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(502 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Ἐπιφάνεια; Epipháneia). [German version] [1] City in Cilicia Pedias City in Cilicia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. E., 274 Meineke), previously Oeniandus (Plin. HN 5,93), renamed E. after  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes. Road station (Geogr. Rav. 2,16,93; [2. 766]). In AD 260, E. was captured by Šapur I [1. 312f.]. After the restructuring of the province in AD 408, E. was seen as one of the cities of Cilicia II (Hierocles, 705,5). Its ruins (well preserved theatre and aqueduct) are c. 8 km west of Erzin in Gözene/Gözcucler Harabeleri. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. …


(361 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem)
[German version] (Hebrew Bible: ‘orchard, tree grove’; Arabic Ǧabal Carmel or Ǧabal Mār Ilyās; Greek Κάρμηλος; Vulgate: Carmelus; crusader: Mons Carmel). Limestone and chalk mountains in northern Palestine, 5-8 km wide, 23 km long and up to 552 metres high. According to Biblical tradition the Carmel was situated south of the Asher tribe (Jos. 19,26). The Hebrew Bible praises the beauty of the mountain range (HL 7,6; Is. 33,9; 35,2; Jer. 46,18; 50,19; Am 1,2; 9,3; Nah 1,4). In Egyptian sources of the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC, Carme…