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(1,685 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] 1. Johann Hinricha a. Biography (Apr 21, 1808, Hamburg – Apr 7, 1881, Hamburg). Wichern was born to a family of moderate means but high achievement. His father began as a clerk in a notary’s office but rose to become a notary himself; unfortunately he met an early death in 1823, leaving his large family (seven children) in poverty. Johann, the eldest, had entered the renowned Hamburg Johanneum Gymnasium at the age of ten, but when his father died he had to withdraw without finishing hi…

Social State

(1,223 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Term and History The concept of the social state needs to be distinguished from that of the welfare state. The former emphasizes the responsibility and cooperation of all for socially just structures within a society; the latter tends to suggest a “nanny state” that guarantees social security (Security, Social) and is concerned primarily with the redistribution of social resources. The social state attaches great importance to subsidiarity, i.e. helping people to help themselves th…


(1,294 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Benad, Matthias
[German Version] 1. Friedrich von, the Elder (Mar 6, 1831, Tecklenburg – Apr 2, 1910, Bethel) was one of a small group belonging to the ancient Prussian aristocracy who turned to theology in the middle of the 19th century and came to exercise enormous influence, less through their official positions than through their personality and family contacts. Under the influence of …

Habermann, Hans Max

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1885, Altona – Oct 30, 1944, Gifhorn). The son of a mastertailor initially became a bookseller in his home city. By reading the journal Der Kunstwart [custodian of art], he came into contact with the German social movement and the Deutsch-Nationaler Handlungsgehilfenverband (DHV, German National Association of Commercial Clerks), for which he began working in 1907. As editor of the Deutsche Handelswacht [German business watch] beginning in 1911, he advocated the superiority of models of corporative self-governance over against a soci…

Voluntary Associations

(5,190 words)

Author(s): Häusler, Michael | Schäfer, Alfred | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Haering, Stephan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History 1. Terminology. The use of the term “association” to denote the formal union of persons and bodies has been common since the 19th century, especially through its application in the legal area. Associations were and are also called societies, unions, corporations, cooperatives, federations, groups, initiatives, movements etc. Modern unions are defined as the voluntary union of originally separate forces to achieve a common aim. By their structural features of free choice and a common aim, they are essentially different…

White Cross Association

(383 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] The White Cross is one of several independent associations founded in the second half of the 19th century within the spectrum of the religious denominations for the purpose of improving public morality. Inspired by the battle in England against the double morality of bourgeois society and the bordello system (J.E. Butler), especially against its “regulation” in restricted area, the Deutsch-evangelischer Verein zur Förderung der Sittlichkeit und der Rettungsarbeit was formed under …

Social Work

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Definition Since the early 20th century, social work has been defined as “organized assistance on the part of the state and municipalities, public corporations, and private organizations . . . provided to individuals, families, and groups to avert internal and external hardship and meet their essential needs” (Heyne, 917). Related concepts are relief and social welfare. The term Sozialarbeit was accepted only gradually in Germany, obviously influenced by the Anglo-American term social work and the notion of social work as a distinct profession. II. Organiz…


(95 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Wichern Association), founded in 1908 by Martin Hennig, for the purpose of reviving the Christian faith among the population alienated from the church, primarily by distributing ¶ Bibles in missionary work among the people. During the Weimar Republic, the association under Walter Birnbaum put special emphasis on combating free thought (Free thinkers). Banned under National Socialism and refounded after the war, the association was dissolved in 2000. Jochen-Christoph Kaiser Bibliography K. Janssen, RGG 3 VI, 1962, 1680f. F.W. Bautz, “Hennig, Martin,” BBKL II, …

Gerstenmaier, Eugen Karl Albrecht

(215 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1906, Kirchheim – Mar 13, 1986, Remagen). Gerstenmaier, the son of the manager of a piano factory in Württemberg, initially trained for a business career; after completing his Abitur, he began a second education in theology. The Christdeutsche Jugend of L. Cordier had a formative influence on him. After graduation as a student of F. Brunstäd in Rostock, Gerstenmaier went to Berlin, where he worked with T. Heckel in the church's foreign office. He became a member of the Confessing Church early on and j…


(4,137 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Kallis, Anastasios | Dan, Joseph | Schibilsky, Michael | Schmid, Heinz
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Denominations – III. Diakonia Today I. Church History 1. General In Protestantism the act of Christian love in the form of care for the poor (Poor, Care of the) has long played an important role. After decreasing in importance in the thought of theology and the church in the 18th century and also diminishing in its practical …


(1,551 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Establishment – II. History – III. Current Situation I. Establishment 1. Founders. The notion of caritas as social assistance to those in need deriving from a sense of Christian responsibility has existed as long as the church itself. However, the organizational unification of such efforts beyond the boundaries of the dioceses and without exclusive ties to the socio-charitable religious orders is a modern phenomenon, which did not emerge within Catholicism until…

Red Cross

(866 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. The International Red Cross Movement. Sympathy and concern for the victims of war first reached a substantial public in the Crimean War (1854–1856), when a report of the British nurse F. Nightingale (who had spent some time at Kaiserswerth, during her training) drew attention throughout Europe to conditions in the Crimea. Her report also made an impression on Henry Dunant (1828–1910), a businessman from an upper-class family in Geneva. At the end of June in the same year, he vis…


(372 words)

Author(s): Fix, Karl-Heinz | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] 1. Adolf von (Jan 6, 1796, Berlin – Nov 23, 1882, Batzwitz [today Baszewice, Poland]), estate owner. As a young officer in Berlin, Thadden-Trieglaff came into contact with the Romantic conservative Christlich-Deutsche Tischgesellschaft; in 1816 he came into contact with the Catholic revival movement in southern Germany (Revival/Revival movements: I, 7). To the displeasure of church and state authorities, he established a homegroup on his estate; in its influential successor, O. v. Bi…

Poor, Care of the

(5,426 words)

Author(s): Tworuschka, Udo | Ebach, Jürgen | Gager, John G. | Caplan, Kimmy | Nagel, Tilman | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies We can speak of care for the poor in the sense of public and private relief of poverty only when there has been a certain degree of institutionalization. Religions have treated poor relief with varying degrees emphasis. It is important to distinguish caregivers (including families, clans, congregations, orders, foundations, societies, and associations), the kind of help given (material, personal, structural), and the recipients (different levels of poverty). The Greeks and Romans felt no obligation to help the poor, or at most a g…

Youth and Welfare Service of the German Evangelical Church

(308 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] The Youth and Welfare Service was a creation of the Weimar Republic and its accelerated transformation of Germany into a social state. The “mixed economy of welfare” (Sachße & Tennstedt) involving both public and private providers of social services that developed in this setting required legislative regulations that were established by consensus in the early 1920s under the pressure of the postwar burdens. In the sphere of private welfare system, this meant primarily Caritas and …

Sickness and Healing

(3,297 words)

Author(s): Rütten, Thomas | Neu, Rainer | Ebner, Martin | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Wiesing, Urban | Et al.
[German Version] I. Medicine Sickness and healing are basic phenomena of human life and core concepts of any anthropology. Nevertheless defining them and the relationship between them still raises problems, not least because each is a collective term. There is debate within medicine over whether sickness and healing can be neutral categories, purely descriptive and empirical, with their meaning determined by the evolutionary function of the body and its organs. Other positions, mindful of historical…


(267 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] The town of Vandsburg in West Prussia, first mentioned in 1384, was Prussian until 1919, when it went to Poland as Więcbork. It was a center of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements) that began in the 1890s under the influence of the Anglo-American Holiness movement. The movement’s spiritual leaders were the pastors Carl Ferdinand Blazejewski (1862–1900) from Borken (East Prussia; today Borki Male) and Theophil Krawielitzki (1866–1942) from Vandsburg. As a result of a co…


(134 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] Based on Hutterite tradition (L. Hutter), but independently in connection with religio-social pacifist and communitarian ideas (Neuwerk [New Work Movement]), the Protestant theologian E. Arnold, founded the first German Bruderhof in Sannerz near Schlüchtern in 1920. It was moved in 1931 to Neuhof near Fulda and renamed Rhön-Bruderhof; it was then recognized by the Hutterites in the USA as Bruderhof. From 1933, approx. 150 people lived and worked there until the National Socialists dissolved the Bruderhof and its members emigrated to …


(1,117 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | de Wall, Heinrich | Hausmanninger, Thomas
[German Version] I. Social Science Subsidiarity is a principle that regulates the relationship between the state and non-state social agents. It presupposes personal responsibility on the part of individuals as well as limitation of public regulatory authority over them and the groups to which they belong. Human beings can exist only in social communities, into which they must be integrated. At the same time, their endowment with reason allows them to act on their own responsibility, and the communit…

Social History

(4,845 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Theory In its scientific exploration of the past, all historiography aims at a synthesis in the sense of a valid overview of what has gone before. At best, however, the quest can succeed only paradigmatically and typically, because any reconstruction of an histoire totale is doomed to failure. Nevertheless historiography cannot abandon the ven-¶ ture of viewing history (History/Concepts of history) as a whole, because otherwise the incalculable mass of detail would rule out any interpretation of historical processes. …

Inland Mission

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] I. Origins – II. The Concept – III. Wittenberg, the Central Committee and the Organization of Christian Charity – IV. Inland Mission, Church, and the Ermergence of the Social State – V. Third Reich, New Beginning, and Incorporation into the Diaconal Ministry I. Origins The end of the ancien régime also had consequences for the regional Protestant churches and the self-conception of its subdivisions at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century: the early bourgeois society encouraged the development of a “whole church” awarene…

Spiecker, Friedrich Albert

(282 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Feb 19, 1854, Boppard – Jul 10, 1937, Berlin), businessman. After an apprenticeship in Hachenburg (Westerwald), in 1872 he began language study in Antwerp and London. In 1879 he was appointed director of the Missions-Handels-Actien-Gesellschaft of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Barmen. In 1902 he was appointed to the executive board of Siemens in Berlin. Spiecker embodied the novel figure of the Protestant economic self-made men, who by virtue of personal competence and commun…

Free Thinker

(1,574 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] Free thought in organized form is a product of the 19th century, when the social and legal conditions for its appearance were first created. Of course there had been “free thinking” and concomitant criticism of religion and churches long before. The philosophical roots of organized atheism were developed primarily in the English and French Enlightenment. J. Toland may be considered the founder of this movement; his student A. Collins introduced the term into general use in 1713 in his Discourse of Free-Thinking. In France the term was associated primarily with…


(4,693 words)

Author(s): Häusler, Michael | Schäfer, Alfred | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Haering, Stephan | Et al.
[English Version] I. Historisch 1.Zum Begriff Der Begriff Verein (V.) als Bez. für den formalen Zusammenschluß von Personen und Körperschaften hat sich seit dem 19.Jh. v.a. aufgrund der Verwendung im rechtlichen Bereich durchgesetzt. Daneben wurden und werden V. auch als Assoziation, Gesellschaft, Vereinigung, Sozietät, Korporation, Genossenschaft, Bund, Verband, Gruppe, Initiative, Bewegung u.a.m. bez. Der neuzeitliche V. wird als freiwilliger Zusammenschluß urspr. getrennter Kräfte zur Verwirklichung eines gemeinsamen Zwecks definiert. Durch d…


(895 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] . I.Zum Begriff. Seit Beginn des 20.Jh. versteht man unter S. »die planvolle Hilfstätigkeit des Staates und der Gemeinden, öfftl. Körperschaften und freier Vereinigungen …, die einzelnen, Familien oder Gruppen zuteil wird, um innere und äußere Not zu verhüten und ihre lebenswichtigen Bedürfnisse zu befriedigen« (Heyne 917). Verwandte Begriffe sind »Fürsorge« und »Wohlfahrtspflege«. Der Terminus setzte sich in Deutschland erst allmählich durch, offenbar beeinflußt vom amer. »social work« und der damit verbundenen S. als eigenständigem Berufsfeld. II.Or…


(300 words)

Author(s): Fix, Karl-Heinz | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] 1.Adolf v. , (6.1.1796 Berlin – 23.11.1882 Batzwitz), Gutsbesitzer. Der junge Offizier Th.-T. kam in Berlin mit der romantisch-konservativen Christl.-Dt. Tischgesellschaft in Kontakt, 1816 mit der süddt.-kath. Erweckungsbewegung (: I.,7.). Auf seinem Gut Trieglaff etablierte Th.-T. zum Mißfallen staatl. und kirchl. Stellen einen Hauskreis, in dessen einflußreichem Nachfolger auch O.v. Bismarck seine Bekehrung erlebte. Norddt. erweckte Pfarrer kamen seit 1829 auf dem Gut zu Konfer…

Weißes Kreuz

(348 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] . Das W.K. gehört zu den Sittlichkeitsbestrebungen, die in der 2. Hälfte des 19.Jh. entstanden und innerhalb des konfessionellen Spektrums eigene Verbandsstrukturen ausbildeten. Ausgehend von dem aus England kommenden Kampf gegen die doppelte Moral der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft und das Bordellwesen (J.E. Butler), v.a. gegen dessen sog. Reglementierung in den Sperrbezirken, bildete sich der »Dt.-ev. Verein zur Förderung der Sittlichkeit und der Rettungsarbeit« unter Führung des Be…


(1,088 words)

Author(s): | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] I. Begriff und Geschichte Der Begriff S. läßt sich in Abgrenzung von jenem des Wohlfahrtsstaats definieren: Während ersterer die Verantwortung und Mitwirkung aller für sozial gerechte Strukturen einer Gesellschaft betont, neigt die Bedeutung des letzteren in der Tendenz zum »Fürsorgestaat«, der soziale Sicherheit garantiert und dabei primär die Umverteilung der gesellschaftlichen Ressourcen im Blick hat. Der S. setzt auf Subsidiarität, d.h. auf Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe durch staatl. Intervention; der Wo…


(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] Wichern, 1.Johann Hinrich (21.4.1808 Hamburg – 7.4.1881 ebd.) I. Biographisches W. entstammte einfachen, aber aufstiegsorientierten Verhältnissen: Sein Vater arbeitete anfangs in einem Notariatsbüro, brachte es dann selbst zum Notar, starb aber bereits 1823, was seine große Familie mit sieben Kindern in Not geraten ließ. W. war als Ältester mit zehn Jahren in das renommierte Hamburger Gymnasium »Johanneum« eingetreten, mußte es aber nach dem Tod des Vaters ohne Abschluß wieder verlasse…


(972 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Wall, Heinrich de | Hausmanninger, Thomas
[English Version] I. Sozialwissenschaftlich S. beinhaltet die Regelung des Verhältnisses von Staat und nicht-staatl. gesellschaftlichen Kräften. Sie setzt auf Selbstverantwortung des einzelnen und zugleich auf die Beschränkung des öfftl. Regulierungsanspruchs gegenüber diesem und den Gruppen, denen er angehört. Der Mensch kann nur in sozialen Gemeinschaften existieren, in die er sich einzuordnen hat. Seine Vernunftbegabung erlaubt ihm andererseits eigenverantwortliches Handeln, das die Gemeinschaft…


(239 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] . Die Stadt V. im südlichen Westpreußen, Kreis Flatow, erstmals 1384 erwähnt, war bis 1919 preußisch und wurde dann als Wiêcbork polnisch. V. galt als Zentrum der seit den 90er Jahren des 19.Jh. einsetzenden Erweckung, die bes. von der anglo-amer. Heiligungsbewegung beeinflußt war. Als geistl. Führer fungierten die Pfarrer Carl Ferdinand Blazejewski (1862–1900) aus Borken (Ostpreußen) und Theophil Krawielitzki (1866–1942) aus V. Ergebnis einer Danziger Gemeinschaftskonferenz (Gem…


(4,188 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff; Theorieprobleme Alle Geschichtsschreibung zielt in ihrer wiss. Erforschung der Vergangenheit auf Synthese im Sinne einer gültigen Gesamtschau des Gewesenen. Doch kann ihr dies höchstens paradigmatisch und idealtypisch gelingen, weil jede Rekonstruktion einer histoire totale zum Scheitern verurteilt ist. Gleichwohl darf Historiographie nicht auf das Wagnis verzichten, Geschichte als Ganzes in den Blick zu nehmen, weil ihr angesichts unüberschaubarer Details sonst jede…


(240 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] Spiecker, Friedrich Albert (19.2.1854 Boppard – 10.7.1937 Berlin), Kaufmann. Nach Lehre in Hachenburg (Westerwald) 1872 Sprachstudium in Antwerpen und London, 1879 Direktor der »Missions-Handels-Actien-Gesellschaft« der Rheinischen Missionsgesellschaft in Barmen, ab 1902 Vorstandsmitglied bei Siemens in Berlin. S. repräsentierte in seiner Person den neuartigen Typus eines ev. Wirtschaftsbürgers, der als Selfmademan aufgrund persönlicher Tüchtigkeit und kommunikativer Fähigkeiten um…

Rotes Kreuz

(718 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] . I.Internationale Rot Kreuz-Bewegung. Die mitfühlende Anteilnahme an den Opfern der Kriege erreichte im Krimkrieg (1854–1856) erstmals eine größere Öffentlichkeit, als ein Bericht der u.a. in Kaiserswerth ausgebildeten brit. Krankenschwester F. Nightingale über die dortigen Zustände europaweit Aufmerksamkeit erregte. Davon wurde auch der aus einer Genfer großbürgerlichen Familie stammende Kaufmann Henry Dunant (1828–1910) beeindruckt. Er besuchte Ende Juni des gleichen Jahres das …

Wichern-Vereinigung e.V

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[English Version] . 1908 von Martin Hennig gegründet mit dem Ziel, durch volksmissionarisch-evangelistische Schriftenverbreitung (Volksmission) den christl. Glauben in entkirchlichten Schichten wieder zu beleben. In der Weimarer Republik legte die W.-V. unter Walter Birnbaum einen bes. Akzent auf die Bekämpfung des Freidenkertums (Freidenker). Im Nationalsozialismus verboten und nach dem Krieg neu gegründet, wurde die W.-V. 2000 aufgelöst. Jochen-Christoph Kaiser Bibliography K. Janssen (RGG 3 6, 1962, 1680f.) F.W. Bautz, Art. Hennig, Martin (BBKL 2, 1990, 720f.) M. Wo…
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