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Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Symeon

(715 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Συμεών; Symeṓn). [German version] [1] Monk and priest, 4th cent. AD Macarius the Egyptian (Μακάριος/ Makários). Born around the year AD 300, Macarius lived from c. AD 330 - c. 390 as a monk and priest in the Scetic desert (Egypt). The accounts of his life (Rufinus, Historia monachorum 21; Pall. Laus. 17) describe his immaculate ascetism and his miracles. The later hagiographic tradition has developed this into a vita. Except for a number of oral sayings ( Apophthegmata patrum) none of Macarius' pronouncements have been handed down; a letter attributed to him may well be a…

Constantinople

(2,525 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Constantinople's (C.) development as a city reached its zenith in the time of Justinian I (AD 527-565), though building activity continued until about 600. The deep political crisis which began in the Byzantine Empire after that had incisive results for C.: because of the Persian occupation of Egypt, grain deliveries ended in 618 and the aqueducts were destroyed in 626 during the siege by the Avars . The number of inhabitants, which was at …

Skylitzes, Iohannes

(351 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκυλίτζης/ Skylítzēs). Byzantine historian (second half of the 11th century AD), high court official in Constantinople, probably identical to a Iohannes Thracesius mentioned there in 1092 [6]. His so-called Synopsis Historiarum (Σύνοψις ἱστοριῶν/ Sýnopsis historiôn) appeared after 1070. It extends from 811 until 1057 and is conceived as a continuation of the Chronicle of Theophanes, whom in the foreword he singles out for praise in comparison with other historians (e.g. Psellos). Among his sources are e.g. 'Theop…

Strategikon

(260 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (στρατηγικόν; stratēgikón). A military manual, also called Taktikón, with accounts of military tactics, training and leadership, and weapon and siege technology. From the Early Byzantine Period we have the Stratēgiká of Urbicius (c. AD 500), the Naumachíai of Syrianus Magister (6th cent., on naval warfare), an anonymous treatise, and, most importantly, the so-called Strategikon of Mauricius. Attribution of the latter text to the emperor Mauricius (582-602) is uncertain, although it must date from before the 630s, as the wars against t…

Themata, naval

(114 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Themes of the Byzantine Empire, established from the early 8th cent. AD for the construction and maintenance of a fleet. The most significant of them comprised the whole Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor from Miletus to Cilicia. The capital was probably Attaleia [1], but the crews were predominantly from the mountainous hinterland in the western part of the theme, as is shown by the name 'Theme of the Cibyrrhaeoti', which can be traced to the city of Cibyra about 80 km from the sea in the Carian-Lycian border region. Theme Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography 1 H. Ahrwe…

Cyprus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Cyprus [3] The island was incorporated into Roman possessions in 58 BC and remained part of the province of Cilicia until 48/47 BC. It was returned to the Ptolemaic kingdom by Caesar and Antony, and came permanently into Roman possession from 30 BC. As a province in its own rights, it was initially administered by a legatus, then from 22 BC by the Senate through an annually appointed procurator; following Diocletian's reorganization of the provinces, it was placed under the administration of the consularis of the dioecesis Oriens in Antioch [1] . After the initial f…

Taktika

(326 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Military handbook Byzantine term for military handbook, cf. Taktika [2]; cf. also stratēgikón . Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] [2] Taktika of Leo Military handbook ( stratēgikón) in 20 books, written c. AD 905 by the emperor Leo [9] VI or at his command. It is to some extent based on earlier sources such as writings by Onasander [2] and the stratēgikón of Mauricius, but it also contains many contemporary passages, e.g. on the Arabs and Hungary. The work, which is preserved in two different versions, exer…

Nomos nautikos

(141 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (νόμος ναυτικός; nómos nautikós). Byzantine collection of legal rules concerning shipping, compiled in the 7th or 8th cent. AD and incorporated in the 9th cent. AD into the legal compilation of the ‘Basilica. Its traditional meaning of ‘Rhodian Sea Law’ derives from the subsequently added prologue asserting that the Roman emperors affirmed the ancient sea law of Rhodes. This statement, although mentioned in legal writings (e.g. Dig. 14,2), cannot be verified historically in any detai…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Zonaras

(424 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Ioannes (Ἰωάννης ὁ Ζωναρᾶς; Iōánnēs ho Zōnarâs). Byzantine historian and ecclesiastical jurist, head of the chancellery (Protasekretis) and high judge ( droungários tēs bíglēs) under the emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118). After Alexius' death Z. became a monk, he died after 1159 (?). One of Z.' main works is his chronicle (Ἐπιτομὴ ἱστοριῶν/ Epitomḕ historiôn), the division of which into 18 bks. is not due to the author. It extends from the creation of the world until the year 1118. Its sources are largely known. For Graeco-Roman…

Literature

(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…

Hymn

(4,505 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. The Greek hymnos [German version] A. Cult hymns Although Greek hýmnos (ὕμνος) in the early stage generally means ‘song’, with an epic song or Pindaric  epinikion being equally called ‘hymn’, the specification of the term as ‘song for a god’ is found at the latest in the 5th/4th cents. BC (Pl. Resp. 10,607a: ὕμνους θεοῖς καὶ ἐγκώμια τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς: ‘Hymns for gods and praise for outstanding people’; Pl. Leg. 700b 1-2: εὐχαὶ πρὸς θεούς, ὄνομα δὲ ὕμνοι ἐπεκαλοῦντο) [1]. Hymnos becomes the general term for ‘religious song’, to which belong forms of song allocated to individual…

Procopius

(2,667 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Προκόπιος/ Prokópios). [German version] [1] Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper in AD 365-366. He was born in 326 in Corycus (Them. Or. 7,86c; cf. Amm. Marc. 26,9,11) and was a relative of the emperor Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 23,3,2). In 358 he was a delegate to Persia with the rank of a tribunus (Amm. Marc. 17,14,3), later he held a high position at the schola notariorum (Amm. Marc. 26,6,1). During Julian’s Persian campaign, he commanded a division as a comes (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5). After Julian's death (363) he retired to private life (Zos.…

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Michael

(1,757 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
(Μιχαήλ/ Michaḗl; Mîkāēl). [German version] [1] Archangel Archangel, [1] One of the most prominent angels (cf. the description archistratēgós, ‘supreme commander’ of the heavenly host, Joseph of Aseneth 14,8, cf. Slavonic Hen 22,5; 33,10), one of the seven (Ethiopic Hen 20,5) or four (Ethiopic Hen 9,1; 10,11) archangels (cf. [1]). The name means ‘who is like God’ or ‘who is victorious like God’. M., who was first mentioned in the ‘Book of Watchers (Ethiopic Hen 1-36, end of the 4th/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC)…

Nonnosus

(148 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Author of a lost Greek report on the travels of a legation to the ruler of Kinda in central Arabia and then to Ethiopia and southern Arabia in the year AD 530/1, the existence of which is known only from the  ‘Library of Photius (cod. 3). Similar journeys had been undertaken by 502 by N.'s grandfather Euphrasius, and several in 524 and later by his father Abram. According to Photius, the report emphasised the courage of N. in hazardous situations and contained information on the r…

Sclavinia

(283 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκλαβηνία/ Sklabēnía, Latin Sclavinia). A term, common since the 6th cent. AD in Greek and Latin, derived from the demonym Σκλαβηνοί/ Sklabēnoí or Sclavi (Slavs) and used to describe communities formed of Slav tribes inside and outside formerly Roman territories in the Balkan peninsula, Carinthia, Pannonia and Transsylvania. They were for the most part organised in warlike tribal associations without fixed territorial borders and also included members of non-Slavonic peoples; some were autonomous, othe…

Thessalonica

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Θεσσαλονίκη/ Thessaloníkē). [German version] [1] City in Thessalia This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Latin Thessalonica, -nice; today also T.) Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. Location, Classical Period City on the Thermaic Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) with a favourable natural harbour and best connections with the hin…

Romania

(128 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Colloquial Latin term for the Roman Empire, documented from the 4th cent. AD, in Greek (Ῥωμανία/ Rhōmanía) from the 6th cent. AD. In the western Middle Ages, the term refers merely to the area of the former Exarchate of Ravenna, present-day Romagna. In the east, the term continued to be reused in vernacular texts to refer to the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) and was transferred from there, in the 11th cent., to the Sultanate of the Seljuq Turks of 'Rūm' in Asia Minor and in the 13th cent. to the so-called Latin Empire of the Crusaders in Constantinople and Greece. Berger, Albrec…
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