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Lelantion pedion

(90 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέλαντον, Ληλάντιον or Ληλάντου πεδίον; Lélanton, Lēlántion or Lēlántou pedíon). Fertile plain between Chalcis and Eretria, the possession of which was the object of the ‘Lelantine War’ at the beginning of the 7th cent. BC between these two cities and their allies. Str. 1,3,16; 10,1,9; 3,6; 10,3,6; H. Hom. 2,220; Callim. H. 4,289; Plut. Mor. 153f; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; 8,10,4; Ael. VH 6,1; SEG XIII, 178; 312. In the Middle Ages the Lelantion pedion was still called Lilanto. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Cius, [1]

(178 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Dörner, Friedrich Karl (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Colonization | Pergamum (Κίος; Kíos). Port town in the eastern part of the Gulf of  Propontis (which is named after it) on the river of the same name, modern Gemlik. C. was the starting-point of the roads to  Nicaea and  Prusa. According to Apoll. Rhod. 4,1470, a foundation of the Argonauts ( Argonautae, map), coins show Hercules as the founder of the city (HN 512-514); according to Plin. HN 5,144 founded by Milesians. C. participated in …

Artemisium

(188 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemísion). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of Euboia facing Magnesia A. was probably the ancient name for the entire coastal strip of  Euboea facing the  Magnesia peninsula (Plin. HN 4,64). Close to the modern village of Artemision, above the bay of Pevki, are the remains of a small temple of Artemis ‘facing towards the east’ (Proseoa), which as an amphictyonic sanctuary also formed the cultural centre of the region around  Histiaea. The famous bronze statue of Poseidon (nowadays in the N…

Calaurea

(207 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καλαύρεια; Kalaúreia). Island in the south of the Saronic Gulf off the coast of the Argive Acte (21 km2, up to a height of 283 m), modern Poros. Grave finds have verified that the island was already inhabited in Mycenaean times [1. 297ff.]. The ancient town with its famous  Poseidon sanctuary (right of asylum) -- partially extant and excavated -- was situated in the interior of the island. The earliest finds from the sanctuary date back to the geometric period; the temple was built at the end of …

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Carystus

(487 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κάρυστος; Kárystos, Lat. Carystus). [German version] [1] Town in Euboia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) Town on the coastal plain on the gulf of the same name in the south-east of  Euboea, also called Karystos today; it lies about 3 km inland between the acropolis and the harbour, and was known as a foundation of the Dryopes, who in the course of the  Doric migration had to leave their homela…

Cimolos

(180 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κίμωλος; Kímolōs). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2) north-east of Melos, mountainous (Palaiokastro 398 m), composed of the same volcanic tuff as Melos. ‘Cimolian earth’ (cimolite), a grease-dissolving soapy clay, was used for washing and for the production of porcelain. Another Cimolian export article were figs. The ancient town was situated in the south-west near the modern Hellenika. Some graves in the necropolis even date back to pre-Mycenaean times; finds range from the 2nd millenni…

Melite

(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…

Icarus

(654 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Ἴκαρος; Íkaros). [German version] [1] Son of Daedalus Son of  Daedalus [1]. Held captive on Crete by  Minos, Daedalus builds a pair of wings each for himself and I., which they use to escape Minos. However, I., despite the warnings of his father, comes too close to the sun; this melts the wax in his wings, he crashes near the island of  Icarus [2]/Icaria and drowns. Daedalus (or Hercules, Apollod. 2,132) buries him; the island and the sea around it are named after I. The well-known version of the story is formulated in Ov. Met. 8,183-235 (cf. Apollod. Epitome 1,12f.); a Pompei…

Budorum

(80 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Βούδορον; Boúdoron). Settlement on  Salamis, important Athenian base during the Peloponnesian War. In 429 BC,  Cnemus laid siege to the fortress to no avail. From his base in B.,  Nicias captured the Megarian fortress of Minoa and Nisaea in 427 BC. Remains of walls were found south-west of the monastery of Phaneromeni (founded in 1661). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography P. W. Haider, s.v. Salamis, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 596.

Gyarus

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γύαρος; Gýaros). Island 17 km2 in size, uninhabited today (micaceous slate) of the north-western Cyclades, modern Jura or Gioura. On the eastern side there are traces of old terrace cultures, and close to a spring and an old mole are the remains of the ancient town of G. that minted its own copper coins in the 3rd cent. BC; at the time of Strabo G. was still only a poor fishing village, in the Imperial period it was a feared place of exile (Tac. Ann. 3,68; 4,30; Plut. Mor. 602c.; Ju…

Coela

(66 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κοῖλα; Koîla). The south-east coast of  Euboea (Hdt. 8,13f.; Dion. Chrys. 7,2; 7; Eur. Tro. 84; 90; Ptol. 3,15,25) that was feared because of its storms. In Str. 10,1,2; Val. Max. 1,8,10; Liv. 31,47,1; Oros. 6,15,11, C. is the southern part of the straits of Euboea up to Euripos. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 7ff.

Minoa

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in:…

Histiaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἱστίαια; Histíaia). City on the north coast of Euboea, still not identified, probably to be found near Xirochori, a settlement of Thessalian Hellopii and Perrhaebi. The territory of H. originally covered the entire north of Euboea (Dem. Or. 23,213) and was known for its wine (Hom. Il. 2,537). The temple of Artemis Proseoa in Artemisium was its main sanctuary. After the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, the Persians occupied and plunde…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Aegila

(153 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγιλία, Αἰγιαλία; Aigilía, Aigialía). Island in the southern  Aegean Sea; Plin. HN 4,57; Plut. Cleom. 31), with an area of 22 km2. In Byzantine times called Antikythera, under Venetian rule Cerigotto. The seemingly sole ancient settlement was located near Palaiokastro in the north-east of the island. To the north of A., an ancient shipwreck was discovered in AD 1900, where the ‘Youth of A.’ and other bronze and marble statues have been found (nowadays at the National Museum in Athens). Amongst the f…

Cynthus

(35 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύνθος; Kýnthos, Latin Cynthus). Name of a mountain 113 m high on  Delos with a sanctuary to Zeus (Cynthius) and Athena (Cynthia). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography G. Gruben, Die Tempel der Griechen, 41986, 146f.

Canethus

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάνηθος; Kánēthos). Hill on the mainland, which at the time of Alexander the Great was integrated into the fortifications of the town of Chalcis, modern Kara Baba; the site had previously served as a necropolis. Documentary evidence: Str. 9,2,8; 10,1,8; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,77. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 409, 602.

Marmarium

(74 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Μαρμάριον/ Marmárion). Harbour on the SW coast of Euboea, which probably had the purpose of handling the marble from the quarries of Carystus [1]; today's Marmara where, near the chapel of St. Nikolaos, the building elements of a sanctuary of Apollo Marmarios are located. References: Str. 10,1,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. M.; Nonn. Dion. 13,164; Eust. Ilia 281,4. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1, 1903, 106.

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…
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