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Sambethe

(259 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαμβήθη/ Sambḗthē or Σάββη/ Sábbē). Name, probably derived from Hebrew šabbat (Sabbath) [7. 622 ff.], of the Jewish Sibyl, who can be identified with the Egyptian, Persian and Babylonian Sibyls [2. 317 ff.]. A Sabbe is first recorded in Pausanias' [8] list of four Sibyls ( c. AD 160) (Paus. 10,12,1-9), drawing on Alexander [23] Polyhistor. She can be identified with a prophetess known as a 'Noah's daughter' in Or. Sib. 3,823 ff., Or. Sib. prooemium 33 and Or. Sib.  1,289. The 12 books of the Oracula Sibyllina, pseudepigraphic apocalyptic literature (Apocalypse…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Phasaelis

(207 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φασαηλίς/ Phasaēlís, Φασηλός/ Phasēlós, modern Ḫirbat Faṣāil). City founded by Herodes [1] I in memory of his elder brother Phasael [1] to the north of Jericho in the fertile Jordan rift valley, probably after 30 BC (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,5,2; Ios. BI 1,21,9). Inherited after Herod's death by his sister Salome (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,8,1; Ios. BI 2,6,3), after her death P. became the property of Livia [2], wife of the emperor Augustus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; Ios. BI 2,9,1). P. was known for it…

Machaerus

(270 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαχαιροῦς/ Machairoûs, Hebrew Mekawar, Mekabar). Fortress situated east of the Dead Sea in southern Peraea, on the border with the Nabataean kingdom ( Nabataei) which Alexander [16] Iannaeus (103-76 BC) had built (modern Ruǧm al-Mišnaqa). According to Plin. HN 5,16,72, M. was, apart from Jerusalem, the strongest fortress in Judea. M. was completely destroyed during the Roman campaign in 63 BC by Pompeius (Str. 16,763) and later by the proconsul of Syria Gabinius [I 2] (57-55 BC) (Jos…

Metatron

(323 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] One of the highest princes of angels in Jewish mystical literature. There are several etymological explanations for M.'s name. Odeberg [2. 137 ff.] had already pleaded for the Greek words metá and thrónos, ‘(he who sits)next to the throne (of God)’ (similarly [1]; negatively [5. 75]). In addition, a tradition of 70 secret names is linked with M. [3], including ‘Youth’, ‘Servant’, ‘Yahoel’ and ‘little Yahweh’. He is given a central role in late antique Hekhalot literature [5]. In the so-called Third Book of Enoch…

Zadokids

(283 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew benē Ṣādōq, 'sons of Zadok') is a term for the descendants of Zadok (a grandson of Aaron), one of the high priests in the Temple in Jerusalem at the time of  David [1] (2 Sam 15:24-37). In the pre-Exilic period (up to 586 BC), they had sole claim to the office of high priest (1 Kg 2:26 f.), and in the post-Exilic period (from 538 BC), they once again were able to prevail in the offices of priest and high priest (Ez 44:6-16; Priests III). In the post-Exilic period, the perform…

Zerubbabel

(281 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζοροβαβελ/ Zorobabel, LXX). The pseudepigraphic Hebrew Apocalypse of Z. (Apocalypses) was presumably written in Palestine (Palaestina) at the beginning of the 7th cent. AD and reflects Messianic expectations of the Jewish population, which - threatened by anti-Jewish Byzantine law - was hoping for a Persian conquest of Palestine (Persian-Byzantine Wars 604-630 AD; dating of the Apocalypse to the 4th or 5th cent.[1]). Embedded in a frame story, the revelation by Metatron (some MSS:…

Salome

(460 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Hebrew šelomṣiyōn, 'Peace of Zion', Aramaic short form šelamṣāh; Σαλώμη/ Salṓmē). [German version] [1] Sister of Herod [1] the Great, 2nd half, 1st cent. BC Sister of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great ( c. 57 BC - AD 10). Until his death, she played an important role in factional intrigues at the Herodian court: she plotted against Herod's Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1] I and their sons Alexander and Aristoboulus [4], likewise against her own husbands Iosephus [1] and Costobarus, who were executed (Jos. BI 1,441 ff.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1…

Menaḥem ben Yehuda

(282 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] Son (or grandson) of Judas Galileus, who (like his father Hezekiah) fought against Rome and Herod (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,6; 14,9,2) [2]. Judas is described by Iosephus [4] Flavius as the founder of the so-called fourth (nameless, later given the derogatory name of Sicarii, ‘Dagger Men’ = ‘Murderers’ [1. 50]) philosophical school, which differed from the Pharisaei mainly in its love of freedom and its struggle for the absolute rule of God (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,1; 18,1,6) [3. 599; 1. 8…

Onias

(574 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Greek Ὀν(ε)ίας/ On(e)ías; Hebrew neḥonyah, ḥunyah, ḥoni); personal name, which was widespread in ancient Judaism ([9. vol. 2, 1394, 1455]; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,22; 25; 222; Jos. Ap. 2,49; Mishnah Taan 3,8). In the pre-Maccabaean period, bearers of this name included four Zadokid High Priests at the Temple of Jerusalem. The most important historical sources for the lineage of the Oniads are the Antiquitates Iudaicae of Iosephus [4] Flavius and 2 Macc. [German version] [1] O. I. High Priest, father of Simon the Just, 4th/3rd cents. BC (Late 4th cent. BC). Son of the High Priest Jaddu…

Zealots

(640 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (ζηλωταί/ zēlōtaí, from Greek ζηλοῦν/ zēloûn, 'strive after'). Political and religious group of Jews who rose against Roman rule in Palestine in the 1st cent. AD, primarily in the first Jewish-Roman War (Jewish Wars). The term 'Zealots' can be found in Iosephus [4] Flavius (BI 4,160f.; 7,268-270), whose Bellum Iudaicum (books 4-7) and Antiquitates form the most important historical sources for the Zealots' movement and ideology. The term is a translation of the Hebrew qannāīm ( qannā, 'eager', sc. for God, e.g. in the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhed…

Phocylides

(409 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φωκυλίδης/ Phōkylídēs). [German version] [1] Poet from Miletus, c. 540 BC Greek poet from Miletus (Phryn. 336, p. 463 R.; Suda) who wrote hexameters and elegiac gnomai (gnome; elegiac: Athen. 632d; both: Suda φ 643), c. 540 BC (Suda). The Γνῶμαι/ Gnômai, aphorisms, are ascribed to P. by many authors (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Strabo, Dion [I 3] Chrysostomus, Athenaeus, Clement of Alexandria). They begin (as do those of Demodocus [2] of Lerus) with καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου/ kai tóde Phōkulídou, 'P. says this, too'). They are written in hexameters (from one to eight verses…

Jerusalem

(2,389 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Caesar | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Legio | Limes | Mesopotamia | Natural catastrophes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Aegean Koine [German version] I. Name Hebrew Y rūšālēm, presumably ‘foundation of the (god) Šalēm’, in the Masoretic texts ( Masorah) always vocalized in the dual form Y rūšālayim; Greek Ἱερουσαλήμ, Ἰεροσόλυμα; Latin Ierusalem, [ H] ierosolyma), archaizing Šālēm (Gn 14:18; Ps 76:3) or Y bōs (Judg 19:10-11; 1 Chr 11:4-5), und…

Magic, Magi

(7,505 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The magic of the ancient Orient and of Egypt is based on a view of the world that runs counter to that of religion. In the world-view of magic, men, gods and demons are tied to each other and to the cosmos by sympathies and antipathies, whereas in the religious world view everything is created by the gods for their own purposes; the relations between men and the cosmos are the result of deliberate actions of the gods. In the practice of religion, however, b…

Iosephus

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Ἰώσηπ(π)ος; Iṓsēp(p)os, Ιώσηφ(ος); Iṓsēph(os)). From Hebrew yosep yosipyah ‘may God add (further children)’, a prevalent Jewish name in memory of the biblical patriarch Joseph (Gen. 35; 37-50), e.g. in the Herodian family. [German version] [1] Uncle and brother-in-law of Herod [1] the Gr. Uncle and brother-in-law of  Herod [1]  the Great (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,65; 81). He acted as his deputy for the duration of Herod's journey to M.  Antonius [I 9] in 34 BC. He became involved in the intrigues surrounding Queen  Mariamme, his wife Salome pr…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …
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