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Vence Chapel

(304 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Matisse-Chapel, 1947–1951). As a favorite to Sister Jacques-Marie, his former nurse, the renowned painter, H. Matisse, agreed to advise upon the construction plans for a new chapel. The elderly artist recognized the rare opportunity of a complete environment dedicated to his art. He seized the moment, becoming architectural planner, interior designer, and artist as well as the creator of liturgical objects and vestments. He crafted a space filled with mystical light and joyful co…

Transfiguration of Christ

(2,102 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Oberdorfer, Bernd | Kunzler, Michael | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament The legend in Mark 9:2–13 proclaims Jesus as Son of God in the presence of his innermost circle of disciples. This is clearly an important compositional element for Mark: the beginning (1:1, 11), middle (9:7), and end (15:39) of the Gospel bear witness to Jesus as God’s Son. The combination with 8:27–33 breaks through Jesus’ incognito and defines his mission – passion (Passion/Passion traditions) and resurrection (II). For a moment, the disciples receive an insight i…

Adam and Eve

(931 words)

Author(s): Anderson, Gary A. | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Ancient Judaism – II. Art I. Ancient Judaism According to Gen 1–5, Adam and Eve were the first human couple. Although the two figures play a major role in ancient Judaism, their importance is often overrated. The tendency to see a widespread myth of Adam in Second Temple sources is connected with the pivotal role of Adam in the Pauline epistles (Rom 5; 1 Cor 15). The fall of Adam and Eve does not play a role in all schools of ancient Judaism. One significant strand of tradition, represented by Jubilees, 1 Enoch, and the Dead Sea Scrolls (cf. …

Human Form in Art

(3,499 words)

Author(s): Schroer, Silvia | Andreae, Bernard | Koch, Guntram | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Ancient Near Eastern Art – II. Greco-Roman Art – III. Christian Art I. Ancient Near Eastern Art The earliest datable representations of animals in ancient Near Eastern art stem from the Mesolithic Period, and the oldest representations of the human form from the Neolithic Period (reworked male skulls or imitations of the same, cf. Kenyon; stylized or three-dimensional figurines of sitting, corpulent women). Anthropomorphic ¶ (Anthropomorphism) deities are usually distinguished from humans through attributes (for the exception of the “naked…


(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …


(7,716 words)

Author(s): Roll, Susan K. | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. Christian Liturgy – III. Practical Theology – IV. Art History – V. Music I. History 1. Origins. “Christmas,” the nativity feast or birthday celebration of Christ on Dec 25, comes from Middle English Christmesse, Christ's Mass; cf. Dutch Kerstmis. The German Weihnachten, “holy nights,” refers to the twelve days between Dec 24 and Jan 6. The Lat. natalis, dies nativitatis, or nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi is reflected in Span. navidad, Ital. natale. Gk ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τὰ γενέθλια, ἡ κατὰ σάρκα γέννησις τοῦ κυρίου/ hēgenéthlios h…


(8,622 words)

Author(s): Felber, Annelies | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Names and Terms – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Fundamental Theology – VIII. Dogmatics – IX. Judaism – X. Islam – XI. History of Art and Literature I. Names and Terms 1. Devil The secular Greek noun διάβολος/ diabolos comes from one of the meanings of the verb διαβάλλω/ diaballō, “separate, sever,” which led to meanings such as “accuse, slander, deceive.” From the Greek noun came Latin diabolus, from which the English …

Uhde, Fritz von

(293 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (May 22, 1848, Wolkenburg – Feb 25, 1911, Munich), German painter recognized for his depictions of the Christian Scriptures in contemporary, late 19th-century settings. His interest in painting from nature emerged at Mihaly Munkácsy’s painting school in Paris (1879). Returning to Munich in 1880, M. Liebermann encouraged him to paint en plein-air and to reconstruct the works of the Dutch masters with these new cool tones, natural light, and open brushwork. Uhde’s paintings of scenes in the life of Jesus spurred controversy from the very first, Suffer the Little Chil…

Mary Magdalene

(1,178 words)

Author(s): Kitzberger, Ingrid Rosa | Hartenstein, Judith | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Early Church – III. History of Art I. New Testament Named after her home town of Magdala on the west bank of the Sea of Gennesareth, she was presumably a prosperous (Luke 8:2f.) businesswoman (for the fishing industry in Magdala=Tarichaeae, see Josephus) who traveled extensively (hence the reference to her place of origin; cf. 15:21, 43). Mary was clearly unmarried (cf. Mark 15:40; Luke 8:3; John 19:25), and her age is unknown. She may have belonged to the same generati…

Rembrandt, Harmenszoon van Rijn

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1606, Leiden – Oct 4, 1669, Amsterdam), painter and graphic artist. Among the leading European masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt was the chief religious artist of the Protestant tradition. His works were profoundly influenced by those of Caravaggio, Adam Elmsheimer, and P.P. Rubens, especially with regard to advancing tenebrism and dramatic theatricality. Renowned as a portrait painter, he was able to transfer his gift of projecting onto canvas his psychological pene…


(139 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (from the Lat. bestiarius, “concerning the beasts”). A bestiary is an Old-French moralizing natural history, which merged the 4th-century Greek Physiologus with local myths, legends, and symbols of animals. Rivaling the Bible in popularity, bestiaries described the training, breeding, and medical care of animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish). Typically, a bestiary recounted the history, legends, natural characteristics, and symbolism of 100 animals, while the Greek and Latin editions of the Physiologus described only 49 (or …

Zurbarán, Francisco de

(138 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (baptized Nov 7, 1598, Fuente de Cantos, Spain – Aug 27, 1664, Madrid), Spanish painter, renowned for his devotional images. Zurbarán painted narrative cycles, series, and altarpieces for churches and monasteries throughout southern Spain (Seville, Guadalupe, Jerez). His popular depictions of monks or saints (e.g. St. Francis) in meditation or prayer were simply arranged but emotionally direct. His works affirm his devotion to Mary as he created a significant Marian iconography ( Immaculate Con­ception, 1661). Zurbarán’s later works, painted in Madrid …

Christmas Plays and Pageants

(827 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The liturgical dramas or plays on the theme of Christmas or Christ's Nativity event, the goal of which was the glorification and adoration of God. The initial pedagogical function was to teach the faith through by presenting sacred history and to encourage appropriate moral behavior in a mode accessible to the otherwise illiterate Christian populace. The earliest forms of liturgical dramas were the annual retelling of the scriptural events during the La…


(2,237 words)

Author(s): Gundlach, Helga Barbara | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane | Kane, Thomas A.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Dance, Gesture, Movement and Religion – III. Dance, Gesture, Movement and the Christian Tradition I. History of Religions In contrast to pure movement, dance consists of intentional, differentiated, recurring and rhythmic elements. Initially, natural rhythms such as the beating of the heart, rainfall or animal sounds were imitated and translated into movement. In early forms of culture, da…

Liturgical Art

(614 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The term liturgical art identifies the “tangible expressions of the Christian liturgy – all the objects, vestments, (Vestments, Liturgical) paraments (Vestments/Paraments), liturgical vessels, and instruments fundamental to the celebration and aesthetics of Christian worship. Traditionally liturgical art has distinguished between movable and immovable objects. The principal immovable object is the altar, while the principal movable object is the cross (Cross/Crucifixion). A careful s…


(320 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] from the perspective of art history. Primary avian symbol in the Bible and Christian art. The fundamental significance of the dove is as a symbol for the soul, purification, and the Holy Spirit. In the Hebrew Bible, Noah sent a dove in search of dry land after the Flood. It returned with an olive branch in its beak, evidence that the flood waters had receded. This became the universal sign of peace (Gen 8:11). ¶ The sacrifice of doves was appropriate for the ritual purification of a newborn child according to the …

Fontana, Lavinia

(197 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1552, Bologna – Aug 11, 1614, Rome), an Italian painter, trained by her father, Prospero Fontana. Her work balances influences of Antonio Allegri Correggio (c. 1489–1534) and Sebastiano Piombo (c. 1485–1547) with Mannerism and emergent Bolognese style. She was renowned as a portrait and history painter. Fontana was the first woman to be named official painter to the papal court under Clement VII and to be elected to the Rome Academy. Not an iconographic innovator, she cre…

Steinhausen, Wilhelm

(96 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1846, Sorau, Niederlausitz – Feb 5, 1924, Frankfurt am Main), painter and graphic designer. His first commission was bookmarks and illustrations for Geschichte von der Geburt unseres Herrn Jesus Christus (1869). He obtained an honorary doctorate in theology from the Halle faculty. As “Protestant painter” he received civil and church commissions: Christ und die Kinder (1888) and Allegorie der Erziehungsgedanken antiker and christlicher Kunst (1899–1902). Diane Apostolos-Cappadona Bibliography Works include: “Christentum, Religion und Kunst,” GlWis

Brancusi, Constantin

(165 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (Feb 19, 1876, Hobita, Romania – Mar 16, 1957, Paris), modernist sculptor. Brancusi spent his childhood in Romania. He studied at the Bucharest School of Fine Arts and in 1905 entered the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1906 he exhibited his works in the Salon des Beaux-Arts, and he apprenticed at A. Rodin 's studio in 1907. …

Tagore, Rabīndranāth

(268 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (May 6, 1861, Calcutta – Aug 7, 1941, Shantiniketan, West Bengal), author, philosopher, educator, and social reformer. Tagore was the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (1913). He founded his school, Santiniketan (Abode of Peace), in 1901, and his Visva-Bharati (World University) in 1921; both were premised on the integration of the arts and spirituality into rural reconstruction, social values, and East-West understanding. A polymath, Tagore corresponded extensivel…

Anchor in Christian Art

(162 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] The anchor (Gk ἄγκυρα/ ankyra, “crooked hook”), the classical symbol for safety in navigation, was transformed into a Christian symbol for the soul, and for hope, adherence, and steadfastness. In his Christ the Educator (Paedagogus), Clement of Alexandria identifies the anchor as appropriate for Christian seal rings, pendants, or intaglio. On early Christian sarcophagi and grave decorations as well as jewelry, the anchor combined with a cross or the Greek letter P (rho) connoted hope, while the anchor with a dolphin signif…

Vermeer, Jan

(393 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] (baptized Oct 31, 1632, Delft – buried Dec 15, 1675, Delft), Dutch painter, the leading master of genre painting and disguised symbolism. His early art training remains shrouded in mystery, however he was admitted as a master to the Delft Guild of St. Luke in 1653 and converted to Catholicism in the same year. An aspiring history painter, he included biblical themes in his early works, such as Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (1655). The later overtly secular works are now interpreted as visual evidence of his deep Catholic faith, especially when V…

Vézelay Abbey

(283 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] Vézelay Abbey, masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture. Originally founded as a convent for women, this now former Cluniac abbey (Cluny) was, from 1050, a significant stop on pilgrimage routes and the departure point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. The convent founder, Count Gérard de Roussillon, brought the relics of St. Mary Magdalene from Provence to Vézelay. Vézelay’s significance was evidenced when St. Bernard of Clairvaux preached the Second Crus…


(1,420 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Representations of the Apostles I. New Testament 1. The term. The verbal adjective ἀπόστολος/ apóstolos (from apostéllein), as a term for being sent was also used in Greek substantivally, but was not a terminus technicus. Outside political contexts, it occurs rarely in philosophical texts. The roots of the NT concept lie in the OT and Judaism, where the verb שׁלח/ šalaḥ plays an important role; the participle is rare, the noun is late and may not yet be presumed as a precursor to NT usage. The substantival use corresponds to Greek linguistic tradition. 2…

Baptismal Font

(881 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Art History I. Liturgy The baptismal font shows how baptism was administered: decorations indicate the theological meaning of baptism, and changes in the form of the font point to changes in the liturgical significance of the rite. Early Christian baptism was probably administered in flowing waters, either by pouring these over the head of …

Tabernacle, Christian

(522 words)

Author(s): Ebenbauer, Peter | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. History of the Term A tabernacle (Lat. tabernaculum, “tent, hut”) is a receptacle containing the eucharistic bread and the vessel(s) holding it in Christian sacral buildings. The Vulgate uses the Latin word for the Old Testament tent of meeting and to represent the eschatological dwelling of God among mortals (Rev 21:3). In the Latin church, it became a technical term for the receptacle holding the reserved sacrament. In the Early Church, consecrated bread (Consecration) from the eucha…

Anne, Saint

(436 words)

Author(s): Dörfler-Dierken, Angelika | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Art History I. Church History The mother of Mary, mother of Jesus, and spouse of Joachim. Her name (= Heb. “grace”) is given first in the Protevangelium. The text was read throughout the Middle Ages and at Marian feasts. After 1450, this birth legend was linked with the concept of a trinubium of the saints. Characteristically, The Lives of the Saints supplied Anne with her own birth story and described her as a matron who bore each of her three husbands a daughter M…


(406 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Vermeer, Jan (getauft 31.10.1632 Delft – begraben 15.12.1675 ebd.), holländischer Maler, Spezialist der Genremalerei und des verborgenen Symbolismus. Ungeachtet seiner frühen, in verschleierter Mystik verharrenden Malübungen wurde er im Dezember 1653 in die Delfter Lukasgilde als Künstler eingetragen. 1653 konvertierte er zum Katholizismus. Als aufstrebender Historienmaler setzte er sich in seinen frühen Werken mit bibl. Themen auseinander, z.B. in »Christus bei Maria und Martha« …


(309 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Taube, kunstgeschichtlich, Vogelsymbol in der Bibel und der christl. Kunst. Die T. steht im wesentlichen für die Seele, die Reinheit und den Hl. Geist. Nach der HB entsandte Noah anläßlich der Sintflut eine T. aus, trockenes Land zu suchen. Als Beweis für den Rückgang der Wasserfluten kehrte sie mit einem Olivenzweig im Schnabel zurück. Dies wurde zum Symbol des universellen Friedens (Gen 8,11). – Eine T. als Opfergabe galt als angemessenes Ritual der Reinigung für ein neugeborene…


(293 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Uhde, Fritz v. (22.5.1848 Wolkenburg – 25.2.1911 München), dt. Maler, bekannt durch seine Kompositionen von Christusszenen, die er in die zeitgenössische Umgebung des ausgehenden 19.Jh. transferierte. Sein Interesse an Naturmalerei wuchs seit seinem Aufenthalt in Paris, wo er unter dem Einfluß von Mihaly Munkácsy (1879) arbeitete. Im Anschluß an seine Rückkehr nach München i.J. 1880 ermutigte ihn M. Liebermann zur Freilichtmalerei und zur intensiven Auseinandersetzung mit Werken h…


(2,053 words)

Author(s): Gundlach, Helga Barbara | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane | Kane, Thomas A.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Im Unterschied zur reinen Bewegung beinhaltet T. zielgerichtete, ausdifferenzierte, wiederkehrende und rhythmische Elemente. Zunächst wurden natürliche Rhythmen wie Herzklopfen, Regenprasseln oder Tiergeräusche imitiert und in Bewegung umgesetzt. In frühen Kulturformen war der T. als ursprünglichstes selbstverständliches Kommunikationsmittel mit sich, anderen Menschen, Übermenschlichem und zur Umweltbewältigung in den Alltag integriert. Im Laufe der Zeit …


(731 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] I. Liturgisch Am T. ist abzulesen, wie getauft wurde, Verzierungen weisen auf theol. Inhalte, der Formenwandel weist auf liturgische Bedeutungsänderungen hin. Wurde die urchristl. Taufe in einem fließenden Gewässer vermutlich durch Übergießen oder Untertauchen vollzogen, entstanden nachweislich seit ca. dem 3.Jh. Baptisterien, in die ein Becken eingelassen war, in das der Täufling zur Taufe hineinstieg. Seit dem 5./6.Jh. gab es T., die auf dem Boden standen und durch ein Ziborium …


(19,410 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichAus religionswiss. Sicht ist die T. kein allg. Ritustyp (Ritus/Ritual), sondern ein Lustrationsritual, das sowohl im Christentum als auch in den gesch. mit diesem verwandten Rel. wie Judentum und Mandäismus durchgeführt wird. Die T. hat sich aus Lustrationsritualen antiker nahöstlicher Flußzivilisationen entwickelt, wobei die Einzelheiten dieser Entwicklung eher im dunkeln liegen. In der Spätzeit des Zweiten Tempels wurde die T. in mehreren Gemeinschaften…


(93 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Steinhausen, Wilhelm (2.2.1846 Sorau, Niederlausitz – 5.2.1924 Frankfurt/M.), Maler und Graphiker, erhielt seinen ersten Auftrag für Bibellesezeichen und Illustrationen zur »Gesch. von der Geburt unseres Herrn Jesus Christus« (1869). 1906 wurde S. Dr. h.c. der theol. Fakultät Halle. Als »prot. Maler« bekam er öfftl. und kirchl. Aufträge, darunter »Christ und die Kinder« (1888) und »Allegorie der Erziehungsgedanken antiker und christl. Kunst« (1899–1902). Diane Apostolos-Cappadona Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Christentum, Rel. und Kunst (GlWis 4/2,…


(142 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Zurbarán, Francisco de (getauft 7.11.1598 Fuente de Cantos – 27.8.1664 Madrid), span. Maler, bekannt v.a. durch seine Andachtsbilder. Z., der zu den Gegenreformatoren zählte, malte Erzählzyklen, Gemäldefolgen und Altargemälde für Kirchen und Klöster in Südspanien (Sevilla, Guadalupe, Jerez). Seine populären Darstellungen von Mönchen und Heiligen (z.B. des Hl. Franziskus) bei der Meditation oder im Gebet zeichnen sich durch schlichtes Arrangement und emotionale Unmittelbarkeit aus. …


(7,228 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. Namen und Begriffe 1.TeufelProfangriech. δια´βολος/diábolos, von διαβα´λλω/diabállō, »auseinanderbringen«, daher Bedeutungen wie »anklagen, verleumden, täuschen«, lat. diabolus, daraus dt. T. In der LXX wird hebr. שָׂטָן/śāṭān mit diábolos übers., was am besten mit »Widersacher« wiedergegeben wird. In den Apokryphen finden sich sowohl T. (3Bar 4,8; AssMos 10,1) wie Satan, weiters Beliar (zumeist TestXII), Mastema (Jub 10; 11), Samma'el (3Bar 4,8; bes. rabb. Schriften). Das NT kennt keinen inhaltlich…

Verklärung Jesu Christi

(1,810 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Oberdorfer, Bernd | Kunzler, Michael | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] I. Neues Testament Die Legende Mk 9,2–13 parr. proklamiert Jesus als Gottessohn vor dem innersten Jüngerkreis. Deutlich ist starkes kompositionelles Interesse des Mk: Anfang (1,1.11), Mitte (9,7) und Ende (15,39) des Ev. bezeugen Jesus als Gottessohn. Die Zusammenstellung mit 8,27–33 lüftet das Inkognito Jesu und definiert seinen Auftrag (Passion und Auferstehung [: II.]). Die Jünger erhalten für einen Moment Einblick in Jesu Umgang mit der himmlischen Welt (Mose und Elia als Entrü…


(815 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] bez. das liturgische Drama oder Spiel zum Weihnachtsfest (Weihnachten) bzw. zur Geburt Christi und dienen der Verherrlichung und Anbetung Gottes. Der urspr. päd. Zweck bestand in der Vermittlung des Glaubens durch die Darstellung der hl. Gesch. sowie in der Anregung zu angemessenem, sittlichem Verhalten in einer für die ansonsten illiterate christl. Gemeinde zugänglichen Form. Als früheste Formen liturgischer Dramaturgie galten die alljährlich wiederkehrenden Darstellungen bibl. …


(6,248 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Andreas | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich 1.Entstehung W., dt. Bez. für das Geburtsfest Christi am 25.12., von mhd. wihen (heilige) nachten, womit urspr. die Losnächte um Wintersonnenwende und Jahreswechsel (24.12. – 6.1.) gemeint waren; auch und besser, weil den christl. Festinhalt eindeutig benennend, Christtag/-fest; in der lat. Liturgie natalis, dies nativitatis, nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi; griech. η῾ γεn̆ε´ϑλιος η῾με´ρα, τα` γεn̆ε´ϑλια, η῾ κατα` σα´ρκα γε´n̆n̆ησις του˜ κυρι´ου/hē genéthlios hēméra, tá genéthlia, hē katá sárka génnēsis toú kyríou; …


(267 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Tagore, Rabīndranāth (6.5.1861 Kalkutta – 7.8.1941 Shantiniketan, West Bengal), Schriftsteller, Philosoph, Pädagoge und Sozialreformer. T. erhielt als erster Asiate den Nobelpreis für Lit. (1913). 1901 gründete er die Privatschule von Shantiniketan (»Stätte des Friedens«), 1921 die Wischwabharati-Universität (»Welt-Universität«). Ziele dieser Institutionen waren die Integration der Künste und des Geistes in eine ländliche Umgebung, soziale Werte und die Ost-West-Verständigung. Der…

Vence, Chapelle du Rosaire

(310 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] (Matisse-Kapelle, 1947–1951). Als Günstling der Novizin Jacques-Marie willigte H. Matisse ein, bei der Ausgestaltung der neuen Kapelle des Dominikanerklosters in V. beratend mitzuwirken. Der alternde Künstler, für den dies die letzte große Aufgabe war, erkannte darin die außergewöhnliche Chance, daß ein ganzes Gebäude seiner Kunst gewidmet sein würde. So nutzte er die Gelegenheit, sich zugleich als architektonischer Planer, Innenarchitekt, Künstler und als Schöpfer liturgischer G…


(1,606 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Rembrandt, Harmenzoon van Rijn (15.7.1606 Leiden – 4.10.1669 Amsterdam), Maler und Graphiker, unter den führenden eur. Meistern des 17.Jh. der bedeutendste rel. Künstler der prot. Tradition. Seine Arbeiten wurden stark von Caravaggio, Adam Elmsheimer und P.P. Rubens beeinflußt, bes. in Hinblick auf die Weiterentwicklung der Helldunkelmalerei und der dramatisch-theatralischen Form. Zu Ruhm gelangte er durch seine Fähigkeit als Portraitmaler, die Persönlichkeit des Modells mit Hilfe s…


(467 words)

Author(s): Ebenbauer, Peter | Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] I. Begriff und Herkunft T., lat. tabernaculum, »Zelt/Hütte«, Gehäuse zur Aufbewahrung des eucharistischen Brotes und seiner Gefäße in christl. Sakralräumen. T. dient in der Vulgata zur Bez. des atl. Bundeszeltes (Stiftshütte) sowie des Bildes vom endzeitlichen Wohnen Gottes unter den Menschen (Apk 21,3) und wurde in der lat. Kirche zum terminus technicus für das Sakramentshäuschen. In der Alten Kirche wurde konsekriertes Brot (Konsekration) aus der Eucharistiefeier in eigens dafür h…

Vézelay, Abteikirche Ste. Madeleine

(276 words)

Author(s): Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane
[English Version] Vézelay, Abteikirche Ste. Madeleine, Meisterstück der romanischen (Romanik) Kunst und Architektur in Burgund. Urspr. als Konvent für Frauen im 9.Jh. gegründet, war die ehem. Abtei Clunys von 1050 an selbst ein bedeutender Wallfahrtsort und Ausgangspunkt für Wallfahrten nach Santiago de Compostela. Der Gründer des Konvents, Graf Girart de Roussillon, überführte die Reliquien der hl. Maria Magdalena aus der Provence nach V. Auch die Tatsache, daß Bernhard von Clairvaux von hier aus…
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