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(415 words)

Author(s): Reichman, Ronen
[German Version] (סִפְרֵי), Aramaic for “books,” is the traditional designation of tannaitic (early rabbinic) collections (Rabbinic literature) of exegetical traditions in relation to Numbers and Deuteronomy (and sometimes also Exod.). Today a distinction is made between three different halakhic midrashim (Halakhah) on Numbers and Deuteronomy. I. Sifre Bemidbar (SifBem) is an expository work on Numbers, containing expositions of Num 5–12; 15; 18f.; 25:1–13; 26:52–30:1 (Eng. 29:40); 30:2*–31:24; and 35:9–34. A substantial portion consists of ha…


(168 words)

Author(s): Reichman, Ronen
[German Version] (סִפְרָא), Aramaic for “book” (also traditionally called torat kohanim, “priestly law”), is a tannaitic (early rabbinic) exposition (Rabbinic literature) of Leviticus; it is assigned to the second group (school of Rabbi Akiba) of halakhic midrashim. The work is a continuous commentary on Leviticus and hence contains primarily halakhic traditions (Halakhah), many of which exhibit parallels to the Mishnah and Tosefta. The version of Sifra in printed editions includes later additions: an introduction, in which the 13 rules of exegesis ( middot) are explained, th…


(512 words)

Author(s): Reichman, Ronen
[German Version] In rabbinic usage, Aram. אתפסות (“addition, supplement”) is a general term for Tannaitic traditions (Tannaim) that were considered supplementary to existing teachings ( b. Šabb. 8:1 [11a]). In some cases the term refers to collections of extra-mishnaic Tannaitic traditions ( baraitot; b. Meg. 28b). Today it serves as the title of a surviving Tannaitic work that largely echoes the structure and thematic material of the Mishnah (see the detailed outline of the Mishnah). Except for the tractates Avot, Tamid, Middot, and Qinnim, all the tractates of the Mishnah ar…


(1,866 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Otto, Eckart | Reichman, Ronen | Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] I. History of Religion

Death Penalty

(3,790 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | de Boer, Martinus C. | Reichman, Ronen | Owens, Erik C. | Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Law – V. Ethics I. Old Testament The death penalty in the Old Testament has three causes: 1. blood revenge as a direct legal…


(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent. In economics (see III below), this mutual commitment between the conferral of the right to use and the corresponding obligation to pay interest remains key, and numerous explanation models…

Dietary Laws

(4,404 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Christianity – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Indian Religions I. Religious Studies A human society's dietary laws and prohibitions give us an excellent insight into its symbolic and ritual practices. The choice of nourishment (preferences and prohibitions) is closely tied to the …