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Machon

(186 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάχων; Máchōn) from Sicyon or Corinth; lived at the time of Apollodorus [5] of Carystus (3rd cent. BC) [1. test. 1] and was active as a writer in Alexandria, also the place of his death. M. wrote Χρεῖαι ( Chreîai, ‘Anecdotes’) in iambic trimeter (of which a total of about 470 are extant in Ath. Deipnosophistaí XIII) about hetaerae, parasites and poets (Diphilus, Euripides, Philoxenus), as well as important political figures (Ptolemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes); the material, in which sex plays a certain role, comes from anecdotal prose w…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Deinolochus

(122 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δεινολόχος; Deinolóchos). Writer of Doric Comedy, in our sources dated to the 73rd Olympiad (488-485 BC) and attested as the son or pupil [1. Test. 1], but also the rival [1. Test. 2], of  Epicharmus. He is supposed to have written 14 plays; thanks to a papyrus [2. no. 78] the sum of known titles by him has now grown to 12, of which ten suggest a mythical theme. Scarcely anything more can be said about the content and structure of these plays (except that they were probably comparable with those of Epicharmus). A single fragment of verse survives. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Gö…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the Laios of Aeschylus), became infatuated with the extraordinarily beautiful youth and abducted him either from his father's house or the Nemean games …

Paramonus

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Παράμονος; Parámonos). Attic comic writer who won third place at the Dionysia of 183 BC, sixth place at those held in 169 and who was posthumously awarded first place at the Dionysia of 167 [1. test. 1-3]. Only two titles of plays, Ναυαγός (Nauagós; 'the Shipwrecked') and Χορηγῶν ('The Sponsor), are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 101.

Euphronius

(649 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Εὐφρόνιος; Euphrónios). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Writer of Old Comedy who in 458 BC won the Great  Dionysia [1. test. 1. 2]. Neither titles nor fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 293. [German version] [2] Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period, c. 520-500 BC Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period who is considered like  Phintias and  Euthymides to belong to the group of ‘pioneers’ who helped red-figure vase painting achieve its breakthrough. E. wor…

Pyrrhen

(32 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πυρρήν; Pyrrhḗn). 4th century BC Attic comic poet, who was victorious at the Lenaea on one occasion; nothing else is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583.

Anaxandrides

(395 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξανδρίδης; Anaxandrídēs). An Attic writer of comedies from Rhodes or [1. test. 1] Colophon (apparently he also produced dithyrambs [1. test. 2]), of whom, thanks to IGUR 218 [1. test. 5], more exact dates are known than of any other of his rivals: from this inscription it is clear that A. was an active theatre poet at least between 376 and 349 BC and also in the years in-between frequently performed; even earlier was the Protesilaus, which reflects the great wedding of the Athenian general Iphicrates to a Thracian princess (an event of the early 380s…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Diverbium

(111 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] With few exceptions [2.220] all scenes in the manuscripts of Plautus’ plays that are written in iambic senarii bear the direction diverbium (cf. Donat. II p. 5 W.), marking those sections of the play to be performed without musical accompaniment (cf. Plautus Stichus 758-768: the metre changes to the iambic senarius during a pause by the flautist). The oldest testimony (Liv. 7,2,10) confirms this. In late antiquity the grammarian Diomedes (1,491,22-24) was alone in taking diverbium in its literal Greek sense of ‘dialogue’ (and  canticum as ‘monologue’ [2. 220]). Nesse…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Eteagoras

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐτεαγόρας; Eteagóras). Writer of comedy in the 3rd cent. BC; one comedy is epigraphically attested to have won the Lenaea. Neither the titles nor fragments of his plays have survived. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG V, 183.

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Evangelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγγελος; Euángelos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (uncertain), of whose Ἀνακαλυπτομένη ( Anakalyptoménē) a fragment in trochaic tetrameters has survived: the master of the house and a cook make preparations for a wedding. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 184f.

Euthycles

(28 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθυκλῆς; Euthyklês). Poet of the late Old Comedy (?). Two titles of plays and two fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 541f.

Lysippus

(811 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λύσιππος; Lýsippos). [German version] [1] Writer of the Old Comedy, c. 400 BC Poet of the Old Comedy who perhaps as early as the 430s BC won at the Dionysia [1. test. *2] and about whom further victories are attested in 409 and later [1. test. 3]. Only three titles of plays are extant; fragments (apart from three without a title) are only attributed to the ‘Bacchae’ (Βάκχαι): In fragment 1 a man by the name of Hermon (who had been thrown into a well by his father) talks to his brother. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor…

Myllus

(120 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Said to be an early Attic writer of comedies (neither names of plays nor fragments have been preserved), considered variously a contemporary of Euetes [2] and Euxenides in the time of Epicharmus [1. test. 1], or of Susarion and Magnes [3] [1. test. 2]; elsewhere an actor M. is mentioned who supposedly used masks dyed with minium [1. test. 5]. Perhaps M. owes his existence only to a verse by Cratinus [1] (fr. 96 K.-A.) that seems to concern a comic figure (comparable to Maison?) wh…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Eudoxus

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Εὔδοξος; Eúdoxos). [German version] [1] of Cnidus Ancient mathematician and astronomer One of the most important ancient mathematicians and astronomers, he was presumably born in 391/390 BC (on the problem of dating see [7. 137-139]). He studied mathematics with  Archytas [1] and medicine with  Philistion. At the age of 23 he went to Athens and it is said that, among other things, he attended lectures there with  Plato. At the expense of his Cnidian friends, presumably in 365/4 [11], E. went with a letter…
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