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(4,743 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen , Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Realism in a given area B means the ontological thesis that names or terms used in a theory of B refer to things that exist independently of human thought. For example, in natural realism the existence of stones, trees, and ¶ tables is assumed; in scientific realism, that of electrons, force fields, and quarks (see V below); in mathematical realism, that of numbers and quantities; or in ethical realism, that of moral values. Critics of realism object, for example, that moral values are an expression of value…


(7,484 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Koch, Klaus | Landmesser, Christof | Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Terminology and Problem ¶ The meaning of the word truth – Greek ἀλήϑεια/ alḗtheia, ἀληϑής/ alēthḗs; Hebrew אֱמֶת/ ʾĕmet; Latin veritas, verus – depends on the context where it appears. The meaning of the word truth in a particular context is not the same thing as the definition of the term truth; it is also not the same thing as the “function or role that can be or is ascribed to the expression or term . . . in the various contexts and discourses of daily life, the sciences, and philosophy (and theology)” (Puntel, 927). For Christian theology, the biblical use of the term truth is…


(440 words)

Author(s): Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Gk ὀρϑότης/ orthótēs; Lat. rectitudo). Plato employed ὀρϑότης in the sense of correctness in epistemological (cf. Rep. 515 d), philological (cf. Kratylos, 384 b-d) and ethical (cf. Gorg. 506 d) mean- ing. Anselm of Canterbury gave correctness (rectitude) a fundamental role by defining truth and justice with the common superordinate concept of rectitudo. ¶ Thus, Anselm defines truth as “correctness comprehensible with the intellect alone” ( veritas est rectitudo mente sola perceptibilis – cf. De veritate, ch. 11). Anselm's discussion of correctness presu…


(1,063 words)

Author(s): Künne, Wolfgang | Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology I. Philosophy An object (Ger. Gegenstand) is anything to which a predicate can be applied, or to which identificatory reference can be made by way of a proper name, designation, or deictic expression, hence anything with regard to which statements can be made and judgments can be passed. (“Individual,” “entity,” or “object” [Ger. Objekt] are frequently employed in this sense in analytic philosophy.) In the eyes of some philosophers, this understanding of the conception of object is broader than the ¶…


(909 words)

Author(s): Bühler, Axel | Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Fundamental Theology I. Philosophy “Grammar” is derived from Gk γραμματική (τέχνη)/ grammatiké ( téchnē), which originally meant the completion of reading. In Hellenism the term generally referred to philology in the special sense of the linguistic examination of word and sentence formation. Today grammar is generally taken to mean (1) the linguistic examination of word and sentence formation, and (2) the regularities of word and sentence formation in language itself. For phi…


(3,990 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Rowland, Christopher | Lang, Bernhard | Farrow, Douglas B. | Et al.
[German Version] Cosmology and Kingdom of God I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament –III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Contemporary Art I. Religious Studies 1. To a vision that has not been tamed by scientific theory, heaven is a realm of the beyond (Hereafter, Concepts of the). Like the netherworld, it invades the human world as air or earth and sea, but it is beyond the experience of mortals; it is concrete, but cannot be entered. Observation of the concrete phenomena confirms the symbol …


(406 words)

Author(s): Großhans, Hans-Peter
[English Version] (griech. ο᾿ρϑο´της/orthótēs; lat. rectitudo). Plato verwendet ο᾿ρϑο´της im Sinne von R. in epistemologischer (vgl. rep. 515 d), sprachphilos. (vgl. Kratylos, 384 b–d) und ethischer (vgl. Gorg. 506 d) Bedeutung. – Anselm von Canterbury hat der R. eine fundamentale Rolle eingeräumt, indem er Wahrheit und Gerechtigkeit durch den gemeinsamen Oberbegriff der rectitudo bestimmt. So definiert Anselm Wahrheit als »mit dem Geist allein erfaßbare R.« (veritas est rectitudo mente sola perceptibil…


(4,258 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen, Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Unter R. bzgl. eines Bereichs B versteht man die ontologische These, daß sich die in einer Theorie über B verwendeten Namen oder Termini auf Dinge beziehen, die unabhängig vom menschlichen Denken existieren. Z.B. wird im natürlichen R. die Existenz von Steinen, Bäumen und Tischen angenommen, im wiss. R. die von Elektronen, Kraftfeldern und Quarks (s.u. V.), im mathematischen R. die von Zahlen und Mengen oder im ethischen R. die von moralischen Werten. Kritiker des…


(6,819 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Koch, Klaus | Landmesser, Christof | Großhans, Hans-Peter
[English Version] I. Begriff und ProblematikDie Bedeutung des Ausdrucks »W.« – griech. α᾿λη´ϑεια/alē´theia, α᾿ληϑη´ς/alēthē´s; hebr. /אמֶת/'æmæt; lat. veritas, verus – hängt von dem jeweiligen Kontext ab, in dem er gebraucht wird. Von der jeweiligen Bedeutung des Ausdrucks »W.« ist die Definition des Begriffs der »W.« zu unterscheiden, aber auch die »Funktion oder Rolle, die dem Ausdruck bzw. dem Begriff … in den verschiedenen Kontexten und Diskursen im täglichen Leben, in den Wiss. und in der Philos. (und Theol.) zugeschrieben wird bzw. werden kann« (Puntel 927).Für die chri…