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Zarai

(126 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia near the Mauretanian border, modern Zraia (to the northwest of Batna in Algeria; It. Ant. 35,7; Tab. Peut. 2,3: Zaras). In the time of Hadrian, a cohors was stationed in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 2532 = Suppl. 2, 18042). A customs tariff of the year AD 202 was discovered in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 4508 = Suppl. 2, 18643) which gives important information on questions of economic law and history [1. 7-23]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2532; 4508-4574; 2, 10765; Suppl. 2, 18042; 18643-18645. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. P. Darmon, Note sur le Tarif de Zaraï, in: L…

Idicra

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Numidia south of Milev-Cuicul line, the modern Azziz-ben-Tellis (It. Ant. 28,4). Two inscriptions tell of a tariff of sacrifices for the cult of African gods (CIL VIII 1, 8246f.); further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 8243-8266. In the 4th and 5th cents. I. was an episcopal see (Optatus 2,18, p. 53,4; 19, p. 54,14; Notitia episcopatuum Numidiae 16a). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 17, no. 214.

Quiza

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis, northeast of Portus [5] Magnus on the right bank of the Oued Chelif (Plin. HN 5,19: Q. Cenitana; Ptol. 4,2,3: Κούϊζα κολωνία/ Koúïza kolōnía;  It. Ant. 13,9: Q. municipium), modern El-Benian. Duumviri are attested for AD 128 (CIL VIII 2, 9697); there is also mention of a disp( unctor) reip( ublicae) Q( uizensium) ('comptroller of the city of Q.', CIL VIII 2, 9699). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9697-9703; suppl. 3, 21514 f. Significant ruins survive. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, leaf 11, no. 2  P. Cadenat, Q. et Mina ..., in:…

Abba

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἄββα; Ábba, varia lectio Obba, Liv. 30,7,10). Town in   Africa proconsularis .  Syphax retreated to A. in 203 BC, after his encampment near  Utica had been burned down by C.  Laelius and  Massinissa (Pol. 14,6,12; 7,5). A.'s location most likely corresponds to either the modern Henchir Bou Djaoua or Henchir Merkeb en-Nabi [1. 430 f.]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967. AATun 100, sheet 29, no. 87 f.

Ammaedara

(263 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes (Ἀμμαίδαρα; Ammaídara). Town in Africa proconsularis [5. 147, n. 756] between  Althiburus and  Theveste (Ptol. 4,3,30), modern Haïdra; for other forms of the name [4. 1841]. Originally, A. was probably a settlement of the  Musulamii [2. 117-121]. Because of its strategically important location, which allowed it to control important communication roads and to cover the southern flank of Africa proconsularis, the   legio III Augusta was relocated to the vicinity of A. dur…

Bagae

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in  Numidia, located between the Aurès mountains to the south and the salt lake Garaat al-Tarf to the north, called Ksar Baghai today, originally perhaps a local castellum. There is evidence for a council of decuriones in the year AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 2275). A diocesan town in 256, it became one of the most important centres of  Donatism in late antiquity [1. 284, 304, 719-723]. For example in the year 394, 310 Donatist bishops assembled in B. (Aug. Epist. Parmeniani 3,4,21; c. Cresconium grammaticum 3f.). B. wa…

Iomnium

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Gr. Ἰόμνιον; Iómnion or Ἰόμνυον; Iómnyon). I. probably originated as a Phoenician or Punic trading post (as indicated by the letter I at the beginning of the name: ʾj = Punic ‘island’), located in  Mauretania Caesariensis, near the modern Tigzirt (Algeria). Ptol. 4,2,8; It. Ant. 17,1; Tab. Peut. 2,2. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8995-9001; Suppl. 3, 20710-20728; AE 1994, 1898 f.; Rev. Africaine 58, 1914, 342-353. It became a municipium under Septimius [II 7] Severus. The Punic tradition continued to remain vibrant for a long time. In the Roman peri…

Leptis Minor

(290 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Punic Lpqj; [1]). Founded by the Phoenicians on the east coast of Tunisia, the modern Lamta ( Leptis, Sall. Iug. 19,1; Leptis, Mela 1,34, Plin. HN 5,25; 76; Λέπτις μικρά, Ptol. 4,3,10; Λέπτις ἡ μικρά, Stadiasmus maris magni 113; Lepti minus civitas, Itin. Anton. 58,6; Lepteminus, Tab. Peut. 6,3; Leptis minus, Geogr. Rav. 37,45; Tempu minus, Geogr. Rav. 88,44; Lepti minus, Guido 132,72; Lepti minus, CIL III Suppl. 2, 13582). In the Libyan War (241-238 BC) the rebel Mathus lost a battle at Leptis Minor (LM…

Gunugu

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (New Punic Gngn). Punic or Punic-influenced trading post west of Caesarea, modern Sidi Brahim near Gouraya. Under Augustus G. rose to become a colonia whose citizens were allocated to the tribus Quirina. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5 (Κανουκκίς); It. Ant. 15,1 ( Gunugus); Geogr. Rav. p. 40,45 ( Gunubus); 88,10 ( Gunagus); 132,19 ( Cunagus). In the Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Caesariensis (111a) an episcopus Gunugitanus is mentioned for the year 484. Inscriptions: Réperto…

Tigava

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa [3]; Ptol. 4,2,26; Amm. 29,5,20?) on the right bank of the Oued Chéliff, modern El Kherba. Initially a civitas (Plin. HN 5,21), then a municipium (It. Ant. 38,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9648; 10946 f.; Suppl. 3, 21497 f.; 22569 f.; 22579; AE 1955, 149. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s. v. T. (2), RE 6 A, 942 f. [German version] [2] Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa …

Macrobii

(277 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Μακρόβιοι; Makróbioi, Lat. Macrobii). [German version] [1] According to Herodotus 'the long-lived Ethiopians' According to Herodotus, Cambyses had also the intention of campaigning against the ‘long-living Ethiopians’ (μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, Hdt. 3,17,1), who lived on the ‘southern sea’ (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ, Hdt. l.c.; cf. also Hdt. 3,21-23). Since this notíēi thalássēi (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ) of Herodotus' is lost in mythical darkness, it is useless to speculate on the locales of the ‘long-living Ethiopians’, who are occasionally incorrectly separated from…

Pentapolis

(49 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πεντάπολις; Pentápolis). The region of the 'five cities' of western Cyrenaica, i.e. of Euhesperides/Berenice [8], Tauchira/Arsinoe, Barke (later outstripped by Ptolemaïs), Cyrene and Apollonia/Sozusa. With Darnis (modern Derna) the region of eastern Cyrenaica began. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. P. (3), RE 19, 509f.

Tubusuctu (Thubuscum)

(190 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis (Plin. HN 5,21; Ptol. 4,2,31; 8,13,12; Amm.  Marc. 29,5,11), about 30 km to the southwest of Saldae in the Oued Soummam valley, modern Tiklat. Although founded as a colonia by the later Augustus for veterans of the legio VII, T. adopted the (neo-)Punic traditions of the surrounding area. In the late Roman period the centre of a military district (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,27; [1. 52]). In T.'s territory there was significant olive cultivation. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8834-8921; Suppl. 3, 20648-20…

Rusguniae

(223 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Name of Cap Matifou, which encloses the Bay of Algiers in the northeast, and the Punic base near the cape, modern Tamentfoust. [1. 379] explains the name with Rš-gnj = 'Cap du Francolin'. Evidence: Ruthisia (?), Mela 1,31; colonia Augusti R., Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουστόνιον/ Rhoustónion, Ptol. 4,2,6; R. colonia, It. Ant. 16,1; Rusgume, Geogr. Rav. 40,43; Rugunie, Geogr. Rav. 88,13; Rusgimia, Guido, Geographia 132,22. R. became a colonia through deductio of legio IX Gemella before AD 27 [2]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII…

Chullu

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (Κούλλου; Koúllou). Coastal town in the province of Numidia, modern Collo. (Sources: Ptol. 4,3,3; It. Ant. 19,1; Tab. Peut. 3,2; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 44,29; Geogr. Rav. 40,21; Guido 132,32). Mentioned by Solin. (26,1) because of its purple dye works, C. was possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, and in any case, under strong Punic influence [1. 343-368]. Under the governorship of P. Sittius it became a colonia Minervia, and later constituted one of the quattuor coloniae Cirtens…

Vaga

(160 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; cf. Str. 17,3,12; Plin. HN 5,29) 35 km to the north of Thugga, modern Béja, with a number of ancient remains (city wall, basilica). In the second of the Punic Wars. V. apparently supplied troops for the Carthaginian contingent (Sil. Pun. 3,259). No later than after the third Punic War, V. fell to Massinissa. During the War of Iugurtha, V. was conquered by Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 29,4; 47,1; 66-69). It was probably Septimius [II 7] Severus, who elevated V. to a coloni…

Nias

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίας/ Nías). River in western Africa, probably in Senegal (Ptol. 4,6,7). The N. is probably correctly identified with the Chretes of Hanno (Χρέτης/ Chrétēs, Hanno, Periplus 9, GGM 1,8), the Chremetes of Aristotle (Χρεμέτης/ Chremétēs, Aristot. Mete. 1,13 p. 350b) and the Bambotus (Plin. HN 5,10) [1. 776, 8147]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. F. Windberg, s.v. Nias, RE 17, 165-167.

Furnus

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Maius City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Thuburbo Maius, modern Aïn Fourna. Municipium since an indefinite period (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12039). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 752f.; Suppl. 1, 12030; 12039; Suppl. 4, 23798-23811; ILTun 617-620. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 100, sheet 25, no. 187. [German version] [2] Minus City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Carthage, modern Henchir Msaadine. Municipium since Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25808b). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 10609f.; Suppl.…

Xilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξιλία; Xilía). City in northern Africa (πόλις Λιβύης, 'city in Libya'), not located. Mentioned in Alexander [23] Polyhistor FGrH 273 F 44 (1st cent. BC). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2129.

Muthul

(30 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A river in Numidia, right-hand tributary of the river Bagradas, probably the Oued Mellègue. Sall. Iug. 48,3-50,2. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography R. Oehler, s.v. Muthul, RE 16, 937f.

Agbia

(99 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town within   Africa proconsularis , modern Henchir Hedja near Dougga. For the tradition of the place name: [1. 766]. At the time of  Antoninus [1] Pius A. was a   pagus and   civitas (CIL VIII 1, 1548), at the time of  Diocletian (AD 284-305) a   municipium (CIL VIII 1, 1550; Suppl. 4, 27415). Significant Roman and Byzantine remains, numerous inscriptions (CIL VIII 1, 1545-1570; Suppl. 1, 15549-15561; Suppl. 4, 27381-27390). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. A., RE 1, 766. AATun 050, sheet 33, no. 190 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine a…

Tingis

(213 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Punic Tng). Berber city with a convenient natural harbour (Str. 3,1,8; Mela 1,26; Plin. HN 5,2; Plut. Sertorius 9,5; Ptol. 4,1,5; Cass. Dio 48,45,2; 60,9,5), capital from AD 40 of Mauretania Tingitana, modern Tangiers (in Morocco). The ancient city has been entirely overbuilt by modern buildings. From no later than the 8th cent. BC, Phoenician traders (Ph…

Tipasa

(316 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τίπασα/ Típasa). [German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17), about 30 km to the east of Caesarea [1], modern T. or, in Arabic, Tefased, with substantial ancient remains (two thermae, a theatre, two temples, a nymphaeum, two basilicae, etc.). Possibly a Phoenician, in any case a Punic trade port (evidence from the 6th cent. BC onwards; possibly a cult of Baal Ham…

Mina

(393 words)

Author(s): Hitzl, Konrad (Tübingen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Unit of weight and coinage The mina (μνᾶ/ mná), with its multiples and divisions, was the most common Greek unit of weight alongside the stater. It was set on the one hand by the theoretical weight of the drachma coin minted in the city concerned, and on the other hand by the number of Drachmai which equated to a mina. The view long current in research that every mina weighed 100 drachmai, has been refuted. On Aegina, the mina (coin and weight) amounted to 70 drachmai (70×6.237 g = 436.6 g); the Corinthian mina was probably commensurate to it, equating to 150 drachmai (150×2.91…

Numluli

(121 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, north-west of Thubursicum Bure on the fertile plateau of the ‘great fields’, modern Henchir el-Matria. Under M. Aurelius (AD 161-180) or slightly later N. was a municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26129). A bishop Aurelius plebis Numnulitanae ( sic!) was attested for 411 (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,126). Some impressive ruins have been preserved, including a capitolium from the period of M. Aurelius, baths, wells, churches and parts of a late Roman wall. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 1…

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Aggar

(167 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
There were two towns in   Africa Byzacena of that name. [German version] [1] Town near Ksour es-Saf The first is mentioned in Bell. Afr. 67,1; 76,2; 79,1 (Plin. HN 5,30: oppidum liberum), its location to be found most likely near Ksour es-Saf close to the modern Maklouba. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Modern Henchir Sidi Amara The second town, the modern Henchir Sidi Amara, was located in the plains of Kairouan, near Ousseltia. In AD 232, this peregrine town became a   municipium (CIL VIII 1, 714) and later a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12145). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AA…

Rusuccuru

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Promontory and Punic city near the mouth of the Oued Sebaou (in the later Mauretania Caesariensis), modern Dellys (Bell. Afr. 23,1: Ascurum (?); Plin. HN 5,20: Rusucurium; Ptol. 4,2,8: Ῥουσουκκόραι/ Rhousoukkórai or Ῥουσοκκόρου/ Rhousokkórou; It. Ant. 16,4 and 39,2: R.; 36,3 and 39,1: Rusuccurru; Tab. Peut. 2,2: R.; Mart. Cap. 6,668: R.; Geogr. Rav. 40,43: Rusicuron; 88,13: Rusucurus; 88,15: Rusucurum; Guido, Geographia 132,22: Rusicorus). [1. 380] explains the name with Rš-hqr = 'Cap de la Perdrix…

Mopth...

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis, near Cuicul in Numidia (Tab. Peut. 2,4: Mopti Municipium), modern Mons. Ruins: Capitolium with inscriptions to Septimius Severus and his sons [1. 49-58, table III-V], temple of Saturn [2. 252f.], curia, tombs. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8655-8688; suppl. 3, 20417-20428. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Galand, Mons, M. et Mopti, in: MEFRA 61, 1949, 35-91, pls. I-VI 2 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments, vol. 2, 1966. AAA, Bl. 16, Nr. 196  W. Kroll, s.v. Mopta, RE 16, 251.

Simitthus

(248 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre City in Africa Proconsularis (Plin. HN 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,29; It. Ant. 43,3; Tab. Peut. 4,5) in the valley of the Bagradas to the southwest of Bulla Regia, modern Chemtou in Tunisia; famous for its marble quarries (Plin. HN 5,22; 35,3; 36,49; Isid. Orig. 16,5,16). After 148 BC Micipsa built at S. a hilltop sanctuary for his father Massinissa, which in the Roman Period was converted to a temple of Saturnus. Archaeology: many finds from the N…

Baquates

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Mauritanian tribe ( gens Baquatium) [1. 2851] that probably lived in the east and south of Mauretania Tingitana. Ptol. 4,1, 10, the It. Ant. 2,2f. and the Liber generationis (1,197,65 Mommsen) link it with the tribe of the Macenites or Μακανῖται ( Makanîtai) and Massennae, Iulius Honorius (cosmographia B 47) and the Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis (14,4f.) with the Barbares, i.e. the  Bavares. The Romans allowed the freedom-loving B. their independence and treated them as allies; Inscr. latines d'Afrique 609. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 H. D…

Machlyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Libyan nomads who according to Herodotus (4,178; 180) lived west of the Lotophagoi and east of the Ausees (on the Little Syrte?) and according to Pliny (HN 5,28; 7,15) in the neighbouring area of the Nasamones on the Great Syrte. Pliny and his source Calliphanes - both incidentally see in the M. androgynoi (i.e. people of dual sexuality) - were probably wrong. Sources: Hdt. 4,178; 180 (Μάχλυες; Máchlyes); Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 103q (Ἰαλχλευεῖς/ Ialchleueîs the MSS tradition SMA; Μαχλυεῖς/ Machlyeîs corr. J. Vossius); Plin. HN 5,28 ( Machroae); 7,15 ( Machlyae); P…

Lambaesis

(399 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Legio | Limes | Limes | Rome Camp and town in Numidia on the northern slope of Mons Aurasius (modern Aurès), modern Tazoult-Lambèse (on Lam- place-names of the immediate vicinity and beyond cf. [1. 539]). Documentary evidence: Ptol. 4,3,29 (Λάμβαισα; Lámbaisa); It. Ant. 32,4; 33,2f.; 34,2; 40,6 ( Lambese); Tab. Peut. 3,2 ( Lambese); in inscriptions more frequently Lambaesis than Lambaese. L. was close to the beginning of the road leading through the gorge of Calceus Herculis (to…

Theveste

(173 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes (Θεουέστη/ Theouéstē). City of Africa proconsularis (Africa [3] Ptol. 4,3,30; Procop. Vand. 2,21,19), one of the most important communications nodes in northern Africa, 38 km to the southwest of Ammaedara, modern Tébessa with significant ancient remains (e.g. Arch of Caracalla). T. was conquered in 247 BC by Hanno [6] the Great ([1. 71; 246 note 232]; Pol. 1,73,1; Diod. Sic. 4,18,1; 24,10,2; Amm. Marc. 17,4,2 f.). From the time of Traianus, T. was a colonia. The city, destroyed by V…

Clupea

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars (Ἀσπίς; Aspís). Possibly pre-Phoenician town (Procop. Vand. 2,10,24) of the later Africa proconsularis, north-east of the peninsula Bon, today's Kélibia (Sources: Mela 1,34; Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7f.; It. Ant. 57,6; Tab. Peut. 6,2; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 117 [GGM 1, 470]). Str. 17,3,16, Sil. Pun. 3,243f. and App. Lib. 519 call C. Aspis. Notwithstanding Ptol. 4,3,7f., C. and Aspis were not two different towns (cf. Sol. 27,8). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 982-986; X 1, 6104; AE 1991, 1646-1658. Huß, Wern…

Cediae

(70 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the province of  Numidia, south-east of Mascula, modern Henchir Ounkif. From the time of Diocletian (AD 284-305) at the latest, the administration of the res publica Cediensium lay in the hands of duumviri. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 17655. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 10727-10732; Suppl. 2, 17655-17667, 17759. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 39, no. 43 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 401.

Abthugni

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (pun. p[t]bgn?). Town in Africa Byzacena, the modern Henchir es-Souar; for the tradition of the place name [1]. The   fossa regia ran close to A. (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23084). Under  Hadrian, Abthugni became a   municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11206; Suppl. 4, 23085). Further inscriptions: AE 1991, 461 f., no. 1641-1644. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. Aptugni, RE 2, 288. AATun 050, sheet 42, no. 52 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire, 2, 1981, 265-277.

Aunobaris

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, south-south-west of Thugga, modern Kern el-Kebch, a municipium since the end of the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15563). Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15562-15568; Suppl. 4, 27395-27405; Inscr. latines d' Afrique 591f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 19, no. 160 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 76.

Lamasba

(156 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Significant Numidian road junction, c. 50 km north-west of Lambaesis, modern Henchir Merouana ( Lamasba, It. Ant. 35,2; 5; 6; Lamasbua, Tab. Peut. 2,5; Lamasba oppidum, Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48). L. was probably a municipium from the time of Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22511; cf. 22467). It was an episcopal see from as early as 256 (Cypr. sententiae episcoporum 75). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22427-22466. The text of an inscription of the Elagabalan period (AD 218-222) regulates the distribution of the waters of the aqua Claudian…

Gigthis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on the Lesser Syrte, 30 km north-east of Medenine, modern Bou Grara. Evidence: Ptol. 4,3,11; It. Ant. 60,1; 518,5; Tab. Peut. 6,5. G. was presumably a Phoenician or Punic settlement and in later times perhaps the outlying area of the Cinithi, the allies of  Tacfarinas. Under Hadrian or Antoninus Pius the town was accorded ius Latii maius, and under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161) it became a municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 22707). Further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 25-34; Suppl. 1, 11017-11047; Suppl. 4, 22691-22757. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography S. Lancel, E. Lip…

Lamiggiga

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia between Lambaesis and Diana Veteranorum, modern Sériana. L. was probably in the territory of Diana Veteranorum, but around AD 200 it had its own magistri and received an ordo decurionum. Legionaries and veterans of the legio III Augusta lived in the town. In 411, L. was predominantly on the side of the Donatists ( Donatus [1]; Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,133,1-13; 187,98-100; 198,55f.). Some ruins - churches, baths and wine-presses - are preserved. L. was consolidated into a fortress in the Byza…

Meninx

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μῆνιγξ; Mêninx). Island (modern Djerba) and city (modern al-Kantara) in the province of Africa Tripolitana ( Africa [3]). Eratosthenes (fr. p. 308 Berger, in Plin. HN 5,41) describes the island as ‘lotus-eating’ (λωτοφαγῖτις; lōtophagîtis). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1,85-89); Pol. 1,39,2; 34,3,12; Str. 3,4,3; Mela 2,105; Ptol. 4,3,35; 8,14,13; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 103; 104; 112; 124 (GGM 1,465f.; 468; 471). In 253 BC the Roman fleet ran into diffilculties off M. ((Pol. 1,39,2). In 217 BC the island was laid …

Augila

(100 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (τὰ Αὔγιλα; tà Aúgila). Westernmost and largest of the Ǧālū-Oases, modern Auǧila, according to Hdt. 4,172,1; 182, from the oasis of Sīwa about ten days' journey to the west (200 km south-east of Aǧabı̄ya). Belonging to the  Nasamones, A. was famous for its great number of mighty date palms (Str. 17,3,23; Mela 1,46; Plin. HN 5,26f.; Ptol. 4,5,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. A. (= Apollod.); Procop. Aed. 6,2,14f.). Nowadays, it is the last retreat of the Berber language in Libya. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography W. Vycichl, s.v. A., EB,…

Rusazus

(135 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Name of Cape Corbelin and a Punic base to the south, modern Azeffoun (in Algeria). Evidence: R. Colonia Augusti, Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουσαζοῦς/ Rhousazoûs, Ptol. 4,2,9; Rusazu municipium, Tab. Peut. 2,3; Rusazis municipium, It. Ant. 17,2; Ruseius mune, Geogr. Rav. 40,42. According to [1. 379] the name can be explained as follows: Rš-( h)z( z) = 'Cap (du) Fort'. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8985-8991. A bishop is mentioned for the year AD 484 ( Rusaditanus, Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 69). Remains of embankments, temples, thermae and a necropolis survive. H…

Syrtis

(138 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Σύρτις/ Sýrtis, 'bay'). Ancient term for two bays on the coast of northern Africa: S. maior (modern Gulf of Benghazi) and S. minor (modern Gulf of Gabès). The name, which is probably - in contrast to the opinion of ancient philologists - not Greek but Phoenician in origin, emerges for the first time in Herodotus (e.g. 2,32,2). Ps.-Scylax (109 f.; GGM 1,84-89) and Strabo (2,5,20; 25; 33; 3,4,3; 17,3,1; 17,3,17-20) describe the S. from a geographical point of view. Both bays were fea…

Missua

(140 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the province of Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), in the northwest of the peninsula of Cape Bon, modern Sidi Daoud. Sources: Plin. HN 5,24 ( [oppidum] Misua); Ptol. 4,3,7 (Νίσουα); It. Ant. 493,1f.; Tab. Peut. 6,2 ( Misua); Procop. Vand. 2,14,40 (Μισούα); Geogr. Rav. 88,41; Guido p. 132,62. The name seems to derive from the Phoenician-Punic root ns (‘hewing [rock]’) and refers to the nearby quarries of El-Haouaria [1. 295]. M. may have been a colonia Iulia [2. 186]. Significant ruins survive. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 988-990. A bishop is first m…

Sufetula

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Africa City in Africa Byzacena, modern Sbeitla in Tunisia (cf. It. Ant. 46,6), founded in the second half of the 1st cent. AD, soon afterwards a municipium and a colonia (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 11340), significant road junction; in 256 a bishop's see (Cypr. Sententiae episcopales 19). Remains survive of two honorary arches, a forum (temple), baths, a theatre, churches. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,228-252a; 2567; 2586; suppl. 1,11221(?); 11318-11415 and 11417; 4, …

Tegea

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τεγέα/ Tegéa). [1] Town in the eastern Arcadian plateau [German version] I. Location Important town in the south of the eastern Arcadian plateau (Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,44,1-53,11; Ptol. 3,16,19; Plin. HN. 4,20.; [1]), whose vast area lay between the present-day villages of Hagios Sostis, Episkopi and Alea. The rich, fertile, loamy …

Ruspina

(135 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Name of foothills on the southern shores of the bay of Hammamet (in eastern Tunisia) and of a Phoenician or Punic settlement founded near these, modern Monastir (Bell. Afr. passim: R.; Str. 17,3,12: Ῥουσπῖνον/ Rhouspînon; Plin. HN 5,25: R.; Sil. Pun. 3,260: R.; Ptol. 4,3,9: Ῥουσπίνα/ Rhouspína; Cass. Dio 42,58,4: Ῥούσπινα/ Rhoúspina; Tab. Peut. 6,2: R.); explanation in [1. 380] of the name as Rš-pn(t) = 'Cap d'Angle'. In 46 BC, R. was the first city in Africa to ally itself with Caesar (Bell. Afr. 6,7; 9,1). From the time of Diocletianus on,…

Mileu(m)

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement, 50 km northwest of Cirta, today's Mila. M. came under strong Punic influence, was given to the mercenary leader P. Sittius by Caesar and as colonia Sarnia Milevitana it was one of the four coloniae of the res publica Cirtensium. Sources: App. B Civ. 4,54; Ptol. 4,3,28; It. Ant. 28,3; Tab. Peut. 3,3; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44; Anon. Cosmographia 1,44; Geogr. Rav 39,26. In the Roman period the village-like settlement attained metropolitan character. In the Byzantine period it was expanded into…

Tauchira

(158 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete | Limes (Ταύχειρα; Taúcheira). City in Cyrenaea, modern Tokra in Libya (Hdt. 4,171); founded by Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,26). T. was conquered in 322 BC by Ptolemaeus [1] and renamed by Ptolemaeus [3] to Arsinoe after his step-mother, by M. Antonius [I 9] to Cleopatris. Towards the end of the 4th cent. AD, T. was under pressure from Berber tribes; later it was again fortified under Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed.…

Sigus

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia, 35 km to the southeast of Cirta (It. Ant. 28,1; 34,8; 42,2), modern Sigus in Algeria. S. was under Punic influence in the 3rd and 2nd cents. BC. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19121 ( castellum); CIL VIII 1, 5693 et passim ( respublica Siguitanorum); Suppl. 2, 19135 ( magistri pagi and decuriones). In AD 411 S. was a see (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,197; 209). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 5683; 5693-5879; 2, 10148-51; 10856-10861; Suppl. 2, 19112-19196 and 19197; RIL 813. Boundary stones: Rev. Africaine 83, 1939, 161-181. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliogr…

Thabraca

(127 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Θάβρακα; Thábraka). City probably of Punic origin (cf. CIL VIII 1, 5206: Imilcho Mytthum[balis]) on the northern coast of Tunisia, 10 km from the modern Algerian border (Ptol. 4,3,5; Pol. 12,1,4: Τάβρακα; Plin.  HN 5,22;  Juv. 10,194: Tabraca); of significance as a place of transshipment for marble from Simitthus; modern Tabarka. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,5198-5208; 2,10837; Suppl. 1, 17329-17391. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, Bl. Tabarca; Bl. 7, Nr. 10  C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique…

Zattara

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis between Calama and Thubursicum [2] Numidarum, modern Kef Bezioun. Neo-Punic inscriptions provide evidence of the city's pre-Roman past [1]. In the time of Hadrian Z. had an ordo decurionum (ILAlg I 533). In a 4th cent. inscription Z. is described as a municipium (ILAlg I 534; cf. also CIL VIII 1, 5177-5193; 2, 10833-10836; Suppl. 1, 17266-17276; ILAlg I 533-559. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Journ. Asiatique, Ser. 11, 7, 1916, 443-445 (444 = KAI 171). AAAlg, sheet 18, Nr. 233 M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2331 C.…

Thapsus

(352 words)

Author(s): Falco | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Θάψος/ Thápsos). [German version] [1] Tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily Flat, sandy (Serv. Aen. 3,688) tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily, northwest of Syracusae, connected with the mainland via an isthmus of c. 100 m (Thuc. 6,97,1), modern Penisola di Magnisi. Around 730 BC Lamis from Megara [2] settled on T. after he had abandoned Trotilum and been driven out of Leontini; after his death, his companions left T. in order to make a new home in Megara [3] Hyblaia 7 km to the north (Thuc. 6,4,1). There was an empórion ('trade port') on T. from the 15t…

Caldis

(35 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort, north-west of  Cirta, west of the modern Mechta Nahar. Many steles, dedicated to Saturnus. Inscriptions: Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 3442-3569. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 8, no. 173.

Mauretania

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μαυρουσία/ Maurousía). [German version] I. Name In the second century BC, M. comprised approximately the area of Morocco and western Algeria and was probably called by its Greek name of Maurusia (cf. Coelius Antipater, HRR 1,175 fr. 55). The formation of names in M. (Ἑρπεδιτανοί/ Herpeditanoí), which follows the same pattern as those found in Iberia (e.g. Turdetani, Cassetani), and the existence of the Nektíbēres (Νεκτίβηρες) in M. speak for the fact that Libyans and Iberians are related. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] II. Geography In geological terms, M. is characteri…

Mazyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάζυες/ Mázyes, Μάξυες/ Máxyes). The M. are first mentioned in Hecataeus [3] of Miletus (FGrH 1 F 334) as ‘those roaming about Libya’ (Λιβύης νομάδες). Stephanus s.v. M., who records this comment, continues: εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἕτεροι Μάξυες καὶ ἕτεροι Μάχλυες (‘the M. and the Machlyes are different tribes’). According to Hdt. 4,191,1, the Máxyes (Μάξυες, sic!), who are described as ‘the Lybians ... who plough’ (ἀροτῆρες ... Λίβυες), lived to the west of the Triton river. The root maz or max is of Libyan origin (‘noble’). Cf. the word amazigh (Tuareg), which is still in use. …

Apisa Minus

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, the modern Bou Arada. In the time of  Antoninus [1] Pius A. was still administered by two   sufetes (Macer -- Libyan personal name, Baliato[n] -- Punic personal name). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Beschaouch, Une cité de constitution punique, in: Africa 7/8, 1982, 169-177.

Zangenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Tropical eastern Africa to the south of Cape Guardafui (Plin. HN 6,176), also Ἀζανία/ Azanía (Peripl. m.r. 15f.; 18; 31; 61; Ptol. 1,7,6; 1,17,6; 4,7,28; 4,7,35) and Ζίγγιον/ Zíngion (Cosmas [2] Indicopleustes 2,29; 2,30; 2,50); the Arabs formed their word zanǧ ('black man') on the basis of this name (cf. 'Zanzibar' and 'Tanzania'). Z. extended from the trade town of Opone (modern Ras Hafun) to Rhapton (probably modern Dar-es-Salaam) and from the time of Trajan as far as Cape Prason (probably the modern Cape…

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] [1] People in eastern Arabia According to Ptol. 6,7,14, a people in eastern Arabia in the hinterland of the bays around modern Rāʾs Musandam on the road from Hormuz. Also mentioned in Str. 13,765f., Plin. HN 6,98.152 and Mela 3,79; according to them, the M. settled opposite the Carmanian foothills. According to Arr. Ind., Μακέτα/ Makéta (Rāʾs Musandam) was an important trading centre for the spice trade ( Spices) on the Persian Gulf. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Nomadic tribe or tribal league ( Macae). A large nomadic tribe o…

Nepheris

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νέφερις/ Népheris). City in Africa Proconsularis, c. 30 km southeast of Tynes on the steep plateau of Henchir Bou Baker (Str. 17,3,16; Liv. Per. 51). N. played an important role during the third Punic war ([1. 444-447, 451-454]; App. Lib. 102,479; 108,507; 111,523; 126,596f.; 126,602; Liv. Per. 51). In the Roman period, a temple of Saturnus Sobare(n)sis, perhaps of Bl ṣbr (‘[grain] hoarding Saturn’), of Frugifer [2. 313], was located outside the city. Epigraphy: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12388-12411; 4, 24031-24041. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß 2 E. Lipiń…

Africa

(3,957 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheid, John (Paris) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] 1. A. Etymological and conceptual history The term A. as a name for the continent has got a long and ramified history. The term A. (see 3 below) could only be used by the Romans as a description of the continent of A., when the ‘area’ described by the Latin term A. had come to coincide at least in parts with that described by the Greek term Λιβύη ( Libýē) -- but, at the earliest, this happened in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC, i.e. because of the related concepts of ‘Northern A.’ or ‘Punic A.’. Indirectly, via the ‘partial term’, the ‘full ter…

Casae Calbenti

(31 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Statio in Mauretania Caesariensis, 15 miles from Tipasa, 32 miles from Icosium (It. Ant. 15,3-5), probably modern Castiglione. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 4, no. 50.

Thabena

(73 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Bell. Afr. 77,1 f.) on or near the coast on the border with the kingdom of Juba [1], probably not identifiable with Thenae. In the Roman Civil War in 47/46 BC the Thabenenses were on the side of Caesar; in 46 they strangled the soldiers that Juba had established in the city (Bell. Afr. loc.cit.). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 1178.

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Rusaddir

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Punic Rš dr). Originally the name of the 'Great Cape' ( rš dr) of Tres Forcas, then of the city of R., modern Melilla (Spanish enclave within Morocco). Sources: Mela 1,29: wrongly Rusigada; Rhysaddir: Plin. HN 5,18; Ῥυσσάδειρον/ Rhyssádeiron, Ptol. 4,1,7; Rusadder colonia: It. Ant. 11,3 f. The oldest evidence of Carthaginian settlement (3rd cent. BC) has been found in the necropolis of Cerro de San Lorenzo. R. has also yielded a neo-P…

Cuicul

(179 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae Small Berber town in Numidia between Cirta and Sitifis, now Djemila. Attested forms of the name: Κοúλκουα, Ptol. 4,3,29; Cuiculi, It. Ant. 29,1; Culchul, Tab. Peut. 2,4; Chulchul, Geogr. Rav. 39,25. A veteran colony was established under Nerva (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20713) which contributed substantially to C.'s upswing. In the 5th cent., C.'s importance declined. Significant ruins have survived: temples (Venus Genetrix, Liber, Saturnus, Frugifer, Gens Septi…

Castellum

(529 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
I. Roman [German version] [I 1] According to Veg. Mil. 3,8 ( Nam a castris diminutivo vocabulo sunt nuncupata castella) the castella are relatively small camps that are probably distinguishable from the permanent auxiliary camps and tended to be established in a rather ad hoc manner to secure supplies or as part of a larger fortification (Veg. Mil. ibid.). Castella are probably comparable in size and number of garrisons with the ‘small citadels’ of the limes or the burgi (Veg. Mil. 4,10: castellum parvulum, quem burgum vocant). Herz, Peter (Regensburg) [German version] [I 2] Rural part o…

Caesarea

(992 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Main town of Cappadocia, modern Kayseri This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Zenobia | | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Limes | Pompeius | Rome | Rome (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia, Iranian or cuneiform Mazaka). Main town of  Cappadocia (Str. 12,2,7-9), modern Kayseri. [German version] I. Early History to Roman Times C. succeeded the nearby ancient centre of Kaniš (Kültepe;  Asia Minor), although that was still of importance in Hellenistic and Roman time…

Metagonium

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μεταγώνιον; Metagṓnion). [German version] [1] Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana, east of Rusaddir and west of the mouth of the Mulucha (Str. 17,3,6.9; Ptol. 4,1,7), modern Cabo de Agua. The name Metagōnîtai (Μεταγωνῖται, in Pol. 3,33,13 and Ptol. 4,1,10) does not appear to be derived from this promontory. The Metagonitae probably inhabited Libyan towns and localities lying between Cape Spartel and Ceuta ([1. 36], otherwise [2. 97]), but not Libyo-Phoenician cities; cf. also Pol. 3,33,12 (τὰ Μεταγώνια τῆς Λιβύης; tà Metag?nia tês Liby?s) and S…

Zulil

(140 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic šlyt). City in Mauretania Tingitana to the southwest of  Tingis (modern Tangiers), modern Asilah or Dchar Djedid. Z. was a Phoenician or Punic foundation. In the time of the Moorish kings, Z. minted coins with Punic legends [1. 188 f.] and was in active contact with the Iberian Peninsula. Augustus resettled the inhabitants of Z. to Spain in order to make space for his veterans (Mela 2,96). According to Plin. HN 5,2, Z. was under the control of the proconsul Baeticae (Strab. 3,1,8; 17,3,6: Ζῆλις/ Zêlis; Ptol. 4,…

Calceus Herculis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Oasis west of the Aurès mountains, nowadays probably El-Kantara (north of Biskra). The road from Lambaesis to the Numidian limes went through C. (Tab. Peut. 3,5). This strategically important location was, in the 2nd and 3rd cent., garrison to archers and camel-riders from Emesa and Palmyra, who introduced their native gods to C.H.: CIL VIII 1, 2502, 2505, 2515; Suppl. 2, 18007f. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2496-2515; Suppl. 2, 18004-18012; AE 1992, 522f. no. 1848-1854. Huß, Werner (Bamberg)

Sabratha

(497 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Neo-Punic Ṣbrt[]n). [German version] I. History One of the three Phoenician cities of African Tripolis, 65 km west of Tripoli, Libya (Ps.-Scyl. 110 and Str. 17,3,18: Ἀβρότονον/ Abrótonon (?); Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀβρότονον (?); Plin. HN 5,25; 35: Sabrata; 27: Habrotonum; Sil. Pun. 3,256: S.; Ptol. 4,3,12: Σάβραθα/ Sábratha; Stadiasmus maris magni 99 f.: Σαράθρα/ Saráthra or Ἀλάθρα/ Aláthra; It. Ant. 61,3: Sabrata colonia; Solin. 27,8 and Tab. Peut. 7,2: Sabrat…

Marmarica

(468 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μαρμαρική; Marmarikḗ). Region on the north coast of Africa between Egypt and the Cyrenaica. The borders of M. varied over time: during the time of the 30th dynasty (380-342 BC), the region of the Marmaridae stretched from the border of the Libyan district (near Apis) to the west (Ps.-Scyl. 108 [GGM 1,82-84]). According to Ptol. 4,5,2-4, however, the eastern border of the district of M. ( sic!) only began near Pétras Mégas Limḗn (west of Catabathmus Mégas), i.e. at the westernmost point of Egypt. Ptol. (4,4,2; 5f.) puts the western border of M. to the eas…

Thena

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Tynt?; Θένα/ Théna, Latin Thena, Thenae). Originally probably a Punic city (cf. CIS I 3, 4911 and archaeological finds) in Byzacena (Africa [3];  Str. 17,3,12; 17,3,16; Plin.  HN 5,25), 12 km to the south of Taparura (modern Sfax); end of the Fossa [7] Regia built in 146 BC by Cornelius [I 70] Scipio on the Gulf of Gabes (Syrtis;  cf. [1. 435 note 80]); modern Thyna. The port, probably a colonia from the time of Hadrianus, acquired a certain amount of significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards. From 255 recorded as a bishopric. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Hus…

Xuchis

(77 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξοῦχις; Xoûchis). Northern African city (πόλις Λιβύης), recorded by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus (fr. 16 = GGM 1,576; 1st cent. BC). If X. can be identified with Ζοῦχις/ Zoûchis (Str. 17,3,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ζοῦχις) and Χουζίς/ Chouzís (Ptol. 4,3,41), the town is between the two Syrtes (Syrtis), somewhat inland on a lake which also bore the name X. (probably modern Bahiret el-Biban). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Leglay, s. v. Zuchis, RE 10 A, 856 f.  H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2155 f.

Zagazaena

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on Syrtis Major (modern Gulf of Sidra in Libya); Tab. Peut. 8,1; Ptol. 4,3,14: Σακάμαζα/ Sakámaza or Σακάζαμα κώμη/ Sakázama kṓmē; Geogr. Rav. 37,33: Zacassama; 89,33: Zacasama; Guido, Geographica 133,25: Zacasama. It may be that Z. can be located on the ruins of Ras Bergavad to the west of Ad Turrem (modern Lubrik). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2219 f.

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…

Leptis Magna

(813 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Λέπτις μεγάλη, Léptis megálē, Punic Lpqj) ([1. 39-48]). [German version] A. History Originally settled by Phoenicians, the modern Lebda in Libya ([2. 36f., 74]; Sall. Iug. 78,1; 4; Sil. Pun. 3,256; Plin. HN 5,76?). Frequently given the epithet Megálē/ Magna (‘great’), to differentiate it from Leptis Minor (Plin. HN 5,27; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 93; Sol. 27,8; Tab. Pe…

Zamazii

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζαμάζιοι/ Zamázioi). Ethnic group which, together with the Salathi and Daphnitae as well as the Aroccae, Cetiani and Nigritae, lived between the Mandron and Sagapola mountains in the interior of Libya (Ptol. 4,6,18), perhaps in the valleys of the central Atlas mountains. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2309.

Thugga

(250 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic Tbgg). Punicized [1. 258-261] Numidian city in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Ptol. 4,3,29;  Procop. Aed. 6,5,15), about 100 km west-southwest of Carthage, modern Dougga, with significant ancient remains from the Punic, Numidian and Roman periods (e.g. the Hellenistic-Numidian mausoleum of ṭbn; [3. 157 f.]). In 307 BC, T. was apparently conquered by one of Agathocles' [2] officers (Diod. Sic. 20,57,4: Τῶκαι/ Tôkai). Between 146 and 46 BC, T. was part of the Numidian kingdom (Numid…

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Gillium

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, situated west of  Thubursicum Bure, modern Henchir Frass. Inscriptions: Revue Tunisienne 6, 1899, 447 (new Punic); CIL VIII suppl. 4, 26222-26236 ( decuriones Gillitani, 3rd cent. AD). Victor Tonnennensis mentions an abbot of the monasterium Gillense or Gillitanum (Chron. min. II p. 203, 553,1; 204, 557,2) for the years 553 and 557. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun (1:50 000), sheet 32, no. 11.

Altava

(189 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Africa | Limes City in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km east of Tlemcen by what is today Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in a strategically important location (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Likely a Berber settlement originally [1. 545 f.], A. came under Punic influence. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, A. was included in the defence system of the Mauretanian   limes . The   civitas A. was administered from a ( prior) princepscivitatis (Libyan: gld or gldt?) and   decemprimi [2. 208]. Furthermore, a   rex sacrorum (Punic dr…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Auzia

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Africa | Coloniae | Limes (Αὐζία; Auzía). Town in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 124 km south-east of Algiers, modern Aumale or Sour el-Ghozlane. Ptol. 4,2,7; It. Ant. 30,6 (Auza); Amm. Marc. 29,5,44; 49 ( Audiense castellum). It is unlikely to be identical with the Αὖζα (Aûza) in Menander of Ephesus FGrH 783 F 3 [1. 52], but probably with the castellum ... cui nomen Auzea (Tac. Ann. 4,25,1). A. was an important road junction near the Mauretanian limes (Not. Dign. occ. 30,17 mentions a praepositus limitis Audiensis).…

Cyrene

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Colonization | Crete | Limes | Rome | Rome (Κυρήνη; Kyrḗnē, Lat. Cyrene). [German version] I. History C. was founded by the Dorian island city of Thera in the mod. Cyrenaica, mod. Shahhat. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 4,150-158; SEG IX 3 (with a true core); Str. 17,3,21 [1. 9-67]. Overpopulation and famine ─ not internal political struggles ─ forced the inhabitants of Thera into the foundation of this   apoikía (differently in Menecl…

Acholla

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Town in Africa Byzacena, modern Ras Bou Tria [4. 86-89]. For the tradition of the place name [5. 250]; AE 1969/70, 183 no. 633. A. was apparently founded by Phoenician or Phoenician-influenced Maltese [1. 312, 380]. It was 12 miles [2. 5] south of Sullectum and 27 miles south of Thapsus (Tab. Peut. 6,3). In the Third Punic War, A. surrendered to the Romans and from then became part of the populi liberi [3. 374-376]. Archaeological evidence for prosperous   villae (2nd cent. AD; inscriptions and mosaics). Huß…

Niger

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Following a statement by Juba [2] II (FGrH 275 F 38), Plin. HN 5,30 calls the Nigris the boundary between ‘Africa’ and ‘Aethiopia’. But the Nigris is probably not identical with the N., but with the Oued Djedi [1. 248]. Yet we must assume that the great African river N. was known to the Libyans, the Phoenicians and the Greeks. Indeed, noble Nasamones seem to have travelled as far as Timbuktu and hence as far as the Niger (Hdt. 2,32f.; [2. 7]). And a Carthaginian called Mago, who h…

Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Mascula

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia on the road from Thamugadi to Theveste in the middle of the fertile land of the Musulamii, modern Khenchela (It. Ant. 33,6). M. was under Punic influence [1. 163-177]. In the Severian period (AD 193-235) M. was a municipium CIL VIII 1, 2248. Bishops are attested from 256: Cypr. Sententiae episcoporum 79. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2228-2274; 2, 10184-10188; Suppl. 2, 17668-17719; 3, 22281; 22282; AE 1989, 882. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments 2, 1966. H. Dessau, s.v. M. (1), RE 14, 2064.

Lix

(385 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] City in Mauretanian Tingitana This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Phoenician Lkš; Líxos). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. General Founded by the Phoenicians in what was later Mauretania Tingitana, about 120 km south-west of Ceuta, near modern Larache [1. 31f.]. Evidence: Ps.-Scyl. 112 (Λίγξ); Str. 17,3,2 (Λύγξ, Λίξος), 17,3,3 and 3,6 (Λύγξ); 17,3,8 (Λίξος, Λύγξ); Ptol. 4,1,13; 8,13,5 (Λίξ); It. Ant. 7,4 ( Lix colonia); Solin. 24,3 ( Lix colonia); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 47 ( Lix oppidum); S…

Gurza

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa Byzacena, 12 km north-west of  Hadrumetum, modern Kalaa Kebira (for the location cf. Tab. Peut. 6,2: Gurra). G. was under Punic influence. Patronage deeds are extant from the years 12 BC (CIL VIII 1,68) and AD 65 (CIL VIII 1,69). Inscriptions: CIL VI 4,2, 32757; 36277; VIII 1, 68-72; Suppl. 4, 23021. The town attested in Pol. 1,74,13, Γόρζα/Gorza, was not very far from Utica [1. 258].  Patronage Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. E. Lipiński, s.v. G./Gorza, DCPP, 202.

Cidame

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa ( Cidamus or Cydamus). Chief settlement of the Phazanii at the intersection of the borders of Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, modern Gadames. According to Plin. HN 5,35f., the Phazanii have to be differentiated from the  Garamantes. Between the territories of both of these tribes was Mons Ater, modern Hamada el-Homra. C. -- like  Garama -- was captured in 20 BC by L. Cornelius [I 7] Balbus, proconsul Africae. A vexillatio of the legio III Augusta was stationed in the town [1]. C. played an important role in the S…

Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Tisiduo

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Τισιδουω: in inscriptions). City to the southeast of Carthage, destroyed by Caesar in 46 BC in the Roman civil war (Str. 17,3,12), not locatable; identification with Tisidium is unlikely [1. 1436]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 I. Schmidt, Komm. zu CIL VIII Suppl. 1. F. Windberg, s. v. Tisidium (2), RE 6 A, 1479 f.

Emporia

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] As Emporia in a strict sense are to be understood all the cities of the Syrtis Minor but in a broader sense the cities of the Syrtis Minor and the Byssatis or the Syrtis Minor and the Tripolitania or the Syrtis Minor, the Byssatis and the Tripolitania. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Bresson, P. Rouillard (ed.), L'emporion, 1993 R. Rebuffat, Où étaient les emporia?, in: Semitica 39, 1990, 111-126.
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