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Architectural sculpture

(2,087 words)

Author(s): Kose, Arno (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Architectural sculpture (AS), i.e. figural sculpture integrated into architecture, was in use in the ancient Near East from at least the 15th cent. BC. In northern Mesopotamia and its neighbouring regions to the west, from the 14th cent. on, orthostatic reliefs and guardian figures were worked into entrance gates and archways, and from the 9th cent., sculpted columns and columnar bases as well as human-figure columns or caryatids appeared, generally worked in ston…

Timarchides

(227 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
(Τιμαρχίδης/ Timarchídēs). [German version] [1] Name in an Attic family of sculptors, 2nd cent. BC Frequently occurring name in a 2nd-cent. BC Attic family of sculptors. A T. created an Apollo Kitharoidus in Rome in c. 179 BC, of which copies exist. After 156 BC in Elatea [1], a younger T. and Timocles, sons of Polycles [3], worked on cult images of Asclepius and Athena, of which fragments survive, and a victor statue at Olympia. After 130 BC the same T. and Dionysius [48] created a surviving portrait statue of Ofellius Ferus in …

Naucydes

(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives …

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Corinthian alloy

(247 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Corinthium aes, according to Plin. HN 34,6-8 an alloy of  copper,  gold and  silver, with an artificial patination that made it gleam like gold. Attempts to identify Corinthian alloy (CA) with so-called ‘black gold’ and ‘niello’ are not convincing, as only a lesser sort of CA was dark in colour. The term CA was always associated with legendary invention, names of old masters, and dubious authenticity. Juridical sources (Dig. 32,100,3), however, distinguish CA from plain bronze, ref…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Laocoon group

(858 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A group of marble statues, found in 1506 in the area of the Baths of Trajan in Rome, highly regarded, widely received and academically controversial since its discovery (Rom, VM). It shows Laocoon and his two sons, entangled in sea snakes and nearing death. Its identity with a marble group praised by Pliny (HN 36,37: omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum) of the artists Agesander, Athanodorus and Polydorus from Rhodes in the house of Titus, was recognized immediately. The first phase of reception stands under the influence o…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…

Damophilus

(178 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμόφιλος; Damóphilos). [German version] [1] Coroplast and painter, c. 493 BC Coroplast and painter, probably from Magna Graecia. Together with Gorgasos he decorated the Temple of Ceres in Rome (493 BC) with murals and terracotta pediment figures and added artist's epigrams. Later renovations preserved both of these. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 427, 440 Overbeck, no. 616, 1647 (sources) I. Scheibler, Griech. Malerei der Ant., 1994. [German version] [2] Rich property owner from Enna 136 BC Rich property owner from Enna, who treated the slaves i…

Strongylion

(176 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Στρογγυλίων/ Strongylíōn). Bronze sculptor (last third of the 5th cent. to the first third of the 4th cent. BC). None of his works attested in literature survives. Parts of the base of a detailed depiction of the Trojan horse, named δούριος ( doúrios, ‘The wooden one’, Paus. 1,23,8), have been identified on the Acropolis in Athens; it can be dated to before 414 BC. As well as some devotional images, S. and Cephisodotus [4] created some statues of the Muses on Mt Helicon. Small bronzes by S. were famous among Roman collectors, such as the so-called Puer Bruti and an Amazon, o…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Akrolithon

(149 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for statues where the exposed body parts are made of marble and the robes of metal, both attached to a wooden core. The term first occurs in temple inventories in the 2nd cent. BC, later in Vitruvius for colossal statues. The technique can be traced back to the earliest cult idols with clothing and, since the classical period, is often used for cult statues. Numerous descriptions of akrolitha are contrasted by just a small number of preserved fragments, such as…

Zenodorus

(744 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ζηνόδωρος/ Zēnódōros). [German version] [1] Greek mathematician, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Greek mathematician, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC [5; 6. 604 f.]. He wrote a work 'Isoperimetric figures' (Περὶ ἰσοπεριμέτρων σχημάτων, Perì isoperimétrōn schēmátōn) in which he proved that of all figures of the same circumference the circle has the greatest area, and formulated the proposition that of all bodies of the same surface area the sphere has the greatest volume [3; 4; 7]. Substantial parts of the …

Glaucias

(360 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γλαυκίας; Glaukías). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina Bronze sculptor from Aegina. According to Pausanias, he created statues of the boxers Glaucus, Philo and Theagenes in Olympia, whose victories or honours occurred in the 1st quarter of the 5th cent. BC. According to the description, they were depicted in motion, some of them at shadow-boxing; small bronze statues give at least an idea of this. He created a monument for Gelon of Syracuse after his chariot victory in 488 BC; parts of the base with inscriptions are preserved. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overb…

Dipoenus

(123 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Crete. Like his brother Scyllis, assumed to be a pupil or son of the legendary  Daedalus and one of the original exponents of the art of marble sculpture. Tales of his flight from Cyrus and his first commissions in Sicyon reflect the fact that the ‘Daedalic’ marble-sculpture of the Greek islands preceded that of the mainland and date its arrival on the mainland to the earlier half of the 6th cent. BC. Even in ancient literature, some archaic works were attributed to …

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Daedalus

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δαίδαλος; Daídalos). [German version] [1] Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor, his very name belonging to a semantic field indicating objects created by astuteness and skill. In stories he is associated with Athens, Crete and Sicily. Judging from the development of artistic techniques, it is not impossible that the origins of the tradition lie at least partly in Crete, although whether D.'s name can be attested in the Linear B texts is a matter of dispute […

Phradmon

(187 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φράδμων; Phrádmōn). Bronze sculptor from Argos. Plinius (HN 34,49) gives 420-417 BC as his prime. P. is known primarily for his participation in the competition over the statues of Amazons in Ephesus, among the copies of which the 'Doria Panfili' type (Rome, Galleria Doria Panfili) are attributed without adequate reason to him. Victors' statues by P. were to be seen in Olympia (according to Pausanias 6,8,1), and in Delphi (according to a restored inscription). An inscription in Os…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Dontas

(78 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Sparta, active as an alleged student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis about the middle of the 6th cent. BC. The treasury of the Megarians at Olympia contained a wooden relief set in gold by him depicting Hercules and figures of the gods. According to Pausanias it was clearly older than the late 6th cent. building. The treasury's sculpture therefore cannot be attributed to D. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 215 Overbeck, no. 330-331 (sources).

Athenis

(41 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios, son of  Archermus. He worked in the late 6th cent. BC on Delos, in Iasos, Chios and in Athens with his brother  Bupalus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 335-337 Overbeck, no. 314, 315, 318 (sources).

Calliades

(227 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Καλλιάδης; Kalliádēs). [German version] [1] Writer of New Comedy Writer of New Comedy, appearing on the inscription of Lenaea winners in 6th place after Menander, 5th after Philemon and 3rd after Diphilus [5], and thus to be dated to the end of the 4th cent. BC [1]. Ath. 9,401a quotes ‘Diphilus or C.’, as author of an Ágnoia, but at another point (15,700c) he talks only of Diphilus as author of this play. Even the barb against the orator Aristophon [2] that Ath. 13,577b attributes to C. is dubious [1. 53]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 37. [German version] [2] Sculptor Scul…

Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Aristander

(169 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Visionary from  Telmessus (4th cent. BC) Visionary from  Telmessus, in the service first of  Philippus, then of  Alexander [4] the Great; hero of many anecdotes which only report on successful predictions; no further references after the death of  Cleitus. Prophecies of the future success of some of the  Diadochi have turned out to be fabrications. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 117. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Paros, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Paros. To the tripod which the Spartans dedicated in Amyclae fol…

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Ageladas

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγελάδας; Ageládas). (Hageladas), bronze sculptor from Argus, was considered to be the teacher of  Phidias,  Myron,  Polycleitus. Victors' statues by A. are recorded since 520 BC. His votive offering by the Tarantines in Delphi has been dated to before 474 BC. His Heracles Alexikakos was erected in Athens after a pestilence (not necessarily 430 BC). From this, Pliny deducted the date for his zenith to be 432 BC. However, since this makes the postulated active period too long, ther…

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Busts

(652 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] From the Renaissance, the word bust (from Italian busto) refers to a three-dimensional free-standing human image, which is restricted to head and chest ( Portrait). There is no ancient technical term, because busts were predominantly classified as portraits ( imagines). The term  bustum, on the other hand, meant gravesite, which in Italic cultures was marked by a  cippus or a stele, contouring a human head; in some instances as early as the 6th cent., but more commonly by the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, these developed int…

Myron

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρων; Mýrōn). [German version] [1] Name of several persons from Sicyon Several persons from Sicyon named M. are mentioned in literature: a) Hdt. 6,126,1: Sicyonian nobleman (7th century BC), son of Andreas, father of Aristonymus, grandfather of the ‘tyrant’ Cleisthenes [1]. b) Paus. 6,19,1f.: the ‘tyrant’ M., victor in the chariot race at Olympia (648 BC), founder of the Sicyonian treasure house (thesauros) at Olympia. c) Nicolas of Damascus, FGrH 90 F 61: one of the three tyrant brothers descended from Orthagoras (evil M., good Isodemus, cunning Cleisthenes) from the ‘ Orthagorides…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Statue

(1,377 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Term and general Derived from the Latin statuere ('to set up'), in sculpture, 'statue' denotes a completely three-dimensionally designed figure. This form of stand-alone depiction of people, animals and the more than human is at the centre of Greek artistry. In archaeological usage, statues which are integrated into architecture are also included in the term (pediment, akroterion ), but reliefs are not. Individual statues can be combined in a group in content and execution. The format of the statue ranges from sm…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Theke

(104 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (θήκη; thḗkē) is a term for any kind of container. In particular, from the 5th/4th cent. BC onwards it is used in texts and inscriptions for niche-shaped burial places, whether for burials in funerary buildings (Melos, 4th cent. BC) and vaults (Hdt. 1,67,3; 2,148,5), or for storing cinerary urns (Alexandria), but not sarkophagoi (Sarcophagus). Latin theca , in contrast, refers exclusively to holders for objects, primarily writing implements. Loculi Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography E. Saglio, s. v. loculus, DS 3.2, 1904, 1292-1295  A. Hug, s. v. T., RE …

Amphion

(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he go…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).

Mnasitimus

(230 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μνασίτιμος/ Mnasítimos). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Rhodes, later 3rd cent. BC Greek painter from Rhodes (?) of the later 3rd cent. BC (?), mentioned by Plin. HN 35,146 as a rather second-rate painter. Provenance and date can only be inferred by genealogical conclusions from other artists of this name; nothing is known of his work. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography G. Lippold, s.v. Mnasitimos (1), RE 15, 2256f. [German version] [2] Various sculptors from one Rhodes family, 4th to 2nd cents. BC Various sculptors from one Rhodian family. The reconstructed famil…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Silver

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Silver (ἀργύριον/ argýrion, ἄργυρος/ árgyros; Latin argentum) is a precious metal, which in Antiquity was extracted primarily by smelting silver-bearing ores of lead. Four different kinds occur naturally: 1. as pure silver; 2. as silver ore; 3. as a component of galena, the only economically interesting ore of lead; 4. in alloy with gold, i.e. as electrum (Elektron), in which the gold content can amount to less than 30 %. Pure silver is rare and its surface corrodes, so that…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Damocritus

(82 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμόκριτος/ Damókritos; also: Democritus [Δημόκριτος/ Dēmókritos]). Sculptor from Sicyon, active during the first half of the 4th cent. BC. Pausanias saw a victor's statue of his in Olympia. Pliny chose the Attic form of the name, for a Democritus, who made statues of philosophers. In Rome his name was found on the statue of Lysis from Miletus in a lost collection of copies of 4th cent. works. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 463, 466-468 (sources) Loewy, no. 484 Lippold, 247-248.

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Appliqués (pottery)

(158 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term for attached decorative items representing figures or plants. On bronze vessels of the 7th cent. BC, they are attached as protome (e.g. griffin cauldron). In Hellenistic and imperial times, crustae on tableware are highly valued masterpieces of  toreutics, and also on clothing, luxurious armour such as gladiators' helmets, on horse harness and carriage components. On kline rests ( fulcra), bronze animal protomes can be found, appliqués of ivory on furniture. Wooden sarcophagi in Taranto and south Russia of the 4th cent. BC had relief…

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Perilaus

(201 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Περίλαος/ Perílaos, Περίλεως/ Períleōs). [German version] [1] Son of Icarius and Periboea Son of Icarius [2] and Periboea [1], brother of Penelope (Apollod. 3,126). According to Peloponnesian legend, P. appeared before the Areopagus as the prosecutor of Orestes [1], rather than Tyndareos, who was already dead (Paus. 8,34,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Argive Argive; a statue depicting him in combat with the Spartan Othryades was displayed in the theatre at Argos (Hdt. 1,82; Paus. 2,20,7). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Greek worker in bronze, 6th cent. BC (al…

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Evenor

(217 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Athenian sculptor, c. 490-470 BC (Eύήνωρ; Euḗnōr). Athenian sculptor. Three bases on the Acropolis bear his signature, dating from around 490-470 BC. One of these is linked, not without controversy, to the so-called Angelitus' Athena (Athens, AM Inv. no. 140). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 14, 22, 23. B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture, 1970, 29-30, fig. 39. [German version] [2] Greek physician Greek physician from Argos in Acarnania; he lived in Athens, a…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Caecosthenes

(101 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Καικοσθένης; Kaikosthénēs). Son of Apollonides, bronze sculptor from Athens. Eight bases from the early 2nd cent. BC are inscribed with his and his brother Dies' signature. Some originate from portrait statues, which is why C. is usually identified as Chalcosthenes, who, according to Pliny, is supposed to have mostly sculpted statues of actors and athletes. In the Athenian Kerameikos, one could find ‘rough’ statues of gods and goddesses made of terracotta, perhaps the clay models for bronze statues. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck no. 1380-1381 Lo…

Cippus

(273 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] As a stone monument with or without inscription, the cippus was used in particular for territorial delineation. Made as a free-standing sculpture, it marked burial sites and was linked as reference to the dead to magical ideas and should not be confused with steles. The basic form was phallic, 30-50 cm high and it was represented in diverse ways especially in Etruria ( Etruscan Archaeology). Mostly onions, spheres or eggs top a pillar or cylinder. Special regional types in the 6th…

Aphrodisias

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀφροδισίας; Aphrodisías). [German version] [1] City in  Caria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | Asia Minor | Marble | Rome | Education / Culture City in  Caria, 38 km south of the Maeander, in the left side valley of the Morsylos (present-day Dandalaz çayı); the modern Geyre. Traces of neolithic and early Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis; old name of Νινόη (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ninoe) preserved in the local cult ( Zeus Nineudios). A. was for a long time overshadowed by the neighbouring co…

Portraits

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. General remarks By the modern definition, a portrait is a rendering of an individual person's appearance. Typological and physiognomic characterizations serve this end. However, portraits recognizable as portraits only through their intention or by furnishing a name lack such characteristics. A typological portrait uses canonical features to indicate that its subject belongs to a certain group. A physiognomic portrait guarantees the identification of its subject by reproducing phy…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Pyrrhus

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πύρρος/ Pýrr(h)os). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia See Neoptolemus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Athens, c. 430 BC Bronze sculptor from Athens. A base bearing P.' signature of a larger than life-size statue on the Athenian Acropolis is dated to c. 430-420 BC and connected with a record of an Athena Hygieia constructed by order of Pericles [1]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 904-906; 869  A. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 166  L. Guerrini, s.v. Pyrrhos (3), EAA 6, …

Herms

(610 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Hermai (ἕρμαι/ hérmai, ‘Hermes heads’), also hermádion (‘small Hermes’), schêma tetrágōnon, tetráglōchis, describes in Graeco-Roman art a special form of anthropoid freestanding sculpture. The herm consists of a pillar with a head, mostly with wooden lateral beam stumps instead of arms ( cheîres, cunei) and a male sexual organ attached at the front that is always ithyphallic in early herms. Double herms bear two heads turned away from each other. Three- and four-fold herms on one pillar are also to be found. In Arcadian he…

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Stele

(787 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Stelae are standing stone slabs with reliefs or inscriptions on one or more sides; in Egypt wooden stelae also survive. In early Mesopotamia their shape can be natural, elsewhere they usually have rounded tops, less often squared tops. From the end of the 4th millennium BC, funeral stelae were used in Egypt at or in tombs (or cenotaphs) as cult places. In the 1st millennium, funeral stelae (mostly wooden) were also placed in the burial chamber: they bear images (…

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Lycius

(152 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Eleutherae, son and pupil of Myron. According to written tradition, he created a votive offering in Olympia with single combats from the Trojan War (Achilles and Memnon, among others) and an Argonaut group. Notes about a boy with a votive water vessel, a puer sufflans and a statue of the pancratiast Autolycus ( Pankration) have been too damaged to allow for identification. From the Athenian Acropolis an autographed plinth for equestrian statues is extant, which is dated historically to around 430-420 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Over…

Thrasymedes

(296 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Θρασυμήδης/ Thrasymḗdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Nestor and Anaxibia Son of Nestor [1] and Anaxibia (daughter of Cratieus), brother e.g. of Echephron [1] and Peisistratus [1] (Hom. Od. 3,412-415; Apollod. 1,94; Dictys 1,13), father of Sillus and hence grandfather of Alcmaeon [2] (Paus. 2,18,8). T. and his brother Antilochus, who is later killed by Memnon [1] (cf. Q. Smyrn. 2,267-344), set off with 15 ships (Hyg. Fab. 97,5) for Troy (Hom. Il. 9,81; 10,255-259; 14,9-11 et passim; Philostr. Heroicus 26…

Boedas

(79 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also Boidas). Sculptor, son and pupil of  Lysippus. He worked in Byzantium around 300 BC. Pliny was aware of his fame but mentioned only the statue in Rome of a worshipper. For a long time the statue of the so-called ‘Praying boy’ from Rhodes in Berlin (PM) was erroneously identified with it. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Kabus-Preisshofen, Der ‘Betende Knabe’ in Berlin, in: AA 1988, 679-699 Overbeck, no.1516. 1521 (sources) B. S. Ridgway, Hellenistic Sculpture, 1, 1990, 227-228.

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Praxiteles

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πραξιτέλης/ Praxitélēs). [German version] I. Biography Sculptor from Athens, active c. 370-320 BC. Since Timarchus and Cephisodotus [5] were P.’ sons, Cephisodotus [4] is assumed to be his father. By using later namesakes, a family of sculptors can be pieced together extending into the 1st cent. BC. However, this is just as controversial as the suppositions about the wealth and political influence of the family in the 4th cent. P.’ anecdotal biography and fame sound a note of caution with regard to c. 55 named works. Even so, the abundance of sources has led to many, often i…

Antenor

(470 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντήνωρ; Antḗnōr). [German version] [1] Son of Hicetaon or Aisyetes Son of Hicetaon or Aesyetes, Trojan noble. His sons, together with  Aeneas, are leaders of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,822). A. is married to the Athena priestess Theano (Hom. Il. 6,299). Because of his justice and wisdom in council he is compared with Nestor; he advises that Helena should be returned (Hom. Il. 7,347 ff.) and observes the law of hospitality with respect to the Greek envoys, Odysseus and Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,207). From Lycoph…

Frontality

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] The term introduced by J. Lange in 1892 as in the ‘law of frontality’ originally referred to a pre-Greek mode of portrayal, which, developed from the plane, displays all the essential individual forms paratactically in front view. Frontality was a label for an allegedly primitive form, which in evolutionary statements on style also seemed applicable to the early, pre-classical portrayal of people in Greek sculpture. In archaic statues frontality was supposedly expressed by mirror-…

Antignotus

(67 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor in Athens. Preserved are his initials of the memorial statues for the Thracian kings Raskouporis (around 13 BC) and Kotys. Making statues of philosophers and athletes, an A. mentioned in Pliny is more likely to be a sculptor of the 4th cent. BC when taking a dated base into account. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Loewy, no.314-316 s. v. A., EAA Suppl. 61.

Tectaeus

(134 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεκταῖος; Tektaîos). Greek sculptor of the mid-6th century BC. Like his brother Angelion, T. is supposed to have been a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and teacher of Calon [1] (Paus. 2,32,5). He and Angelion created a cult statue of Apollo on Delos; on the basis of  literary (Plut. Mor. 1136a; Paus. 9,35,3) and pictorial evidence of seals and reliefs Apollo was represented as a kouros with Charites on one hand and a Sphinx. A later account (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) of an Artemis by T. in Delos is of doubtful veracity. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibl…
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