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Bitia

(78 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Von Ptol. 3,3,3 unter dem Namen Biqia erwähnte, im 7.Jh. v.Chr. gegründete phöniz. Niederlassung an der Südküste Sardiniens mit Akropolis und Hafen. Neben der am Meer gelegenen Nekropole mit Brandgräbern des 7./6.Jh. und Körpergräbern des 6.-2.Jh. v.Chr. Reste eines Heiligtums mit Tempel, vielleicht des Ešmun. Aus einem Votivdepot stammen viele Terrakotten eines von Ibiza und Karthago bekannten Typs. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. B., 73f.  M.L. Uberti, Le figurine fittili di Bithia, 1973.

Mogador

(118 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Größte Insel (40 ha) eines der Atlantikküste Süd-Marokkos vorgelagerten kleinen Archipels gegenüber der Hafenstadt Essaouira (urspr. auch eine Insel), die verm. identisch ist mit den insulae purpurariae (Plin. nat. 6,201; 203), auf denen Iuba [2] II. Färbereien einrichtete. Phönizier gründeten hier ausweislich der gefundenen Keramik (z.T. mit phöniz. Graffiti!) im 7. Jh. eine Faktorei, die bis zum Ende des 6. Jh.v.Chr. bestand. Afrika (mit Karte) Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Lipiński, s.v. M., DCPP, 296  M.G. Amadasi Guzzo, Notes sur…

Byrsa

(83 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Üblicher Name (lat., griech. bursa, “Rindshaut”) für die Akropolis von Karthago, angeblich in Erinnerung an Didos legendären Landkauf (‘soviel eine Rindhaut decken kann) für die Gründung der Stadt, oder ältester ON (Serv. Aen. 1,70: Carthago ante B., post Tyros dicta est), unter Mißverständnis eines phöniz. Toponyms bir-ša (“Schafsbrunnen”). Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Lipiński, B., in: Actes du IVe colloque international sur l'histoire et archéologie de l'Afrique du Nord. Strassbourg 1988, 1990, 123-130.  Ders., in: DCPP, s.v. B., 83f.

Hiram I.

(187 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] König von Tyros (ca. 962-929 v.Chr.), der Name abgekürzt von phönik. Aḥīram (“mein Bruder ist erhaben”), bekannt v.a. durch die gemeinsam mit König Salomon von Jerusalem als “joint ventures” ausgesandten Handelsexpeditionen nach Ophir (Indien? Ostafrika? 1 Kg 9,26-28) und Taršiš (im Westen der Iberischen Halbinsel, Tartessos; 1 Kg 10,22, vgl. Ez 27,12) [1. 251]. Nach glaubwürdigen, u.a. bei Iosephos (c. Ap. 1,109-121) erh. Nachrichten war er in Tyros als Städtebauer tätig und errichtete u.a…

Morro de Mezquitilla

(113 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Auf einer Anhöhe über der Mündung des Río Algarrobo 6 km östl. von Vélez-Málaga (Südspanien) gelegene phöniz. Niederlassung, im frühen 8. Jh.v.Chr. an der Stelle einer kupferzeitl. Siedlung gegründet. Die zugehörigen Nekropolen lagen wohl z.T. auf der anderen (westl.) Seite des Flusses, wo ein architekturgeschichtlich bedeutendes Kammergrab des 7. Jh.v.Chr. erh. ist und weitere nachgewiesen sind (Trayamar). Nekropolen Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography H.G. Niemeyer, H. Schubart, Trayamar. Die phöniz. Kammergräber und die Niederlass…

Cap Bon

(138 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Die den Golf von Tunis nach Osten abschließende Halbinsel, weithin von fruchtbarem Gartenland bedeckt (Diod. 10,8,3-4; Pol. 1,29,7), war wohl bereits im 5.Jh. v.Chr. Teil der karthag. Chora und von Küstenfestungen (Aspis/Clupea, h. Kélibia, Ras ed-Drek [Hermaia? Strab. 17,3,16], Ras el-Fortass) geschützt. Die fast völlig ausgegrabene pun. Kleinstadt Kerkouane an der Ostküste ist beispielhaft für die Prosperität des C.B. unter karthag. Herrschaft. Hierfür waren auch die Steinbrüche bei El Haouaria im Norden von Bedeutung. Die Halbinsel, Schauplatz …

Ebusos

(150 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] (Ἔβουσος). Die größere Insel der beiden Pityussai (“Fichteninseln”) Ibiza und Formentera wurde nach den arch. Funden um die Mitte des 7. Jh.v.Chr. zunächst durch phönizische Kolonisten aus der Meerenge von Gibraltar unter dem Namen ybšm besiedelt. Die von Diod. 5,16,1-3 überlieferte Gründung durch Karthago meint offenbar einen etwa 100 J. späteren Expansionsakt der nordafrikanischen Metropole. Dank der herausragenden Lage wurde die Stadt E. ein bedeutender punischer Umschlagplatz mit Akropolis, Hafenquartieren (…

Toscanos

(333 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē?; Lat. M(a)enaca, Maenoba?). Modern name of a Phoenician settlement to the west of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain) at the mouth of the Río de Vélez, with a protected harbour; a pass leads into the highlands and the mining regions around Jaén. Excavations (1964-1986) discovered a trading post founded c. 730 BC by the Phoenicians. The settlement, which flourished in the 7th cent., extended to the Cerro del Peñón (94 m) to the west, where at a moderate elevat…

Tas Silġ

(128 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Large rural sanctuary to Juno/Astarte on the Gulf of Marsaxlokk in the southeast of Malta (Melite [7]), originally dedicated to the mother goddess of the indigenous megalith culture of the Copper Age (3rd millennium BC), from no later than the 8th/7th cent. the site of a Phoenician cult of štrt/ Astarte, who is named in inscriptions on votive gifts. Plundered by Verres during his period in office as propraetor of Sicily (Cic. Verr. 2,4,103 f.: fanum Iunonis), it was extended in the Roman period, then abandoned in the 2nd cent. AD. An early mediaeval m…

Grotta Regina

(63 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A cult cave on the north-eastern slope of Monte Gallo near Palermo ( c. 180 m above sea-level) used since prehistoric times. According to Punic inscriptions and paintings (5th-1st cents. BC, among these Tinnit symbols) on the walls, underworld and fertility gods were worshipped here.  Tinnit Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography G. Coacci Polselli, M. G. Guzzo Amadasi, V. Tusa, Grotta Regina ─ II, 1979.

Antas

(88 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Sanctuary of a local god (Babay or Babai?) in south-west Sardinia, called Sid Addir in Punic inscriptions and Sardus Pater in Roman ones. The cult image is a rock memorial in an initially open courtyard, in a temenos. A temple is erected in the 3rd cent. BC and again under Caracalla. Many votive offerings. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Acquaro et al., Ricerche puniche ad Antas, 1996 G. Tore, s. v. A., in: DCPP, 33-34.

Bosa

(55 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Finding-place of two high archaic Phoenician inscriptions (8th cent. BC) at the mouth of the Temo on the western coast of Sardinia. Apparently mentioned in Ptol. 3,3,7 and in It. Ant. 83,8. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. B., 77.

Monte Sirai

(134 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A settlement which was founded in the 8th cent. BC on an indigenous Nuragic Age site situated on a hilltop at the natural entrance to the ore-rich Iglesiente in the south-west of Sardinia, north-east of the Phoenician settlement of Sulcis; Sardinia). It was taken over by Carthage at the end of the 6th cent. and the partly preserved walls were built in the 4th cent. The civil settlement (five insulae with narrow buildings) initially flourishing after the conquest by Rome was suddenly abandoned around the close of the 2nd century BC. Sardinia Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bib…

Castillo Doña Blanca

(102 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Prehistoric Tartessian, fortified proto-urban settlement with a harbour at the ancient junction of the Río Guadalete and the Bahía de Cádiz, now a hill in the alluvial land east of the port of Puerto de S. Maria, since the 8th cent. BC obviously with a large proportion of Phoenician settlers and a cultural strongly Oriental profile to match. From the necropolis ( de las Cumbres) are tomb inventories typically influenced by the Orient. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography D. Ruiz Mata, in: Madrider Mitteil. 27, 1986, 87ff. Id., C. J. Pérez, El poblado fenicio d…

Tamuda

(61 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Small Mauretanian rural town (3rd to 1st cents. BC) at Tétouan (in Morocco) near the coast (of the Mare Ibericum), with strong Carthaginian influences (forms of burial, coin minting). Earliest archaeological evidence from the 6th cent. BC; in the Roman Imperial period the site of a military camp. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Ponsich, s. v. T., DCPP, 436.

Rachgoun

(90 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A small island at the mouth of the Wādī Tafna (Latin Siga) in western Algeria, R. is the site of the extensive necropolis of the Mauretanian Punic city of Siga and, on the southern side, of a small Punic merchant settlement dating to the 7th-5th century BC; according to the finds, there were particularly close links with Phoenician factories on the southern coast of Spain. Syphax Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Lancel, É. Lipiński, s. v. R., DCPP, 369  G. Vuillemot, Reconnaissances aux échelles puniques d'Oranie, 1965.

Morro de Mezquitilla

(127 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician settlement of the early 8th cent. BC, founded on the site of a Copper Age settlement on a height overlooking the mouth of the Río Algarrobo, 6 km east of Vélez-Málaga (southern Spain). Its associated necropolises were probably partly on the opposite (western) bank of the river, where a 7th-cent. BC chamber tomb, significant from an architectural point of view, is preserved, along with evidence of others (Trayamar). Necropolis Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography H.G. Niemeyer, H. Schubart, Trayamar. Die phönizischen Kammergräber und die N…

Griffin

(260 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Composite creature with the head of a bird of prey and the body of a lion, usually winged, presumed to have been conceived of in the early  Elam period and to have reached predynastic Egypt, where it developed independently. In the 1st quarter of the 2nd millennium the ancient Syrian G. (characterized by a curl on the nape of its neck), which emerged under Egyptian influence, spread to Anatolia and the Aegean; established in Crete since the MM II/III era, it was adapted to the Min…

Trayamar

(234 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Modern country estate ( finca) to the west of the mouth of the River Algarrobo, about 4 km to the east of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain), site of several Phoenician chamber graves ( tombeaux batîs). The necropolis belongs to the settlement on the Morro de Mezquitilla (on the opposite side of the river). Characteristics of the graves are their construction from hewn blocks, carefully smoothed on the inside, their eastward orientation (towards the settlement) and their access over a ramp-shaped dromos. The chambers of graves 1 ( c. 1.9 m × 2.6 m) and 4 (2.9 …

Bitia

(97 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician settlement founded in the 7th cent. BC on the southern coast of Sardinia, with an acropolis and harbour; mentioned by Ptol. 3,3,3 under the name of Biqia. Remains of a sanctuary with a temple, perhaps of Ešmun, near the necropolis located on the seaside with its cremation burials from the 7th/6th cents. and body burials from the 6th -2nd cents. BC. Many terracottas of a style known from Ibiza and Carthage derive from a votive depository. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. B., 73f. M. L. Uberti, Le figurine fittili di Bithia, 1973.
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