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(5,709 words)

Author(s): Osiek, Carolyn
There are few sayings attributed to Jesus that are better attested than disapproval of divorce. It appears in all three Synoptic Gospels in slightly different forms, and in a letter of Paul, the earliest witness. The basic principle is stated, but in two cases, some kind of exception is included ( porneia, Matt 5:32; 19:9; disparity of belief, 1 Cor 7:10–16). Three principles should be kept in mind. First, this prohibition should not be seen alone, but as part of a continuum of attitudes toward marriage in the early church, from remarriage in sp…
Date: 2021-12-14


(3,667 words)

Author(s): Osiek, Carolyn | Albrecht, Ruth | Zentgraf, Martin | Turre, Reinhard | Tiling, Peter v. | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Church Law – VI. Catholic Church – VII. Orthodox Church I. New Testament Neither “deaconess” nor “diaconate” is an appropriate term for the NT era, and “deacon” should not be used as an exact translation of διάκονος/ diákonos, since the three terms only later underwent an institutionalization that did not exist in NT times. The occurrence of the terminology in the NT can be differentiate…


(1,345 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hoheisel, Karl | Osiek, Carolyn | Sprondel, Walter M.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Religious Studies – III. House Church (in Early Christianity) – IV. Sociology I. Archaeology Functionally, the house was a building which, in contrast to a palace, served as a private dwelling. While circular structures have been identified in prehistoric Palestine, from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age the broad-room type of house dominated, that is, a one-room and one-floor structure with a single entrance on the long side. In addition, there were sometimes apsidi…

Biblical Criticism

(6,009 words)

Author(s): Wacker, Marie-Theres | Udo, Schnelle | Dormeyer, Detlev | Patte, Daniel | Osiek, Carolyn | Et al.
[German Version] I. Methods of Biblical Criticism applied to the Old Testament – II. Methods of Biblical Criticism applied to the New Testament See also Effective History/Reception History I. Methods of Biblical Criticism applied to the Old Testament Today, (Christian) biblical scholarship is faced with a plethora of varied methodical approaches that, especially in the last decade of the 20th century, have persistently questioned the role of historical criticism …

Shepherd of Hermas

(589 words)

Author(s): Osiek, Carolyn
[German Version] This document is an extended revelatory text classified with the Apostolic Fathers that probably originated in or near Rome in the first half of the 2nd century ce. It borrows heavily from Jewish parenesis, and it has been questioned whether it is really a Christian text, given the absence of even the name of Christ. Yet occasional discussions of the Son of God secure its Christian position. Structured as an apocalypse, it lacks many of the characteristics of that genre. The repetitive and paratactic struct…


(5,614 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Osiek, Carolyn | Klein, Birgit | Heun, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Medieval and Modern Judaism – V. The Law – VI. History and Sociology – VII. Social Ethics – VIII.  Socialization Theory – IX. Education – X. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term family describes a varied network of relationships between parents, children and other persons in a social system. In ethnically shaped small-scale societies, family groups are bearers of religious rituals (Rite and Ritual) and centers of religious community. Fa…