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Cyrrhus

(465 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Κύρρος; Kýrrhos). [German version] [1] Macedonian city Macedonian city near the modern Aravissos between Pella and Edessa, existed already in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,100,1); was to be the site of one of the gigantic temples supposedly planned by Alexander the Great (Diod. Sic. 18,4,5); half-finished partial structures in an ancient quarry near C. could be connected with this intended construction project [1]. An unpublished inscription (cf. [2]) attests to a municipal authority concerned with the bu…

Macedonia, Macedones

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg) | Jung, Reinhard (Berlin) | von Mangoldt, Hans (Tübingen)
(Μακεδονία/ Makedonía, Μακεδόνες/ Makedónes, Lat. Macedonia, Macedones). [German version] I. Geography, economy, ethnogenesis The core territory of the ancient Macedonian state was in the plains immediately to the east and north of the Olympus mountain range. Beginning with the 7th cent. BC, the Macedones conquered from their capital Aegae [1] step by step Pieria (south of the lower Haliacmon), Bottiaea (between Haliacmon and Axius), Almopia, Mygdonia (located in lowlands of lake Bolbe), Crestonia (to the no…

Argilus

(81 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Ἄργιλος; Árgilos). Founded by settlers from Andros, c. 3 km inland from the mouth of the Strymon. Member of the  Delian League, seceded from Athens in 424/23 BC (Thuc. 4,103,4), remained autonomous until the capture of Amphipolis by Philip II. A settlement still existed in Roman imperial times. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 158-160 F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 363.

Edessa

(672 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Commerce | Asia Minor | Limes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome (Ἔδεσσα; Édessa). [German version] [1] City in central Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones City in central Macedonia at the eastern entrance to the Kara-Burun pass from Lower to Upper Macedonia, today known as Edessa, formerly as Vodena. In previous times, E. was wrongly regarded as the old Macedonian royal seat of  Aegae [1]. E. was first men…

Erigon

(38 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἐριγών; Erigṓn). Largest tributary of the  Axius, flows through the Macedonian regions of Lyncestis, Pelagonia and Derriopus, mouth near Stobi; today's Crna Reka. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 292.

Chalastra

(91 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
(Χαλάστρα; Chalástra). [German version] [1] City at the mouth of the Axius City at the mouth of the Axius (Str. 7 fr. 20; 23; cf. Hdt. 7,123), identified by Hecataeus as belonging to Thrace (Steph. Byz. s.v.). The population was recruited for the foundation of Thessalonica (Str. 7 fr. 21). Not located. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 199. [German version] [2] Lake Natron-bearing lake, probably near the town of the same name (Steph. Byz. s.v.; Plin. HN 31,107; Suda s.v.). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Cambounia

(64 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Καμβούνια; Kamboúnia). Mountainous region in northern Greece west of Mt. Olympus, which separated the Macedonian region of  Elimea from the tripolis of the Perrhaebi, and forms the southern watershed of the  Haliacmon. The easiest way to cross the C. was via the pass of Volustana (918 m) (cf. Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,10). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Volustana, RE 9A, 906.

Beroea

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Βέροια; Béroia). [German version] [1] In Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In Macedonia. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Hellenistic and Roman periods City in Macedonian  Bottice, east of the Bermium; now Verria. First mentioned in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 1,61,4), B. had its development, like many Macedonian cities, principally in the Hellenistic period; the Antigonids seem to have particularly favoured…

Lydias

(78 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λυδίας; Lydías). Navigable river in Macedon (supplied by the nowadays dried Lake Loudias), which connected Pella with the sea (Str. 7, fr. 20; 22). Mentioned already by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 147 and Scyl. 66. The mouth appears to have shifted to the north in antiquity, since Hdt. 7,127 reports a common mouth of the L. and the Haliacmon. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 101f., 125 map 2.

Celetrum

(81 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] ( Celetrum). Town in the Epirote or rather upper Macedonian region of Orestis, only once mentioned in literature with this name (Liv. 31,40,2), but because of the clearly described location identified as the modern Kastoria. Probably founded anew under Galerius at the beginning of the 4th cent. AD as Diokletianopolis, afterwards deserted, rebuilt under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,3). Bishop's seat in the 6th cent. AD (Hierocles, Synekdemos 642,12). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 238f.

Amphipolis

(391 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Delian League (Ἀμφίπολις; Amphípolis). City in the fertile land of the  Edones, on a hillside 4.5 km upriver of the mouth of the  Strymon which surrounds the city on three sides. It was founded in 437/6 BC by the Athenian Hagnon in this strategically dominating position (Ἐννέα Ὁδοί, Ennéa Hodoí, ‘Nine Ways’), with the support and participation of other Greek towns (Thuc. 9; Diod. Sic. 12,32,3). A. controlled the land rou…

Bormiscus

(63 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βορμίσκος; Bormískos). City in  Mygdonia, east of Bolbe (Thuc. 4,103,1). Euripides is said to have been torn to pieces by dogs there (Steph. Byz. s.v.). B. was assimilated into  Arethusa [8] but even in the imperial period was remembered through the mutatio Euripides on the   via Egnatia . Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 170.

Aeson

(579 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Lezzi-Hafter, Adrienne (Kilchberg) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
(Αἴσων; Aísōn). [German version] [1] Figure from Greek mythology, eponym of the city of Aeson Son of Cretheus and Tyro (Scarphes: schol. D Hom. Il. 532), husband of Polymelas or Alcimedes, father of Jason (Hom. Od. 11,258; Hes. Theog. 992; fr. 38-40 M-W; Pherecyd. FGrH F 104; Apollod. 1,107) and of Promachus (Apollod. 1, 143; Diod. Sic. 4,50,2). Eponym of the city of Aeson (Pherecyd. FGrH F 103; Pind. fr. 273; Apoll. Rhod. 1,411 with schol.), lives, however, always in Iolcus, whose legitimate ruler is his olde…

Idomenae

(85 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἰδομεναί/ Idomenaí, Lat. Idomene, Eidomene). Town in the Amphaxitis region of Macedonia, on the road from Thessalonica to the Danube (Str. 8,8,5; Tab. Peut. 8,1), perhaps near the modern Marvinci. I. is already documented in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,100,3); in the 3rd cent. BC, it was visited by Delphic theōroí (‘sacred envoys’) [1] and was still known in the 6th cent. AD (Hierocles, Synekdemos 639,5). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 BCH 45, 1921, 17 Z. 68. F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 177.

Emathia

(65 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἠμαθία; Ēmathía). Old name for Lower Macedonian regions (Hom. Il. 14,226; Str. 7, fr. 11), later only an imprecise poetic term for Macedonia west of the  Axius without Pieria (Ptol. 3,13,9). By E. Pol. 23,10,4 understood Paeonia, Str. l.c. (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v.) knew of a city E. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia I, 1972, 155f.

Xylopolis

(23 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ξυλόπολις; Xylopolis). Settlement at Mygdonia [1] in Macedonia (Plin. HN. 4,35; Ptol. 3,13,36), not located. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Prasias limne

(51 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Πρασιὰς λίμνη; Prasiàs límnē). Lake in the Strymon valley (modern Limni Kerkinis in Greece). The Paeones lived there in palafittes as Hdt. 5,15 f. describes them. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia, vol. 1, 1972, 193 f.  Müller, 89 f.

Pydna

(422 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Punic Wars (Πύδνα; Pýdna). Greek seaport on the coast of Pieria in Macedonia to the north of Cape Atherida (Macedonia, with maps). As early as the 5th cent. BC, P. was considered to belong to Macedonia (Thuc. 1,137,2: “ἐς Πύδναν τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρου”, referring to king Alexander [II 2] of Macedonia). In 432 BC, P. was besieged by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,61,2 f.); in 410, it was final…

Thessalonica

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Θεσσαλονίκη/ Thessaloníkē). [German version] [1] City in Thessalia This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Latin Thessalonica, -nice; today also T.) Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. Location, Classical Period City on the Thermaic Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) with a favourable natural harbour and best connections with the hin…

Axius

(246 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich)
[I] (Ἄξιος; Áxios). Largest river in  Macedonia, today Vardar; rises in Sar Planina and flows into the Aegean to the west of Thessalonica. Barely navigable owing to its gorges, the A. valley does, however, form the main overland route between the Aegean and the region around the Danube, a route which has been in use from the time of antiquity and is still used today. The A. flowed through the settlement territories of the Dardani, the Paeones and the Macedones (Amphaxitis). [II] Plebeian gentile name, mentioned in records since the 3rd cent. BC and possibly connected with th…

Pella

(760 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Πέλλα; Pélla). [German version] [1] City near modern Palea {{?}}Pella This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Balkans, languages | Education / Culture From c. 400 BC under Archelaus [1] the residence of Macedonian kings near modern Palea P., in Antiquity reachable from the sea by ship on the Lydias. By the 4th cent. BC the largest Macedonian city (Xen. Hell. 5,2,13), with a system…

Aeane

(168 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (ᾈανή; Aianḗ). Macedonian town in  Elimea, 23 km south of the modern Kozani on the left bank of the  Haliacmon. Excavations have pointed to a prosperous settlement of the late Bronze Age to the 1st cent. BC, still verifiable for AD 100 [4. 15]. It was an important town in the classical and Hellenistic periods (myth of its foundation: Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), probably a royal seat with two stoas, and columned buildings with finds of imported Attic ceramics of the 5th cent. BC. Probably seat of the   koinon of the Elimiotae [1. 35, 36]. Resettled and re…

Petra

(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…

Eordaea

(76 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἐορδαία, Ἐορδία; Eordaía, Eordía). Macedonian landscape east of Lyncus, west of Bermion, northeast of the watershed of the Haliacmon. Cities of E. were Arnisa, Cellis, Boceria. In 167 BC E. was annexed to Macedonia IV (Liv. 45,30,6). The via Egnatia led through E., in the Roman Imperial period apparently a civitas. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia I, 1972, 106-110 F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 159-169.

Haliacmon

(48 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἁλιάκμων; Haliákmōn). Largest southern Macedonian river, flows through the lands of Orestis, Elimea and Pieria and empties into the Thermaic Gulf. An important route to Thessaly ran through the lower H. valley. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. H. (2), RE Suppl. 11, 674f.

Gerrunium

(54 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Fortress in Dassaretia near Antigonea (modern Berat); captured in 200 BC by L. Apustius (Liv. 31,27,2). Probably identical to Gerus (Γεροῦς; Geroûs), that was conquered by Philip V in 217 BC (Pol. 5,108,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Illyris, Rome and Macedon in 229-205 B.C., in: JRS 58, 1968, 16.

Daton

(45 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Δάτον, Δάτος; Dáton, Dátos). Thracian region north-east of the Pangaeum mountains; here we find the Thasian mining colony of Crenides which was conquered c. 356 BC by Philip II and was absorbed into the newly founded Philippi. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Baphyras

(57 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βαφύρας; Baphýras). River in Pieria, rising at Mount Olympus, then named Helicon, and discharging into the Aegean east of Dion. After an underground run of about 5 km, it continued above ground, and was navigable from Dion (Paus. 9,30,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 125.

Azorus

(91 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἄζωρος; Ázōros). City belonging to the tripolis of the  Perrhaebi (Str. 7,7,9), near the present-day city of Vuvala, by the Sarandaporos. Although first mentioned as a Macedonian fort in 317 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,52,6), A. appears to date from much earlier. Probably as a member of the Perrhaebi alliance in the 2nd cent. BC, A. managed to settle a border dispute with  Mondaea (Syll3 638). Disputed territory in the 3rd Macedonian War (Pol. 28,13; Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924…

Leibethra

(156 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λείβεθρα; Leíbethra). Macedonian city between Dion [II 2] and Heracleon [2] near modern Leptokarya (cf. Str. 7, fr. 18); its territorium bordered on Gonni [1. no. 2]. In the 3rd cent. BC, L. was considered to be autonomous as it received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) [2. 17 l. 52], but it obviously became merged with the Roman colony of Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591). According to Str. 9,2,25, L. was sacred to the Muses; Pausanias heard in Larisa the story that Orpheus had been buried in L. but after a severe flood his bones h…

Drabescus

(79 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δράβησκος; Drábēskos). City of the Edones near Zdravik c. 12 km north of  Amphipolis, where the Athenians were defeated by the Thracians in c. 465 BC (Thuc. 1,100,4). Traces of settlement are existing up into the Roman Imperial period, when D. was a station on the via Egnatia (Tab. Peut.: Daravescos). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 391f. TIR K 35,1, 25.

Perrhaebi

(184 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Περραιβοί; Perrhaiboí). Tribe on the western slopes of Olympus [1] on the border between Thessalia and Macedonia. Still independent in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,749) , in the 5th cent. BC they were dependent on the Thessali, particularly on Larisa [3], as tributary períoikoi (Thuc. 4,78,6; Str. 9,5,19). From the period of their independence they retained two votes in the Delphic Amphictyonic Council  ( Amphiktyonía ), until Philip [4] II took one vote from them (346 BC). With Thessalia, the P. belonged to the Macedonian Kingdom unt…

Morrylus

(86 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Μόρρυλος/ Mόrrylos). City in Macedonian Crestonia (Macedonia) near modern Ano Apostoloi, known from inscriptions no earlier than the Hellenistic period, later also mentioned in Plin. HN 4,35 and Ptol. 3,13,38. M. had city status in the 3rd cent. BC and received theoroí (‘festival envoys’) from Delphi [1. 18 Z. 84]. M. sustained a significant cult of Asclepius. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Liste delphique des théorodoques, in: BCH 45, 1921, 1-85. M.B. Chatzopoulos, L.D. Loukopoulou, M. Cité de la Crestonie (Meletem…

Paeones, Paeonia

(200 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Παίονες/ Paíones, Παιονία/ Paionía). Large tribe under its own king, inhabiting the north of the area later known as Macedonia, particularly in the valley of the Axius and the surrounding mountain regions as far as the Strymon (Thuc. 2,98,2; Str. 7,5,1). Hom. Il. 848-50 knew of the P. as friends of the Trojans; in c. 500 BC, the P. around Lake Prasias were temporarily deported to Phrygia by the Persian Megabazus (Hdt. 5,16) [1]. In 359 BC, P. attacked the Macedonians, but they were defeated and subjugated by Philip [4] II (Diod. Sic…

Gonnus, Gonni

(151 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Γόννος; Gónnos, Γόννοι; Gónnoi). Town of the  Perrhaebi, located on three hills to the north of the Peneius at the western entry to the Tempe valley. Evidence of settlement dates back to the Neolithic. In historical times, after initial domination by Larissa, the town gained in strategic importance in the course of the 4th cent. BC, following Philip II's conquest of Thessalia. It became a Macedonian fortress with a garrison and influx of Macedonian population, and experienced a peri…

Lete

(207 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λητή; Lētḗ). Strategically located city in Macedonia/Mygdonia near modern Liti, minted coins already before the city became Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC [1. 67-72]. In the 4th cent. BC recognized as a city within Macedonia (SEG 36,331 l. 19), L. kept a cult site for Demeter [2. 44 no. 123]. As an autonomous Macedonian city L. received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) in the 3rd cent. [3. 18 l. 73], as part of the Roman province Macedonia, L. honoured the quaestor M. Annius in 117 BC because of his aid against marauding Celts (Syll.3 700), but was obviously still threatened…
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