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Nicephorius

(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] According to Plin. HN 6,129 ( Nikephorio) it was, along with the Parthenius, a major Armenian tributary of the Tigris. According to Tac. Ann. 15,4,2 ( Nikephorius), it flowed through Tigranocerta. Its identification depends on the location of Tigranocerta, which has hitherto been sought at Silvan (Martyropolis/Mayafarikin/Nprkert) [1]. But taking into account an Armenian historical work of the 2nd half of the 5th cent., called Buzandaran Patmut'iwnk' 4,24 [2], it was rather at Arzan [3]. In the former case…

Apsarus

(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Roman castle This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes The place today known as Gonio, south of Batumi (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 6,1; Absarros: Plin. HN 6,4; Absaros: ILS 2660; Tab. Peut. 10,5; Procop. Goth. 4,2; 13; Agath. 6,1-11, Chron. pasch. I p. 61; II p. 435). Strongly fortified Roman castle at the mouth of the Apsarus [2]; five cohorts at the time of Arrian, in ruins by the time of Procopius; probably renovated in the 7th cent. The condition today: reconstructed Byzantine-Gen…

Meribanes

(47 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] M. III, king of Iberia [1] in Caucasia, sent an embassy by Constantius [2] II in 360/61 to recruit him to the Roman side against the Persians (Amm. Marc. 21,6,8). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W. Enßlin, s.v. M., RE 15, 1028 PLRE 1, 598.

Uplistsikhe

(117 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian 'ruler fortress' (Kartlis Cḫovreba p. 17; 33 et passim) [1]. Rock-cut city (9.5 ha) in Iberia [1], about 20 km to the east of Gori on the northern bank of the Cyrus [5] (1st millennium BC to 18th cent. AD). In the Roman Imperial period U. was expanded into a city with ditches and clay-brick walls on a stone foundation; the cave sites were partly inspired by the Hellenistic rock-cut architecture of Asia Minor. A system of streets with drainage channels and cisterns survives. The city was significant in the Georgian Middle Ages. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jen…

Saspeires

(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…

Vani

(184 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] City in West-Georgia, c. 25 km southwest of Kutaisi, a centre of ancient Colchis. In 1896, a structure with three terraces which had been destroyed in the mid 1st cent. BC began to be excavated (with interruptions). Three phases could be distinguished (I: 8th-6th cents.; II: 5th-4th cents.; III: 3rd-1st cents. BC). Several buildings were uncovered (a surrounding wall with gate in phase III) as well as tombs (gold jewellery with granulation); the finds include a large number of Greek …

Acampsis

(77 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Arr. Per. p. E. 7,4,5), flumen Acampseon (Plin. HN 4,12), Acampsis, Acapsis (Geogr. Rav.; Ακαψις Suda), Byzantine Boas. River that originates from the northern slopes of the Parchari mountains (Armen. mountain range, Procop. Goth. 4,2; today Ardicin Dagi, north-eastern Turkey) and flows into the south-eastern area of the Black Sea; according to Procopius, forms the western border to Lazica (Coroch in Georgian, Çoruh Nehri in Turkish). The fortress  Apsarus lies at its mouth. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)

Kobuleti-Pichvnari

(53 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Town on the Colchis coast, c. 20 km north of modern Batumi. Extensive necropolis from the 6th-2nd cents. BC with Attic black-figured and red-figured ceramics; the synchronous Greek settlement (Matium? Plin. HN 6,12) has not been proven to date. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity, 1995, 109-117.

Caspii montes

(104 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Κάσπιον ὄρος; Káspion óros is, according to Eratosthenes (in Str. 11,2,15), the indigenous name of the Caucasus; according to Ptol. 5,13,4 it is the mountain range separating Armenia from the Parthian province of Media (modern Talyš mountains, the border between Azerbaijan and Iran). In Mela 1,109 and Plin. HN 5,99, the Caspii montes are an independent mountain range, alongside the Caucasus, probably the Elburz mountain range with Mt. Demavend (5670 m). According to Amm. Marc. 23,6,74, they formed the northern border of the Persian empire. Plontke-Lüning, Annegre…

Paricanii

(139 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Παρικάνιοι; Parikánioi). [German version] [1] People in the Fergana region The P. are mentioned together with the Orthocorybantii in the list of peoples who had to pay tributes to Artaxerxes [1] I in Hdt. 3,92; it is assumed that their settlement area was in the Fergana region in modern Afghanistan. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] People with a main town of Paricane in Persis In Hecat. FGrH 1 F 282, the P. are a people with a main town of Paricane in Persis; it is probably these P., to whom Hdt. 3,94 refers, assigning them to a nomós together with the Asiatic Aethiopia…

Harmozice

(197 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes (Ἁρμοζική; Harmozikḗ Str. 11,3,5; Ἀρμάκτικα; Harmáktika Ptol. 5,11,3; 8,19,4; Hermastis iuxta Cyrum Plin. HN 6,29; Armastika Geogr. Rav. 2,8; Georgian Armaziḫe, ‘fortress of the Armazi’). Residence of the kings of the Caucasian  Iberia on the Bagineti hill in modern Mccheta south opposite the confluence of the  Aragus into the  Cyrus; conquered by Pompey in 65 BC. Excavations since 1937 have revealed buildings of Hellenistic and Roman times: fortress wall (clay brick wall on a stone block foun…

Chorzene

(64 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Aed. 3,3; Chorzianene, Procop. Pers. 2,24; Armenian: Xorjean/Xorjayn). Region in Armenia, south of the upper course of the Euphrates on the river Gayl, modern Perisuyu, with Koloberd the capital. Modern Kiĝi in the centre of the Karagöl Daĝları south-west of Theodosiopolis (Erzurum), eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography R. H. Hewsen (ed.), The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1991, 19, 154f.

Alazonius

(43 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] River (Str. 11,3; 11,2; Olazanes, Plin. HN 6,29) that springs from the southern slopes of the central Caucasus mountains and flowed into the  Cyrus (Georgian: Alasani). According to Pliny, the border between  Iberia and  Albania [1]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)

Gymnias

(56 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Γυμνιάς; Gymniás, Xen. An. 4,7,19). Large, heavily populated and affluent town of the Skythēnoí on the left bank of the Harpasus (modern Çoruh su), at the location of or near modern Bayburt. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, 1995, 270-272.

Iberia

(567 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Country in the centre of southern Caucasia (Ἰβηρία; Ibēría, Str. 11,3,1-6; Ptol. 5,10,1-2; Georgian Kʿartʿli, Parthian Virčan, Armenian Virkʿ). Country in the centre of southern Caucasia, bordering on the Greater  Caucasus in the north, the Likh Range in the west which runs north-south from the Greater to the Lesser Caucasus, the Kura-Aras Lowland in the east and the Lesser Caucasus in the south, especially the southern and western frontiers being fluid; approximately modern eastern Georgia. Unt…

Pityus

(263 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Christianity | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Πιτυοῦς/ Pityoûs: Str. 11,2,14; Ptol. 5,8,10; 5,9,1; Patrum Nicaenorum nomina p. LXII, 113 Gelzer; Zos. 1,32; Theod. Hist. eccl. 9,5,35; Suda 1670; Πιτιῦς/ Pitiûs: Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 8,4,1-6; Procop. Aed. 3,7,8; Pityus: Plin. HN 6,16; Pithiae: Not. Dign. Or. 18,32). Identified with Picunda/Bičvinta in the republic of Abchasia/Georgia (Roman and early Byzantine fort), yet the identification of the town, f…

Orthosia

(320 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Ὀρθωσία; Orthōsía). [German version] [1] Carian community in the interior In Hellenistic times it was one of the smaller Carian communities inland with its own mint; in Str. 14,1,47 it is a katoikía (settlement) near Nysa to the north of the Maeander [2] (Büyük Menderes). In the 2nd cent. AD, O. was given Roman municipal status, in the 5th/6th cents. AD it was the seat of a bishopric for the diocese of Caria with Aphrodisias [1] as its metropolitan see. The ruins of O., which are situated near Donduran in Ortas in the mountai…

Persarmenia

(198 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Armenian Parskahayk'). In AD 387, Armenia Major was divided up, with about a fifth of the territory being allocated to Rome and the greater eastern area to Iran. After the death of Aršak III (Arsaces [5]), the Roman-Byzantine area was established around AD 390 as the province of Armenia interior, while the entire eastern region, called P. by the Byzantines, remained under the rule of the Sassanids. Following the end of Arsakid rule in AD 428, the Sassanids appointed a governor general ( marzpan) to the new capital city of Dvin (Doubios). The Armenians reacted …

Gurgenes

(100 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] In Procopius (Pers. 1,12,4ff.), king of Caucasian Iberia who asked Justin I for help against the introduction of the fire cult demanded by Kavad I and who fled from the Persians to the Lazian mountainous countryside. Toumanoff [1] considers him to be the legendary Vaḫtang Gorgasal of Georgian and Armenian tradition although this is rejected by Martin-Hisard [2]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 C. Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, 1963, 362-378 2 B. Martin-Hisard, Le roi Vaxtang Gorgasal, in: Temps, mémoire, traditio…

Sarapanis

(148 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Str. 11,2,17; 3,4 τὰ Σαραπανά/ tà Sarapaná; Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 4,13,15; 4,16,17: Σαραπανίς/ Sarapanís). Colchian fortress on the Phasis [1], navigable up to that point, through which the road to Iberia [1] led; identified with the remains of fortifications on the hill accessible only from the northeast at the confluence of Qvirila (Strabo's upper course of the Phasis) and Dzirula in the modern Šorapani, Georgia. Excavations in the lower town and the citadel uncovered traces of…
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