische Gemeinde in Alexandria zum Vorbild des liberalen Judentums in Deutschland und der Wissenschaft des Judentums. 1. Einführung Alexandria, 332 v. d. Z. von Alexander dem Großen im Nildelta geg…