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(147 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Μυρίανδρος; Myríandros). Settlement on the shores of the Gulf of Issus (Str. 14,5,19). Its exact localization is not yet established, possibly 80 stades ( c. 15 km) south of Alexandria [3] (Stadiasmus maris magni 157), the location of the ruins of Adatepe [1. 363]. The place name is of Anatolian origin ( Myriandos; cf.  Hdt. 4,38), later Graecisized (M. = ‘Town of 1,000 men’). Xen. An. 1,4,6 described M. as a Phoenician  emporion (‘trading station’, cf also Scyl. 102). M. probably lo…


(597 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Education / Culture (Ἀνάζαρβος; Anázarbos). Town on the middle  Pyramus in  Cilicia Pedias (ruins near the modern Dilekkaya). Possibly named after the castle mountain (Ptol. 5,8,7), the location of the actual town; according to Amm. Marc. 14,8,3 and Steph. Byz. s. v. A., the town was named after its founder of the same name. In the 1st cent. BC, A. was for a time ruled by the Roman client king Tarcondimot…


(75 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] Town to the north-east of Cilicia Pedias, assumed on the basis of inscriptions and the remains of buildings to lie close to Kadirli. F. was founded by Vespasian in AD 73/4 during the rebuilding of Cilicia, and conquered by the Sassanid king Šapur I in AD 260.  Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliography H. T. Bossert, U. B. Alkim, Karatepe, Kadirli and its environments, 1947, 17-22 M. Gough, s.v. F., PE, 330 Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. Phlabias, 378f.


(206 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Ἄδανα; Ádana). Town in  Cilicia Pedias (Plin. HN 92,4; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), on the right bank of the  Sarus (modern Adana). After Persian rule had been brought to an end by Alexander [4] (the Great), A. was first under Alexander's, later under Seleucid rule. It was probably under  Antiochus [5] IV that A.'s name was temporarily changed to Antioch on the Sarus [1. 81]. In 67 BC,  Pompeius settled some of the pirates, whom he had defeate…


(126 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] (Μάγαρσα; Mágarsa). Settlement on the righthand bank of the Sarus in the region of Mallus, 4 km south-west of the modern district capital of Karataş in Cilicia Pedias on Cape Karataş in Dört Direkli where the sanctuary to Athena Magarsia was situated. After the end of Persian rule, M. first belonged to the empire of Alexander, then to the Seleucid kingdom. In the 2nd cent. BC, M. with Mallus was renamed Antioch on the Pyramus. From AD 72 finally in the Roman province of Cilicia. An…


(282 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Oracles (Μαλλός; Mallós). One of the oldest cities of Cilicia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,4; 8,17,44; Scyl. 102; Stadiasmus maris magni 162f.; Plin. HN 5,22). The exact localization is still unknown; it is thought, on the basis of inscriptions, to lie near modern Kızıltahta and on the west bank of the Pyramus [1. 665], where remains of an imperial-period building can be detected. North of it are the ruins of a Roman bridge [2. 337]. Here Alexander…


(502 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Ἐπιφάνεια; Epipháneia). [German version] [1] City in Cilicia Pedias City in Cilicia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. E., 274 Meineke), previously Oeniandus (Plin. HN 5,93), renamed E. after  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes. Road station (Geogr. Rav. 2,16,93; [2. 766]). In AD 260, E. was captured by Šapur I [1. 312f.]. After the restructuring of the province in AD 408, E. was seen as one of the cities of Cilicia II (Hierocles, 705,5). Its ruins (well preserved theatre and aqueduct) are c. 8 km west of Erzin in Gözene/Gözcucler Harabeleri. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. …


(96 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria (Ῥωσός/ Rhōsós). Small town on the Gulf of Issus in Syria (Str. 14,5,19; Ptol. 5,15,2: Ρῶσσος/ Rhȏssos), 31 km to the southwest of Alexandria [3] on the coastal road to Seleucia Pieria, first recorded in the late 4th cent. BC. From the later Augustus, R. received the title ἱερά, ἄσυλος καὶ αὐτόνομος/ hierá, ásylos kaì autónomos ('sacred, entitled to grant asylum and autonomous'). In the 5th century AD, however, Hierocles (Synekdemos 705,7) counts R. among the cities of Cilicia Secunda. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliog…


(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…