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Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Tlepolemus

(811 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Τληπόλεμος/ Tlēpólemos, Doric Τλαπόλεμος/ Tlāpólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Astyochia Son of Heracles [1] and Astyochia. After the Heraclidae retreated from the Peloponnese, T. settled in Argos along with Licymnius [1] and killed him there in the midst of an argument (Diod. 4,58,5-8; in Tiryns: Pind. Ol. 7,20-38; unintentionally: Zenon of Rhodos FGrH 523 F 1). As a result, T. fled to Rhodos, where he followed the Doric tradition and "settled three times according to phyle " (Hom. Il. 2,668), that is, he created a new political fo…

Onomacritus

(377 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀνομάκριτος/ Onomákritos) from Athens, second half of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC, oracle interpreter and supervisor of the oracle of Musaeus [1] ( chrēsmológos te kai diathétēs chrēsmṓn) closely connected with the Peisistratids, whose interests he did not always serve. When Lasus [1] of Hermione convicted him for adding an oracle to those of Musaeus, he was banished by Hipparchus [1]. Yet he accompanied the Peisistratids after their downfall to Xerxes in order to induce him, by means of a deliberate choice of oracles, to march against Greece (Hdt. 7,6). Sour…

Maenads

(945 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μαινάς/ Mainás, pl. Μαινάδες/ Mainádes; Lat. Maenas, pl. Maenades). In modern research both the mythical companions (and antagonists) of Dionysus and their historical admirers are mostly called Maenads. But in Greek cult terminology the women who honour the god with a dance ritual every three years are especially called Bákchai (singular Bákchē, Lat. Bacchae), while the substantivized adjective Mainás (‘the mad one’, from maínesthai: ‘to be mad’), apart from four Hellenistic inscriptions with poetic tendencies [7. 52 with note 83], appears t…

Purification

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig)
[German version] A. Introduction The cleansing of defilement or impurity (Greek kátharsis, katharmós) can be understood as a strategy for overcoming calamity [5. 149-155]. Purification in this sense was introduced to Greek civilization through contact with the Ancient Orient [6. 55-64]. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) B. Religious [German version] 1. Ancient Orient and Egypt Although the ancient oriental civilizations had certain widespread features in common, there were differences in which forms of impurity were regarded as particularly significant and how they were removed. In …

Heliadae

(156 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἡλιάδαι; Hēliádai). The sons of  Helios and Rhodos (Rhode: Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 137; schol. Hom. Od. 17,208 confused with Clymene, mother of Heliades [1]): Ochimus, Cercaphus, Actis, Macar(us) (Macareus), Candalus, Triopas and Phaethon (= Tenages: Pind. Ol. 7,71-73; cf. schol. 131a-c, 132a). According to a Rhodian local myth in Pind. Ol. 7,34-55 [2. 2849] Helios advised the H. to be the first to sacrifice to Athena after her birth. In their haste, however, they forgot the fire for …

Historis

(73 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἱστορίς; Historís). Daughter of the seer  Teiresias (hence the probable derivation from *ιδ-, ‘to see, to know’). In the context of Theban statues of Pharmacides (= Moirai), Paus. 9,11,3 tells us that H. was able to outwit them like  Galinthias in Nicander. The epithet of Juno Historia (CIL XI 3573) can probably be traced back to H. [1]. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography 1 M. Renard, Iuno Historia, in: Latomus 12, 1953, 137-154.

Mythography

(3,249 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(μυθογραφία; mythographía). [German version] I. Introduction Mythography is a commonly used term for ancient and post-antique literature that presents, collects and also interprets myths (and is therefore applied also to indigenous recording of comparable narrative traditions in other cultures or to ethnographic transcriptions of them). The term mythography, however, has to remain imprecise, if only because of the implicit problem in finding a definition for myth, especially in relation to its differe…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Horae

(685 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὧραι; Hôrai). Divine beings governing cycles of time. Initially, there were three; later usually four (one Hora as goddess of youthful beauty: Pind. Nem. 8,1; series recapitulating 9 or 10 names: Hyg. Fab. 183), probably in connection with distinguishing a fourth season of the year (Alcm. fr. 12 Calame; Hippoc. De aere aquis et locis 1. 10; Aristot. Gen. an. 784a 19). The appellative and the personification are at times barely distinguishable (e.g., Hom. Il. 21,450; Od. 10,469). Like other grouped divinities, the H. often appear as attendants of Olympian …

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Phaethon

(435 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Φαέθων/ Phaéthōn, 'the shining one', participle of the Greek phaínein). [German version] [1] Epithet of the sun god Helius Epithet of the sun god Helis (first in Hom. Od. 11,16, aside from the descriptive epithet already in Hom. Il. 11,735), which can also be used on its own to describe him in Roman (since Verg. Aen. 5,105) and Greek poetry of the Imperial period (Anth. Pal. 9,137,3; Nonnus, Dion., esp. 38,151f.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eos and Kephalos Son of Eos and Cephalus [1], who is kidnapped by Aphrodite and turned into a temple servant (…

Mise

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μίση/ Mísē, also Μισατίς/ Misatís). Deity associated with Mḗtēr/Cybele (Hsch. s.v. Μ.). According to Orph. H. 42, M. was bisexual and was worshipped in Eleusis, Phrygia, Cyprus (besides Aphrodite), and Egypt (besides Isis). Inscriptions record her cult in Pergamon (Demeter sanctuary, 2nd century AD) and the surrounding region (Samurlu). Her identification with Kore (Persephone), as attested in the Samurlu inscription (cf. Eur. Hel. 1301-1368; schol. Aristoph. Plut. 431), probably lies behind the non-localised festival of her descent ( káthodos, hence proba…

Galli

(339 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γάλλοι/ Gálloi). ‘Servants’, ‘attendants’ and ‘worshippers’ of the  Mater Magna [1] chiefly in late Republican and Imperial Rome, described consistently as ‘priests’ only in Christian contexts. They first arose, along with the  Metragyrtae, in Asia Minor, late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 21,6,6 and 21,37,5, 190 and 189 BC; as literary figures: Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 6,220). The derivation of the name from Gauls or Galatians is now favoured by [4. 229; 3; 2. 118-120]; only from t…

Pentheus

(461 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Πενθεύς/ Pentheús; in Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 31 Τενθεύς/ Tentheús). Son of the spartós Echion [1] and Agaue, cousin of Actaeon and Dionysus and the latter's opponent. The earliest surviving complete presentation of the myth is the complex and controversial Bákchai by Euripides [1] (see [7]; cf. also Theocr. 26; Ov. Met. 3,511-731: [2]; Nonn. Dion. 44 and 46). In this play, P. is the young ruler of Thebes who wants to suppress the new cult of Dionysus, into which the god forces the sisters of Semele, because they challenge …

Lotis

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] Character in two short stories by Ovid (sources unknown): 1) Ov. Met. 9,347-348: L. is turned into the Lotus (Serv. Georg. 2,84: faba Syriaca) when she flees from an attempted rape by Priapus (motif parallels: e.g. Daphne, Ov. Met. 1,452-567; Syrinx, Ov. Met. 1,689-712); 2) Ov. Fast. 1,393-440: L. is warned by the donkey of Silenus and escapes from Priapus without metamorphosis (double in Ov. Fast. 6,319-348: Vesta instead of L.). In contrast to the question of priority that can barely be decided, nowadays Ovid's art of variation is rightly emphasized. Heinze, Theodor (…

Henioche

(179 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἡνιόχη/ Hēnióchē, ‘Holder of the reins’). [German version] [1] Eptihet of Hera Epithet of Hera in Boeotian Lebadea, where sacrifices were made to, e.g. , Zeus Basileus, Demeter and H. before consulting the Trophonius-oracle (Paus. 9,39,5); Hera is also a chariot driver in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 8,392). Willi, Andreas (Basle) Bibliography Schachter 1, 240f. [German version] [2] Wife of Creon According to Ps.-Hes. Sc. 83, the wife of  Creon (Soph. Ant. 1180: Eurydice, cf. schol.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [3] Daughter of Creon Daughter of Creon (Paus. 9,10,3). Heinze, Th…

Cydippe

(316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Κυδίππη; Kydíppē, Latin Cydippe). [German version] [1] Wife of Acontius According to Xenomedes (FGrH 442 T 2; F 1), Callimachus (fr. 67-75) tells how Acontius elicits from C., through an inscription on an apple (a quince: Aristaen. 1,10,26; on the apple-throwing motif: [1]), the vow that she will marry him. Attempts by the father Ceyx that came to nothing to marry C. to someone else lead to the Delphic oracle recommending Acontius as the son-in-law. Through the union the house of Acontiades is founded in…

Christos Paschon

(528 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Χριστὸς Πάσχων; Christòs Páschōn; Lat. Christus Patiens). Christian drama on the story of the Passion, in the form of a  cento. Abbreviated to Ch. P. by A. Bladus (Ed. princeps, Rome 1542); a play of 2,632 lines, in the majority of MSS (mid 13th to beginning 16th cents.) entitled: ‘From the hand of our holy father Gregory the theologian, a dramatic presentation (  Hypóthesis ) after Euripides, comprising the incarnation for our sakes of our Saviour Jesus Christ and his world-redeeming passion’. The paraphrase, offering mo…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…
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