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(183 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Burchard, Christoph (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Northern tributary of the Phasis (Ἵππος/ Híppos Str. 11,2,17; Steph. Byz. s.v. Αἶα; Hippos Plin. HN 6,13; Ἵππις/ Híppis in Mocheresis Procop. Goth. 4,1,6); northern tributary of the  Phasis in  Colchis, the modern Cʿḫeniscqali (‘horse water’) in West Georgia. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography E. Kiessling, s.v. H., RE 8, 1915-1918. [German version] [2] Settlement in the Decapolis This item can be found on the following maps: Syria (ἡ Ἵππος/ hē Híppos, Euseb. On. 22,21 Ἵππη/ Híppē; Aramaic Sūsı̄ṯā ‘mare’). Hellenistic-Byzantine city (region) …


(144 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γωγαρηνή; Gōgarēnḗ), Str. 11,14,4f.; Ptol. 5,12,4; χωρίον μεταξὺ Κόλχων καὶ Ἰβήρων ανατολικῶν, Steph. Byz. 216; Armenian Gugark, AŠX 5,22 [1]). Fertile plateau in ancient times (olive-growing, etc.) in the Little Caucasus south-east of Cyrus bend, possibly corresponding to modern southern Georgia and parts of northern Armenia; frontier district between Armenia and Iberia with changing ownership: in the 5th/4th cents. BC G. belonged to Armenia, in the 3rd cent. to Iberia, in the 2nd cent. G. was…

Lazica, Lazice

(281 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Pers. 1,1,28 i.a., Agathias 2,18,4, i.a.: Λαζική; Lazikḗ). Term for Colchis in early Byzantine sources after the Kartvelian tribe of the Lazae, who were located in the interior south of the river Phasis in the 1st cent. AD and in the 4th cent. acquired the hegemony over Colchis and the tribes of the Abasci, Apsilae, Misimiani, Scymni and Svani. The capital was Archaeopolis (Procop. Pers. 2,29,18), which is identified with the ruined town near modern Nokalakevi on the Techuri (Glaucus?) in wes…


(48 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian Aragvi (Armenian arag ‘fast’). River (Str. 11,3; 2) with three source rivers (Mtiuleti, Gudamaqari, Psavi) in  Iberia on the southern slopes of the Great Caucasus; the ‘Georgian military road’ ran along the A.; in Mzcheta it flows into the  Cyrus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] According to Plin. HN 6,129 ( Nikephorio) it was, along with the Parthenius, a major Armenian tributary of the Tigris. According to Tac. Ann. 15,4,2 ( Nikephorius), it flowed through Tigranocerta. Its identification depends on the location of Tigranocerta, which has hitherto been sought at Silvan (Martyropolis/Mayafarikin/Nprkert) [1]. But taking into account an Armenian historical work of the 2nd half of the 5th cent., called Buzandaran Patmut'iwnk' 4,24 [2], it was rather at Arzan [3]. In the former case…


(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Roman castle This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes The place today known as Gonio, south of Batumi (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 6,1; Absarros: Plin. HN 6,4; Absaros: ILS 2660; Tab. Peut. 10,5; Procop. Goth. 4,2; 13; Agath. 6,1-11, Chron. pasch. I p. 61; II p. 435). Strongly fortified Roman castle at the mouth of the Apsarus [2]; five cohorts at the time of Arrian, in ruins by the time of Procopius; probably renovated in the 7th cent. The condition today: reconstructed Byzantine-Gen…


(47 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] M. III, king of Iberia [1] in Caucasia, sent an embassy by Constantius [2] II in 360/61 to recruit him to the Roman side against the Persians (Amm. Marc. 21,6,8). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W. Enßlin, s.v. M., RE 15, 1028 PLRE 1, 598.


(117 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian 'ruler fortress' (Kartlis Cḫovreba p. 17; 33 et passim) [1]. Rock-cut city (9.5 ha) in Iberia [1], about 20 km to the east of Gori on the northern bank of the Cyrus [5] (1st millennium BC to 18th cent. AD). In the Roman Imperial period U. was expanded into a city with ditches and clay-brick walls on a stone foundation; the cave sites were partly inspired by the Hellenistic rock-cut architecture of Asia Minor. A system of streets with drainage channels and cisterns survives. The city was significant in the Georgian Middle Ages. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jen…


(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…


(184 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] City in West-Georgia, c. 25 km southwest of Kutaisi, a centre of ancient Colchis. In 1896, a structure with three terraces which had been destroyed in the mid 1st cent. BC began to be excavated (with interruptions). Three phases could be distinguished (I: 8th-6th cents.; II: 5th-4th cents.; III: 3rd-1st cents. BC). Several buildings were uncovered (a surrounding wall with gate in phase III) as well as tombs (gold jewellery with granulation); the finds include a large number of Greek …


(77 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Arr. Per. p. E. 7,4,5), flumen Acampseon (Plin. HN 4,12), Acampsis, Acapsis (Geogr. Rav.; Ακαψις Suda), Byzantine Boas. River that originates from the northern slopes of the Parchari mountains (Armen. mountain range, Procop. Goth. 4,2; today Ardicin Dagi, north-eastern Turkey) and flows into the south-eastern area of the Black Sea; according to Procopius, forms the western border to Lazica (Coroch in Georgian, Çoruh Nehri in Turkish). The fortress  Apsarus lies at its mouth. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(206 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Pahlavi pāp, bāb, ‘father’). Son of the Armenian king Arsaces [4] II and Pharandsem of Siwnik'. After his father was captured, P. fled to Valens, who restored him as ruler of Armenia in the same year (AD 369) with the support of the comes et dux Terentius (Amm. Marc. 27,12,9-10). In the following,  Sapor [2] II managed to persuade P. to implement anti-Roman measures. P. thus dispatched the heads of his ministers Cylaces and Artabannes [1] to the Persian king (Amm. Marc. 27,12,14). However, the poisoning of the katholikós Nersēh by the king as claimed by Armenian …


(53 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Town on the Colchis coast, c. 20 km north of modern Batumi. Extensive necropolis from the 6th-2nd cents. BC with Attic black-figured and red-figured ceramics; the synchronous Greek settlement (Matium? Plin. HN 6,12) has not been proven to date. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity, 1995, 109-117.

Caspii montes

(104 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Κάσπιον ὄρος; Káspion óros is, according to Eratosthenes (in Str. 11,2,15), the indigenous name of the Caucasus; according to Ptol. 5,13,4 it is the mountain range separating Armenia from the Parthian province of Media (modern Talyš mountains, the border between Azerbaijan and Iran). In Mela 1,109 and Plin. HN 5,99, the Caspii montes are an independent mountain range, alongside the Caucasus, probably the Elburz mountain range with Mt. Demavend (5670 m). According to Amm. Marc. 23,6,74, they formed the northern border of the Persian empire. Plontke-Lüning, Annegre…


(139 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Παρικάνιοι; Parikánioi). [German version] [1] People in the Fergana region The P. are mentioned together with the Orthocorybantii in the list of peoples who had to pay tributes to Artaxerxes [1] I in Hdt. 3,92; it is assumed that their settlement area was in the Fergana region in modern Afghanistan. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] People with a main town of Paricane in Persis In Hecat. FGrH 1 F 282, the P. are a people with a main town of Paricane in Persis; it is probably these P., to whom Hdt. 3,94 refers, assigning them to a nomós together with the Asiatic Aethiopia…


(391 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φαρνάβαζος; Pharnábazos). [German version] [1] Persian, Satrap of Dascylium [2]/Phrygia Persian, from 468 or 455 BC satrap of Dascylium [2] in Phrygia (Thuc. 2,67,1). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Grandson of Ph. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2] Grandson of P. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2], died after 373 BC; in 413/12 BC he was an ally of Sparta and in 409 BC of Athens (he sheltered Alcibiades [3] in 404 und had him murdered at the request of Lysander [1]; Xen. Hell. 1,1,6; 14; 2,16; 3,8ff.; Diod.Sic. 14,11,2; Ne…


(197 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes (Ἁρμοζική; Harmozikḗ Str. 11,3,5; Ἀρμάκτικα; Harmáktika Ptol. 5,11,3; 8,19,4; Hermastis iuxta Cyrum Plin. HN 6,29; Armastika Geogr. Rav. 2,8; Georgian Armaziḫe, ‘fortress of the Armazi’). Residence of the kings of the Caucasian  Iberia on the Bagineti hill in modern Mccheta south opposite the confluence of the  Aragus into the  Cyrus; conquered by Pompey in 65 BC. Excavations since 1937 have revealed buildings of Hellenistic and Roman times: fortress wall (clay brick wall on a stone block foun…


(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…


(194 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Καυκάσιον ὄρος; Kaukásion óros, Hdt. 3,97; Καύκασον ὄρος; Kaúkason óros, App. praef. 4, App. Mith. 103; καυκάσια ὄρη, Str. 11,2,1; Caucasii/Caucasei montes, Plin. HN 5,98; 6,47; Mela 1,15; 1,19; Geogr. Rav. 2,20). First mentioned at Aesch. PV 422; 719 (πόλισμα καυκάσου, καύκασον); the name has been retained until today. High mountain range (1,100 km long, up to 60 km wide) between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that separated the world of the northern steppe peoples (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alania…


(64 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Aed. 3,3; Chorzianene, Procop. Pers. 2,24; Armenian: Xorjean/Xorjayn). Region in Armenia, south of the upper course of the Euphrates on the river Gayl, modern Perisuyu, with Koloberd the capital. Modern Kiĝi in the centre of the Karagöl Daĝları south-west of Theodosiopolis (Erzurum), eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography R. H. Hewsen (ed.), The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1991, 19, 154f.
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