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(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὕλλοι; Hýlloi). Illyrian tribe, first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC among the bárbaroi (Scyl. 22); other spellings Hylleîs (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑλλεῖς) and Hyllaîoi (Ὑλλαῖοι, Ptol. 2,16,5). Their settlement area has been located approximately between the rivers Titius (modern Krka) and Nestus (modern Cetina). Like other smaller Illyrian tribes, the H. were absorbed by the  Dalmatae after the 4th cent. BC, so that, in the Roman period, only the designation of the coast south of Šibenik as the peninsula Hyllica/ Hyllis (Plin. HN 3,141; Scymn. 405) recalled the H.…


(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήρικος; Nḗrikos). Hom. Od. 24,377 mentions a place named N. on the mainland (ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο), described in Str. 10,2,8 as a predecessor settlement of the town of Leucas. Besieged in vain by Athens in 426 BC (Thuc. 3,7,5). Location probably near the modern Hagios Georgios on the mainland opposite the ancient town of Leucas. Further evidence: Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,5. Neriton Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography M. Fiedler, Zur Topographie der Polis Leukas, in: P. Berktold (ed.), Akarnanien, 1996, 159f.


(208 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιεῖς; Kallieîs). The westernmost branch of the Aetolian  Ophieis in the upper Daphnus valley (modern Mornos; Thuc. 3,96,3). Their chief place of Callion (or Callipolis, modern Kallion, formerly Velouchovo) occupied a strategic position above the right bank of the Daphnus, and, for that reason, is mentioned in connection with the campaigns of  Demosthenes [1] in 426 BC, of  Acilius [I 10] Glabrio in 191 BC, and also the raid by Gauls in 279 BC (in which the town and its inhabit…


(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Κόροντα, Κορόνται; Kóronta, Koróntai). City in  Acarnania near modern Chrysovitsa, with finds dating to Mycenaean times, mentioned only at Thuc. 2,102,1, member of the Acarnanian Koinon, destination of the Peloponnesian theorodokoi (SEG 36, 331 l. 49-51). Inscriptions: IG IX 12, 2, 427-433; 603f.; AD 25 B 2, 1970, 297; 26 B 2, 1971, 321; 40 B, 1985, 140; SEG 29. 473. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 102f. D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und Griech. Tradition, 1996, 274.


(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…


(964 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
(Κόραξ; Kórax). [German version] [1] Mountains Mountains to the east of Aetolia, today's Giona in the Nomos Phokis, 2484 m high; Str. 7 fr. 6; 9,3,1; 10,2,4; Liv. 36,30,4; 37,4,7. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 650. [German version] [2] see Siegecraft see  Siegecraft Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [3] C. From Syracuse, inventor of rhetoric In ancient rhetoric tradition, C. and Tisias (T.) from Syracuse were regarded as the inventors and founders of rhetoric, the practical, learnable and teachable téchnē rhētorikḗ based on exper…


(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…


(668 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἐχῖνος; Echînos). [German version] [1] Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia near today's village of Achino. Originally part of the Achaea Phthiotis, Echinus was granted by Philippus II to the Malieis in 342 with whom E. belonged to the Aetolian league from c. 235. In 210, E. was conquered by Philippus V (Pol. 9,41; [1]) who refused to return it to the Aetolians; after 193, the Romans conquered it and assigned E. to Malis again in 189. In Roman times, E. was considered part of Achaea Phthiot…


(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παξός; Paxós). P. and Antipaxos, collectively known as the Paxoi Islands, 13 km south of Corcyra , still known as P. In 229 BC, they were the theatre of a naval battle during the 1st Illyrian War (Pol. 2,10,1-7). There are a few remains of early Christian churches. Cf. Plin. HN 4,52; IG IX 1, 966. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 2, 456-459.


(54 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀπεραντοί; Aperantoí). Tribe in northern  Aetolia, east of the Agraei, west of the Panaetolicum [2. 97 f.]; capital probably near Hagios Vasileios [1] (Pol. 20,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S. Bommeljé et al. (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 105, s. v. Sidira 2 P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1, 1987, 95-113.


(37 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian archipelago (Plin. HN 3,152) opposite  Iader. Some of the islands (i.a. the modern Ugljan and Pašman) were included in the centuriation of that colony. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 208f.


(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐφύρα; Ephýra). [German version] [1] City in Argos City ‘in a corner of Argos’ (Hom. Il. 6,152); home of Sisyphus; later equated with Corinth. Sources: Str. 8,3,5; Paus. 2,1,1; 3,10. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Equated with Oinoe in Elis by Homeric commentators Str. 8,3,5 mentions an otherwise unknown town on the Elean coast, by the name of  Oinoe; Homeric commentators equate it with the Homeric E. [1] (cf. also Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Hsch. s.v. E). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography L. Deroy, Ephyre, ville imaginaire, in: AC 18, 1949, 401-402. [German version] [3] City in E…

Leucas, Leucadia

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λευκάς, Λευκαδία; Leukás, Leukadía; Lat. Leucas, Leucadia). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands with a city of the same name, separated from the Acarnanian coast by only a shallow strait, with an extent of c. 295 km2 and 31 km long ( Acarnanians, Acarnania, map). The interior of L. consists of a central mountain massif (S…


(134 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Πρῶννοι; Prônnoi). One of the four cities on Cephallenia, in the south east of the island on a rocky eminence to the south of the present-day village of Póros. In 375 BC, P. joined the second Athenian League (StV 257); it was besieged in vain by Philip V (Philippus [I 7]) in 218 BC during the Social Wars [2] (Pol. 5,3,4). The area has been intensively investigated by archaeologists since the discovery of a rich princely gr…


(202 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κωκυτός; Kōkytós, Lat. Cocytus). [German version] [1] River of the Underworld ‘River of lamentation’ (cf. κωκύειν, ‘to weep, lament’). According to Paus. 1,17,5 from Homer onwards one of the rivers of the Underworld, named after the Thesprotic C. [1. 76]. It is fed from the  Styx and flows with the Pyriphlegeton into the  Acheron [2] (Hom. Od. 10,513f.); in Virgil the Acheron flows into the C. (Verg. Aen. 6,296f.). According to Pl. Phd., the C. flows around in a circle and empties into the  Tartarus (113b…


(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Τριχόνειον/ Trichóneion, literary Τριχώνιον/ Trichṓnion). Aetolian city (Aetoli) to the south of Lake Trichonis (modern Limni Trichonida) on the northern slopes of the Aracynthus mountains (modern Zygos) near modern Gavalu. T. was the most significant city of central Aetolia, supplied most of the strategoi (cf. Stratēgós ) of the Aetolian League, but is mentioned in historiographic literature only in the context of Philippus [7] V's campaign to Thermus …

Ceraunian Mountains

(131 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεραύνια ὄρη; Keraúnia órē). The most northern of the coastal ranges of Epirus (Str. 7,5,8; 7,6,1; 7,7,5), modern Rëza e Kanalit (or Karaburun) in Albania. It starts in the south at the Çikë range (2045 m) and ends in the north in the far protruding Cape  Acroceraunia. The rugged limestone heights (up to 1593 m) are much feared because of their frequent thunderstorms, after which they were named ‘Thunder Mountains’. Only in the south were ancient landings or settlements found: Kemar…


(263 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Θύρρειον/ Thýrrheion, Θύριον/ Thýrion, Θούριον/ Thoúrion). City in northern Acarnania, 5 km to the south of the Gulf of Ambracia, at a height of 420 m, modern Thyrion. Still autonomous in the 4th cent. BC (Xen. Hell. 6,2,37), no later than the 3rd cent. T. was a member of the Acarnanian Koinón (IG IX 12, 1, 23); in 269 BC with the partition of the Koinón it fell to Epirus and from 238 to 232 and again c. 211 BC was Aetolian (Aetolians; the treaty of alliance between Rome and Aetolia was found i…


(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…


(529 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Delian League | Balkans, languages (Δυρράχιον; Dyrr[h]áchion, Dyrrhachium). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman period Harbour town on the Illyrian coast, the modern Durrës in Albania; founded on a peninsula by Corinth and Corcyra, probably in 626/625 BC, as the colony of Epidamnus (Eus. Chronicon 88f.; Thuc. 1,24-26; Scymn. 435-439). The name D. (c…
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