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Judas Iscariot (the Disciple)

(692 words)

Author(s): Söding, Thomas
[German Version] I. Historical Considerations – II. Theological Considerations Judas was a disciple of Jesus (Disciples and Discipleship), one of the twelve (Twelve, The; Mark 3:10 parr.); according to the Synoptic passion narrative, he betrayed his master “with a kiss” (Luke 22:48; cf. Mark 14:45 par. Matt 26:49; a different account in John 18:2–12). Some have interpreted the epithet Iscariot as a reference to the association of Judas (like Simon Kananaios) with the Zealots (from Lat. sicarius, “dagger man”), others as a reference to his betrayal of Jesus (from Aram. saqqar, “the …

Love Feast (Agape)

(482 words)

Author(s): Söding, Thomas | Tripp, David H.
[German Version] I. Early Christianity – II. Modern Times I. Early Christianity The Agape or love feast is a liturgically structured congregational feast. The first use of the term ἀγάπη ( agápē, “love”) is found in Jude 12 and Ign. Smyrn. 8.2. The phenomenon is widely documented from as early as the 2nd century. Comparable to this are symposia, which are known also to Judaism, not least as a charitable institution ( T. Job 10.1–3). H. Lietzmann assumed that, besides the Eucharist, which derives from Jesus' Last Supper (I), there existed non-sacramental but liturgi…


(3,889 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Bosman, Hendrik | Söding, Thomas | Plathow, Michael | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichSicherheit gehört zu den Grundbedürfnissen des Menschen. Die Antworten, welche die Rel. auf verunsichernde Erfahrungen anbieten, sind kulturell vielfältig. Es geht dabei darum, das Schicksal (1.) möglichst vorherzusehen, es (2.) in eine Kosmologie einzuordnen und (3.) dadurch zu meistern. Generalisierend lassen sich vier Formen beobachten, mit denen Unvorhersehbares eingedämmt werden soll: 1.Naturereignissen ausgeliefert sein. Ohnmächtig fühlen sich Menschen einer bedrohlichen Schicksalsmacht ausgelie…


(4,529 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Bosman, Hendrik | Söding, Thomas | Plathow, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Certainty is a fundamental human need. The answers given by religions to unsettling experiences cover a broad cultural spectrum. The issue is (1) to foresee fate as much as possible, (2) to integrate it into a cosmology, and (3) thus to master it. In general terms, we can identify four ways of containing the unforeseeable. 1. Being at the mercy of natural events. When they are powerless, people feel at the mercy of a powerful, threatening fate. Archaic forms of religion and shamanistic experiences (Shamanism) document how t…