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Geibel, Johannes

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1776, Hanau – Jul 25, 1853, Lübeck), influential revival preacher and reformer in Lübeck, who became doctor of theology in Berlin in 1817. Turning from a devout Enlightenment (II, 4.c) to a christocentric theology of religious experience and revelation (emphasis on grace, faith, and rebirth from 1807 on) – and under the influence of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, F.H. Jacobi, and G. Menken – Geibel combined Romanticism and Idealism with biblicism and religious nationalism. He init…

Amphilochius of Iconium

(174 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (c. 340/345–400). Amphilochius was the cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and a student of Libanius. After practicing law in Constantinople c. 365–371, he became an ascetic. In the fall of 373, he became metropolitan of the new ecclesiastical province of Lycaonia, which he reorganized and strengthened (church discipline, new dioceses, conflict with pagans and heretics, etc.). As an ally of Basil the Great, he contributed significantly to the victory of Basil's doctrine of the Trinity (Neo-Niceanism) in Asia Minor – for example, by his Epistola synodica against the …


(1,413 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] 1. Theodosius Andreas (Jan 3, 1817, St. Petersburg – Sep 23, 1889, Tartu [Ger. Dorpat], Estonia). Harnack studied at Dorpat from 1834 to 1837; after three years as a private tutor, he also studied at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. He became a Privatdozent in 1843. From 1848 to 1852 and again from 1866 to 1875 he was professor of practical theology at Dorpat, from 1853 to 1866 at Erlangen. In 1852/1853 he taught systematic theology at Dorpat. He was orphaned at 15; in 1857 his first wife…

Council of Brethren

(797 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] ( Bruderrat), designation for the leadership bodies of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche) at all levels. At first prevalent in especially the (pietistic) community movement ( Gemeinschaftsbewegung), after 1933 it emanated from the emphasis on collegiality and from the ideal of a new kind of “collegial” leadership in opposition to the Führer-principle. I. From Oct 20, 1933, the executive committee of the Pastors' Emergency League was a “Council of Brethren” headed by M. Niemöller; the representative committees …


(8,661 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In general usage, tradition (from Lat. transdare/ tradere, “hand on, transmit”) connotes retention and safeguarding, understood as a conservative handing down of mores, customs, norms, rules, and knowledge. The emphasis is on continuity with the past. Jan Assmann interprets tradition as an exemplary case of “cultural memory,” an enduring cultural construction of identity. In religions appeal to tradition is a prominent element justifying interpretations, practices, clai…

German Evangelical Church

(673 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (Deutsche Evangelische Kirche, DEK). In the history of the attempts to replace or modify the structure of German Protestantism determined by regional churches, the time after 1933 offered a paradigm of fundamental significance. The idea, propagated to a degree from the 19th century onward, of a national church acquired new relevance following the National Socialist overthrow of the state (National Socialism), above all through corresponding demands of the Deutsche Christen in view…

United Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Germany (VELKD)

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Christoph, Joachim E.
[German Version] I. History This institution, founded in 1948 (a German Federal Church with eight member churches) has a prehistory rooted in the 19th century which presupposes the confessional division of German Protestantism from 1529 to 1648. It is based on the axiom that, according to ¶ CA 7, all churches that follow the Lutheran confessional documents form a single church. This also results in fellowship in the Lutheran World Federation. 1. Because of a lack of precision in the terms “confession” and “Lutheran,” and the persistency of the Landeskirchen model, efforts for union …

Nectarius of Constantinople

(214 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (born probably in Tarsus, died 397). As a member of the political elite in Constantinople, Nectarius was appointed bishop of the capital by Theodosius I after the retirement of Gregory of Nazianzus, although he was a layman and probably not even baptized. This showed that he was trusted to overcome the division in the church there. The scant sources make it difficult to assess his historical importance. He resolved the crisis of the Council of Constantinople (IV, 1) as its preside…


(1,677 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Kampmann, Jïrgen
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric – II. University I. City and Bishopric As part of his missionary efforts in the southern part of West Saxony, in 793/795 Ludger established a fortified monastery ( monasterium; hence the name Münster since the 12th cent.) within the older town of Mimigernaford, which became the center for the bishopric established in 805, in the 9th century already incorporating a system of parishes. Beginning in the 11th century, a market town with a church (St. Lambert's) developed as a second nucleus, with…


(4,831 words)

Author(s): Hellholm, David | Kratz, Reinhard Gregor | Frankfurter, David | Dan, Joseph | Collins, Adela Yarbro | Et al.
[German Version] I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Jewish Apocalypticism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Islam – VIII. Art History I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions As a phenomenon in the history of religions, apocalypticism represents a form of revealed communication distinct from other types such as prophecy (Prophets and prophecy: I), oracle, mantic…


(25,084 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brenner, Beatus | Dehn, Ulrich | Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History and Denominations – III. Non-Christian Religions – IV. Society, Culture, Religion, and the Churches in the Present I. General 1. Name The term Germany ( Deutschland) has been shaped by the history of the area it denotes. From the beginnings until 1945 it was closely associated with the German or Holy Roman Empire, so that it underwent many transformations. Since 1949 it has referred primarily to the Federal Republic of Germany, which since the joining of the German Democratic…


(5,831 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Rees, Wilhelm | Plank, Peter | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics and Canon Law – IV. Missiology I. New Testament The NT contains no evidence of the episcopate in the traditional Catholic sense (a single bishop at the apex of a hierarchical clerical ministry functioning as head of a Christian community), but it does use the word ἐπίσκοπος ( epískopos; the etymological source of bishop) for functionaries and officials exercising oversight in the community (Acts 20:28; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1–7; Tit 1:7–9). For the primitive church, it is therefore better ¶ to speak of episkopoi rathe…

Confessing Church

(2,616 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] I. Background – II. Establishment – III. Fundamental Difference: Two Types – IV. Schism in the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche; BK). “Bekennende Kirche” was the self-designation of those who, from 1934, appeared alongside and in opposition to the administrative bodies dominated by the Deutsche Christen (“German Christians”) at the levels of the Reich, the state, and the community, with their own forms of organization suited to the confession. Depending on the respective legal sit…


(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…


(3,747 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. History As it developed in the Early Church and the Middle Ages, the term synod (from Gk σύνοδος/ sýnodos, “assembly, being together on the way”) cannot be separated from the term council. Only in 19th- and 20th-century Protestantism is a separate treatment warranted; in that context – with roots going back to the 16th century – the synod represents a new constitutional phenomenon (Church polity: IV, 2; V, 1.c). Its antecedents include medieval diocesan synods (as extensions of the provincial syn…


(872 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] The Pneumatomachi, a group found primarily in Asia Minor, had a traditional binitarian doctrine of God, rejecting the divinity of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit). They were an outgrowth of the “middle way” that evolved after 358, made up of followers of Origen and Eusebius. Within this new group of Homoiousians, some opposed the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit in speaking of the divine essence. This accentuation of doctrinal differences with the Niceans, who were a disti…


(3,654 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Lindner, Herbert | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. New Testament Social structures that entrusted older individuals with functions on behalf of the community were widespread in the ancient Mediterranean world. In the memory of Israel, they were particularly important in the early history of the people (Num 11– 1 Sam 30:26ff.; 2 Sam 2:4; 12:17; Elders in the Old Testament). Their entrustment with local and regional judicial functions continued (reflected in Deut 19:12; cf. 11QT XLII 13f.) albeit often in diminished form. In the Ne…

Evangelical Church in Germany

(4,198 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Schloz, Rüdiger
[German Version] I. History, Constitution, and Structure – II. Works and Institutions (EKD; Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland) I. History, Constitution, and Structure To an increasing degree, the federalistically determined history of German Protestantism in the 20th century has been stamped by the growing responsibility of the general membership of the unified agency of the EKD and its predecessor institutions. 1. Founding, 1945–1948 Since the 19th century, from the Eisenach Conference of 1852 to the Union of German …


(26,944 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Williams, Rowan D. | Hauschild, Wolf Dieter | Flogaus, Reinhard | Gunton, Colin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Primitive Christianity – II. History of Doctrine – III. Dogmatics – IV. Forms of Extra-ecclesial Christology I. Primitive Christianity 1. History of research and preliminary questions a.  The term Christology, which originated in the early 17th century, was coined for systematic reflection concerning Jesus Christ. Initially, conceptions and Christologies dealing with the salvation history of the whole Bible beginning with the Old Testament were as highly valued as the New Testament (cf. e.g. G.F. Händel's Messiah). NT Christology went its own way…


(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology…


(5,842 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Banks, Robert J. | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Marquardt, Manfred | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Church Law – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. History of Religion In the following comments the term community will refer exclusively to a religiously motivated association of people. From the standpoint of the history of religion, the formation of communities is more the exception than the rule. The fact that associations such as tribes, as well, howe…


(1,120 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] The German term Reichskirche (“imperial church”), scarcely found in historical sources, denotes the post-Constantinian (Constantine the Great) synthesis of civil and ecclesiastical sovereignty in the “Roman Empire,” whose claim of universal dominion made it different from other states. Only in this sense does the term differ from analogous realities in other territories, called state churches, national churches, or regional churches.…

Lübeck, Bishopric

(857 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] Lübeck's origins go back to the German colonization and Christianization of Slavic Vagria/East Holstein under Henry the Lion, after the failed establishment of the bishopric of Oldenburg c. 972–983 and the destruction of the seat of the Slavic principality at Liubice (Old Lübeck). The German commercial town was founded in 1159 and the bishopric was moved there in 1160; a cathedral, several monasteries, and four parish churches were erected between 1163 and 1229. The small episcopa…

Confessing Synods,

(666 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] the supreme administrative organs of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche), which legitimized the creation of alternative church structures since the fall of 1934. In contrast to the national synods of the German Evangel…


(5,871 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Hjelm, Norman A.
1. Term The term “Lutheranism” may be used in a variety of ways: as describing the form of Christianity that developed from the 16th-century Reformation at Wittenberg and most particularly from the teachings of its leader, Martin Luther (1483–1546); as describing the theological and confessional tradition based on the documents of the Book of Concord; or as describing the self-understanding and/or the identity of church bodies throughout the world that claim agreement with Luther’s teaching. Luther himself, however, decried the use of his name: “I ask that [people] mak…

Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands (VELKD)

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Christoph, Joachim E.
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Die 1948 gegründete Institution (eine Bundeskirche mit heute acht Gliedkirchen) hat eine im 19.Jh. verankerte Vorgesch., deren Voraussetzung die konfessionelle Spaltung des dt. Protestantismus seit 1529–1648 war. Sie basiert auf dem Axiom, daß alle Kirchen, die sich an den luth. Bekenntnisschriften orientieren, gemäß CA 7 eine einheitliche Kirche bilden. Daraus resultiert auch die Gemeinschaft im Lutherischen Weltbund. 1. Wegen mangelnder Präzision der Begriffe »Bekenntnis« und »luth.« und wegen der Beharrungskraft des Landeskirchentums erwiesen sich schon im 19.Jh. die entsprechenden Einigungsbestrebungen als problematisch. Diese standen im Gegensatz zur preußischen Unionskirche (Unionen, kirchliche: I.) und zu nationalkirchl. bzw. gesamtev. Konzeptionen. Sie wurden nicht von Institutionen, sondern von Einzelpersonen getragen: z.B. die Konferenzen von Leipzig 1843 und Dresden 1852, die Leipziger Mission seit 18…


(774 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[English Version] . Die v.a. in Kleinasien verbreitete Gruppierung vertrat in der Gotteslehre einen traditionellen Binitarismus und lehnte die Gottheit des …


(902 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[English Version] Mit diesem in den Quellen kaum begegnenden Begriff wird die seit Konstantin entwickelte Synthese von staatl. und kirchl. Herrschaft im »Imperium Romanum« bez., dessen Anspruch auf Universalherrschaft den Unterschied zu anderen Staaten begründet. Nur insofern ist der Begriff R. abzuheben von analogen Realitäten in anderen Territorien, die als Staatskirchen, Nationalkirchen oder Landeskirchen bez. werden. I. Imperium Romanum Konstitutives Merkmal der röm. R. war die Bindung an das Amt des Kaisers, der Hoheitsrechte, aber nicht uneingeschränkte Herrschaft über die Kirche ausübte. Daß die kirchl. Metropolitanverfassung (Metropolit: I.) nach 313/324 verstärkt der staatl. Gliederung in Provinzen folgte und daß den Bischöfen der beiden Hauptstädte Rom und Konstantino…


(7,687 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich …


(3,126 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Der Begriff S. (von griech. συ´n̆οδος/sýnodos, »Zusammenkunft, zus. auf dem Weg sein«) kann bei der altkirchl. und ma. Entwicklung nicht vom Begriff Konzil getrennt werden. Nur im Blick auf den P…


(180 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[English Version] von Konstantinopel (geb. wohl in Tarsus, gest.397) wurde als Angehöriger der polit. Elite in Konstantinopel nach dem Rücktritt Gregors von Nazianz durch Theodosius I. zum Bischof der Hauptstadt bestimmt, obwohl er Laie und woh…
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