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Autokephalie

(689 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
A., ein Terminus technicus des orth. Kirchenrechts, bezeichnet die Selbständigkeit einer Kirche. Diese manifestiert sich in der unabhängigen Wahl und Weihe des Oberhauptes (vgl. die Bedeutung der griech. Begriffe autós = selbst; kephal椃= Haupt) und aller Bischöfe sowie der eigenständigen Regelung aller inner- und zwischenkirchlichen Angelegenheiten auf der Grundlage der die orth. Kirchen verbindenden liturgischen, dogmatischen und kanonischen Tradition. Die A. wird von der Autonomie unterschieden, die eine bedingte Selbständigkeit bedeutet, insofern bei der …
Date: 2019-11-19

Stavropigiale Klöster

(247 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] . Die Synode von Chalcedon (451; Ökum. Konzil) nahm erstmals eine kirchl. »Einordnung« des Mönchtums vor, das nun den Ortsbischöfen unterstellt wurde; der Bau von Klöstern wurde an die bfl. Genehmigung gebunden (c.4). Äußeres Zeichen einer Klostergründung war die Aufstellung eines Kreuzes, die sog. Stavropigia (von griech. σταυρο`n̆ πηγn̆υ´n̆αι/staurón pēgnýnai), belegt im Staatskirchenrecht Kaiser Justinians I. (Cod.Iust. I 3,26; Nov. [Novellae] 5,1; 67,1; 131,7), das diese kanonische Rechtssetzung übernahm (Cod.Iust. I 3,39;…

Symeon

(275 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] der Neue Theologe (Ende 949 Galati in Paphlagonien – 12.3.1022 bei Chrysopolis), bedeutender byz. Mystiker und Dichter, der in seinen Werken persönliche Zeugnisse myst. Erfahrung überliefert. Als geistl. Schüler des Studiten (Studioskloster) Symeon »Eulabes« (917–986/87) erlebte S. mit 21 Jahren unter Gebet und Tränen die erste von insg. 970 Visionen des Gott-Logos in Form immateriellen Lichtes. 976 trat er selbst ins Studioskloster ein, mußte es aber wegen zu enger Bindung an sein…

Nomokanon

(353 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] nennt man seit dem 11.Jh. die systematisierten Zusammenstellungen von Synodal- und Väterkanones (Kanones/Kanonessammlung) mit dem Staatskirchenrecht (von griech. no´moi, »Gesetze«), die seit dem 6.Jh. entstehen. – Seit Konstantin haben die christl. Kaiser staatl. Gesetze in kirchl. Angelegenheiten erlassen. In ihnen manifestierte sich die seitdem betriebene Synthese von Imperium und Kirche, deren Gipfelpunkt bei Justinian I. erreicht wird. Im Codex Iustinianus sind die ersten 13 …

Quinisextum

(337 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (Πεn̆ϑε´κτη/Penthe´ktē) heißt die von Kaiser Justinian II. (685–695; 705–711) 691/92 nach Konstantinopel (: IV.,4.) als ökum. einberufene Synode, weil sie das kanonische Defizit des V. und VI. ökum. Konzils (Konstantinopel: IV.,2. und 3.) beseitigen wollte. Wegen des identischen Tagungsortes mit letzterem, dem kaiserlichen Kuppelsaal (Trullos), wird es auch »II. Trullanum« genannt. Der Kaiser und 220 Bischöfe beschlossen in 102 Kanones die bis dahin umfassendste kirchenrechtlich…

Zonaras

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] Zonaras, Johannes (Mitte 11. – Mitte 12.Jh.), byz. Historiker und Kanonist, bekleidete hohe Ämter unter Kaiser Alexios I. (1081–1118). Nach dessen Tod wurde er Mönch und schrieb neben kleineren Werken v.a.: 1. eine Weltchronik (Epitane historiarum, hg. von L. Dindorf, 6 Bde., 1868–1875) von der Erschaffung der Welt bis zum Jahre 1118 (für die Zeit vor 1081 eine Kompilation älterer Quellen, danach eigenständig), die sich durch Ausgewogenheit auszeichnet und ab 1344 auch ins Slaw., …

Autocephaly

(775 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
The word autocephaly, a technical term in Orthodox canon law, denotes the independence of a church, manifested in the independent election and consecration of its head (compare the meaning of the Greek words autós, “self,” and kephal , “head”) and all bishops as well as the independent regulation of all internal and ecumenical affairs on the basis of the liturgical, doctrinal, and canonical tradition that links all Orthodox churches. Autocephaly is distinct from  Autonomy, which denotes a limited independence, in which a church is…
Date: 2019-10-14

Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts

(386 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, used in the Orthodox churches of the seven ecumenical councils, is Vespers (IV) with communion from sacred elements consecrated on the preceding Sunday in the Divine Liturgy (Eucharist: III, 3) and reserved for this purpose; hence the name: ῾Ιερὰ λειτουργία τῶν προηγιασμένων/ Hierá leitourgía tṓn proēgiasménōn, Lat. Missa praesanctificatorum, Liturgy of the Presanctified. It is first mentioned in the Chronicon paschale (early 7th cent.) and in canon 52 of the Quinisext Council in 692. Th…

Andrew of Crete, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (660, Damascus – Jul 4, 740); Orthodox saint, feast day Jul 4. Andrew became a monk in 678; later he became archbishop of Gortyna and Metropolitan of Crete. More than 40 of his homilies for feasts of the Lord, Mary, and many saints are extant. Georgian, Latin, Arabic, and Slavonic translations attest to their wide popularity. But …

Quinisext Council

(410 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Πεvϑέκτη/ Penthéktē) is the name given to the ecumenical synod convoked by Emperor Justinian II (685–695; 705–711) in Constantinople (IV, 4) in 691/692, as it was meant to resolve the canonical deficits of the 5th and 6th ecumenical councils (Constantinople: IV, 2 & 3). Because it convened at the same location where the 6th ecumenical council was held (the domed hall [Trullos] of the imperial palace), it is also known as “Trullanum II.” In 102 canons (Canons/Canon collections), th…

Nomocanon

(392 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] is the name given since the 11th century to the systematized collection of synodal and patristic canons (Canons/Canon collections) with imperial church law of the Roman Empire (from Gk nómoi, “laws”) that arose from the 6th century on. From Constantine onward, Christian emperors issued state laws on church matters. They manifested the synthesis of imperium and church that then became current, reaching its peak with Justinian I. In the Codex Iustinianus the first 13 sections of Book I are ¶ devoted to church law; in his Novels he continued to enact church legislatio…

Pentarchy

(342 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] denotes a model of church polity that developed in the Early Church, in which the five patriarchates (Patriarch: I), in order of rank Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, had constitutive significance for the leadership of the whole church. The developing patriarchal constitution was reflected in cc. 6 and 7 of the Council of Nicea (325), c. 3 of Constantinople (IV: 1; 381), and c. 28 of Chalcedon (451), but the pentarchical hierarchy of the five cathedrae is …

Alivisatos, Hamilcar Spiridonus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 17, 1887, Lixurion – Aug 14, 1969, Athens) was professor of canon law and practical theology in Athens 1919–1956; academically, ecclessially and politically, he was one of the most important personalities in the Greek church in the 20th century. He authored almost 300 publications, co-authored the Church Constitution of 1923, organized the first Orthodox theological congress in Athens in 1936, was a pioneer in the ecumenical movement beginning in 1920, and was a member of the executive committee of the WCC from 1948 to 1968. Heinz Ohme Bibliography G.I. Konidares…

Theophanes the Greek

(136 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Feofan Grek; c. 1325–1404/1415), an important Byzantine artist who worked in Russia from 1378 until his death. Indisputably from his hand are the frescoes in the Church of the Transfiguration in Novgorod. It has recently come into question whether the Deesis series in the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Proclamation in the Kremlin in Moscow is also his work. According to a 1415 letter by the hagiographer Epifanij Premudryj of 1415 (the most comprehensively preserved personal eval…

Nicea, Council of (787)

(435 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] This synod ended the first phase of the controversy over the veneration of images (VI). The Synod of Hiereia in 754 (Constantinople: IV, 5) had made iconoclasm the theological teaching of the Empire. The resistance of a few monks led to the destruction of icons and several martyrdoms. The iconophile empress Irene (780–802) worked to reverse the decision. Because only a new ecumenical council could have the authority to annul the decision of the synod in 754, she laid the groundwor…

Millet System

(372 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The word millet (from Arab. milla, “religion”) means “religious nationality”; it was used in the Ottoman Empire for the national religious communities allowed self-government in ethnic, cultural, and religious matters on the basis of Islamic interna-¶ tional law. It was based on the overriding identification of the peoples governed with their religion regardless of all ethnic bonds and differences, together with contact between the sultan and the communities regarding their religious leadership. Thus these religious…

Zonaras, Joannes

(181 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (mid-11th cent. – mid-12th cent.), Byzantine historian and canonist who held high offices under Emperor Alexius I (1081–1118). After the emperor’s death, he became a monk and (besides several shorter works) wrote two major works: (1) a world chronicle ( Epitome historiarum, ed. L. Dindorf, 6 vols., 1868–1875) from Creation to the year 1118 (compiled from earlier sources for the period before 1081, after that independent), distinguished for its balance, which was translated into Slavic, Latin, and Romance languages, and (…

Fernandez, Alonso

(188 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1573, Malpartida de Plasencia – c.1633, Plasencia, Spain), OP (1587), historian and preacher. He was honored in 1618 at the General Chapter of Lisbon with the title Preacher General. Fernandez authored works on the history of the Dominicans in Spain, of which a few remain unpublished. He was prior in Zamora, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Cáceres and finally in Plasencia. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works: Historia ecclesiastica de nuestros tiempos, 1611 Historia y anales de la devoción y milagros del Rosario, 1613 De los servicios que a los Reinos de España ha hecho la …

Androutsos, Chrestos

(86 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1869, Kios – 1935, Athens), professor of theology and ethics at Chalki (1895–1911) and Athens (1911–1935). Androutsos was a preeminent figure in 20th-century Greek theology. His Dogmatics has been considered the first complete and authentic systematic exposition of Orthodox doctrine. To “neopatristic” theologians, Androutsos embodies a scholastic theology infiltrated by Western rationalism, unrooted in the life of Orthodoxy. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works (Greek and Romanian): Συμβολική ἐξ ἐπόφεως ὀρθοδόξου, 21930 Δογματικὴ …

Stavropigial Monasteries

(263 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 for the first time set out to “integrate” monasticism, placing it under the authority of the local bishop; the erection of monasteries was made subject to episcopal approval (c. 4). The external sign of a monastic foundation was the erection of a cross, the so-called stavropigia (from Gk σταυρὸν πηγνύναι/ staurón pēgnýnai), mentioned in the civil ecclesiastical laws of Emperor Justinian I ( Cod. Iust. I 3.26; Novella 5.1; 67.1; 131.7), which adopted this canonical legislation ( Cod. Iust. I 3.39; Novella 133.4). The bishop h…
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