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Hippocratic Oath

(704 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Documentary evidence for a use of the HO in Late Antiquity is ambiguous. Gregory of Nazianzus (Greg. Naz. Or. 7,10) reported that his brother Caesarius did not have to swear the oath as a medical student in Alexandria, thus implying that others probably had to. However, there is no record for the Byzantine or Muslim world to confirm any official obligation to swear this oath, even though it was evidently well-known. In practice, it was superseded by the Galenic concept equating e…

Leprosy

(396 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] also ‘Hansen's Disease’. A chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the peripheral nerves, and often also the skin. Palaeopathological finds prove its existence in the Mediterranean area only for the Hellenistic period [1], but texts from Babylon, Egypt and Israel from c. 800 BC onwards describe disfiguring skin diseases, among which could be included leprosy, even though the descriptions probably refer to psoriasis. The biblical name of the disease ṣaraʿat, in the Middle Ages wrongly translated as leprosy, referred to a disease whic…

Dietetics

(1,163 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] I. Greece Greek medicine is fundamentally different from Egyptian and Babylonian medicine because it allots dietetics in the broader sense of a regime of eating, drinking, exercise and bathing, a key role within therapeutics [2. 395-402; 3]. Originally, dietetics referred to the administering of balanced foods in liquid, pasty or solid form, depending on the degree of illness (Hippocr. De medicina vetere 5 [4. 241-257]). However, about the mid 5th cent. BC it expanded well beyond a …

Anonymus de herbis

(74 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Several MSS of Dioscorides contain an anonymous poem of 215 hexameter verses about the qualities of herbs, which was written probably in the 3rd cent. in highly stylized Greek. It refers back to Nicander, Dioscorides and Andromachus [4, the Elder] According to [1], the poetic language shows similarities with the Orphica (newest edition: [1; cf. 2]). Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 E. Heitsch, in: AAWG 1964, 23-38 2 NGAW 1963, 2, 44-49.

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Largius Designatianus

(98 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Medical writer, 4th cent. AD, author of a Latin paraphrase of a Greek letter to (an undefined) king Antigonus that is passed down under the name of Hippocrates [6] and that contained a dietetic plan and advice on treating diseases of the head, chest, belly and kidneys. This paraphrase is extant in the introduction to a medical treatise of Marcellus Empiricus, where it is preceded by a letter of L. to his sons. Both texts probably belonged to the introduction to a medical work by L. that is lost today. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Iacobus Psychrestus

(108 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Physician, the son of Hesychius of Damascus, changed his residence in the early 6th cent. AD in order to join his father's medical practice in Constantinople. He treated emperor Leo, whereupon he became a   comes and   archiatros (Chron. pasch. 8254a; Malalas, Chronographia 370 Dindorf; Photius, Bibliotheca 344A). As a pagan philosopher who was honoured in Athens and Constantinople with statues, he ordered the rich to help the poor. The latter he incidentally treated without charging a fee. His nic…

Galenism

(389 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Whereas between about AD 500 and 1100,  Galen was almost unknown in Western Europe, the orthodox  medicine of the Byzantine and Muslim world was substantially based on his concepts that were increasingly systemized and put into a logical order, with a particular focus on their theoretical content.  Galen's monotheism and teleology commended his works also to an environment dominated by religion. From the 12th cent. on, Galenism reached Western Europe in an Arabic guise where it s…

Salpe

(75 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Σάλπη/ Sálpē). Midwife of the Hellenistic era, whose medical and cosmetic recipes were quoted by Plinius [1] in his Historia naturalis (Plin. HN 28,38; 28,66; 28,82; 28,262; 32,135; 32,140). Athenaeus [3] (Ath. 322a) knows a S. as the author of παίγνια/ paígnia (‘light poems’), but it is problematic to consider the two identical [1]. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 D. Bain, Salpe's ΠΑΙΓΝΙΑ; Athenaeus 322a and Plin. H. N. 28,38, in: CQ 48, 1998, 262-268.

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he can be identified with Berve, vol. 2, no. 470. Ameling, Walter (…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Apollophanes

(252 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Attic poet of the Old Comedy Attic poet of the Old Comedy, who according to the witness of Suda wrote five pieces (Δαλίς, Δανάη, Ἰφιγέπων, Κένταυροι, Κρῆτες; Dalís, Danáē, Iphigépōn, Kéntauroi, Krêtes; 1. test. 1), all of which are lost, except for a few remnants. On the inscription list of the Lenaean victors A. figures between Nicophon and Amipsias [1. test. 3]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 518-523. [German version] [2] Personal physician of Antiochos III Son of A. of Seleucia, personal physician ( archiatros) and tropheus of Antiochus III;…

Iustus

(481 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor 193-194 AD, see Pescennius see  Pescennius Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] I. of Tiberias Jew. historian, 1st cent. AD Jewish historian of the 1st cent. AD, wrote a ‘Jewish War’ (66-70/74), in which he dealt critically with the work of the same name by  Josephus [4] Flavius (this made Josephus write a retort in his autobiography: Vita 65), and a chronological-genealogical work on Jewish kings from Moses to  Iulius [II 5] Agrippa II. This work, which appears to…

Iatrosophistes

(216 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Originally meaning a teacher of medicine (esp. in Alexandria), iatrosophistes could later refer to any experienced practitioner ( medicus sapientissimus, Corpus Glossatorum Latinorum 3,600,32 Goetz), either in orthodox medicine (e.g.  Agnellus, In Galeni De sectis commentarium 33) or in the magical arts of healing (Ps.-Callisthenes, Vita Alexandri 1,3) [1]. Contrary to the emendation by von Arnim in Dion. Chrys. 33,6, the term was probably not coined before the late 4th cent. AD (Epiphanius, Adversu…

Phanostrate

(79 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φανοστράτη; Phanostrátē). Greek-Athenian midwife and doctor, depicted on Attic grave stelae from the end of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 6873; Clairmont, 2. 890). The inclusion of the professional title midwife suggests a certain degree of specialisation in medicine and shows at the same time that women were able to work as doctors and earn a considerable income, as is suggested by the quality and individual designs of the stone mason’s craftsmanship. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Melancholy

(534 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (μέλαινα χολή/ mélaina cholḗ, ‘black bile’). The fourth humour in the tradition of Hippocratic medicine represented by De natura hominis, ch. 4, and later by Rufus of Ephesus and Galen. It was predominant in autumn, associated with the element earth, and cold and dry. It was viewed as the antithesis of blood, having many deadly properties [1]. According to Galen (De atra bile 5,104-148 K.) in its purest form it was highly destructive to everything it touched, and had its origin in the spleen. Not ev…

Phlebotomy

(371 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In Babylonian, Egyptian and also Greek medicine, blood-letting was part of standard medical practice. This procedure was carried out either by directly opening a vein, by scarification or by using a cupping vessel. Considering how often the latter are depicted on monuments connected with physicians, cupping may have been the most common method [1]. Two notions seem to have favoured phlebotomy: on the one hand, it supposedly prevented the stagnating of the blood and its transformat…

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Acesidas

(59 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίδας; Akesídas). According to Paus. 5,14, A. was considered a hero in Olympia and was elsewhere known under the name Idas. His name offers the assumption that he was worshipped as a healing god, who possibly shared a healing cult, which was very common on the Peloponnese, with  Paeonius,  Iason and  Heracles. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Menodotus

(550 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδοτος; Mēnódōtos). [German version] [1] M. of Perinthus Historian, c. 200 BC In about 200 BC, he wrote a ‘Greek History ( Hellenikaì Pragmateîai) in 15 books, probably a continuation of the work of Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78) and dealing with events after 218/17 (Diod. Sic. 26,4). He may be identical (see [1]) with M. of Samos (which was considered a colony of Perinthus). The latter was the author of a periegesis ( periēgētḗs ) on ‘Notabilia of Samos ( Tôn katà tḕn Sámon endóxōn anagraphḗ), from which Athenaeus (15, 671-699) relates an extensive passage on the pre-Hellenic h…

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Pheidippus

(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured dish (Munich 2614) and on a psykter (London, BM E767) from c. 500 BC [1. 12-13]. He may perhaps be identical with Cydidas of Hermione referred to by Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215]. Possibly (rather improbable) he is the dithyramb poet Cedeides/Ceceides mentioned by Aristoph. Nub. 985 (with schol.) [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) Bibliography 1 K. Friis Johansen, Eine Dithyrambos-A…

Aegimius

(325 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Αἰγιμιός; Aigimiós). [German version] [1] Mythical progenitor of the Dorians in the Oete mountains Son (or father) of Dorus, father of Dyman and Pamphilus (Hes. fr. 10a 7). Progenitor of the Dorians in the Oete mountains (Pind. Pyth. 1,64;5,72; Str. 9,427 after Ephoros, FGrH 115 F 15). He adopted Hercules' son Hyllus after the death of his father, in addition to his own sons, to show his appreciation of Hercules' help. The three Dorian phyles were given the names Hylleis, Pamphiloi, Dymanes, after them. Othe…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the Laios of Aeschylus), became infatuated with the extraordinarily beautiful youth and abducted him either from his father's house or the Nemean games …

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Erotianus

(328 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek grammarian, middle or end of the 1st cent. AD, author of a glossary of Hippocratic words, which he dedicated to  Andromachus [4 or 5], a doctor at the imperial court in Rome [2; 3]. The alphabetic structure of the glossary, in its surviving form, does not go back to E. since, in his preface (9), he expressly emphasizes that he had explained the words in the sequence of their appearance in c. 37 Hippocratic texts which in turn could be classified into 1) semiotic, 2) physiological-aetiological, 3) therapeutic texts, 4) miscellaneous, 5) texts on…

Acesias

(50 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίας; Akesías). Greek doctor of 3rd cent. BC (?). According to an intentionally ambiguous proverb, he only treated those who suffered the worst (suffering or doctor) (Aristoph. Byz., Zenob. 1,52). It is possible that he also wrote about culinary art (Ath. 12, 516c). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Philistion

(546 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Φιλιστίων; Philistíōn). [German version] [1] P. of Locri Greek physician, 4th cent. BC Physician from Locri in Italy, active around 364 BC. He is said by Plato's 2nd letter to have been the personal physician of Dionysius [2] II at Syracuse in that year. However, a fragment of the comic poet Epicrates [4] (Ath. 2,59c) has been plausibly interpreted to mean that he arrived at Athens soon after this. He wrote about dietetics, pharmacology and surgery. The Anonymus Londiniensis (20,25ff. = fragment 4 Wellmann)…

Praxagoras

(541 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Πραξαγόρας; Praxagóras) of Cos. Doctor, at the end of the 4th cent. BC, teacher of Herophilus [1], Phylotimus, Pleistonicus and Xenophon. His family claimed its descent from Asclepius; his grandfather who shared the same name and his father, Nicarchus, were likewise doctors. His family continued to be very prominent on Cos for generations [1]. A poem composed by Crinagoras still survives on a statue in his honour (Anth. Plan. 273). Amongst the works of this doctor are a treatise on therapy in at least 4 books, a work about diseases in at least 3 bo…

Dexippus

(719 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Chase, Michael (Victoria, BC)
(Δέξιππος; Déxippos). [German version] [1] Spartan, mercenary leader c. 400 BC Lacedaemonian, 406 BC mercenary leader of Acragas in the war against Carthage in which he played an obscure role. The Syracusans appointed him as the commander in Gela where he refused to support Dionysius I and was then sent back to his homeland (Diod. Sic. 13,85,3f.; 87,4f.; 88,7f.; 93; 96,1). D. is perhaps identical with a perioecus who drew attention to himself in the army of Cyrus the Younger through his wicked machinations and was finally executed by Nicander (Xen. An. 5,1,15; 6,1,32; 6,5ff.). Meier, Misc…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Olympias

(742 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀλυμπιάς; Olympiás). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neoptolemus Daughter of Neoptolemus [2], born in about 375 BC. She was not given the name O. until after the Olympic victory of Philippus II in 356 BC (cf. Plut. Mor. 401b). She married Philip in 357 as his fifth wife (Ath. 13,557b) and bore him Alexander [4] the Great (356) and Cleopatra [II 3]. The birth of a successor elevated O.'s status, but there is no evidence of any political influence. After Philip's marriage to Cleopatra [II 2] she fled to…

Euthydemus

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Εὐθύδημος; Euthýdemos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 418/7 BC Athenian strategos of 418/17 BC. He took part in the Sicilian campaign, during which in 414/13 both he and Menander became commanders to serve alongside Nicias. They were defeated before  Demosthenes [1] even arrived. They failed in their attempt to force their departure out of Syracuse's great harbour (Thuc. 7,16,1; 69,4; Diod. Sic. 13,13,2-4; Plut. Nicias 20). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 1981. [German version] [2] E. I. Greek ki…

Alcon

(290 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄλκων; Álkōn). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: son of Erechtheus Son of Erechtheus, who fled to Chalcis. Father of Chalciope (Proxenus FGrH 425 F 2), or son of the Euboean hero Abas (Ephorus F 33). He sends his son Phalerus, who in Phalerum is venerated as a hero, along on an Argonaut journey (Apoll. Rhod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 14); according to Orph. Arg. 144 Phaleros comes instead from Mysia and founds the Thessalian city of Gyrton. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Hippocoon of Amyklai Son of Hippocoon of Amyclae (Apollod. 3,124), kille…

Dietetics

(386 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Classical ideas of dietetics, based on the Hippocratic and Galenic notions of a balance between the four humours, continued to play an important role in medicine  into the 20th cent. (Humoral Theory). In Arabic medicine, all substances taken into the body had properties that could affect its health, for good or ill, and hence it was the doctor's duty to prescribe diets for health, as well as for disease, and equally that of his patient  to understand the rules for a healthy lifes…

Ophthalmology

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Egypt The eye-doctors of Egypt were already famous when in about 540 BC the Persian king Cyrus [1] asked the Pharaoh Amasis for one to cure him (Hdt. 3,1; cf. 2,84). Diseases of the eyes were quite common in Egypt. Three of the seven early medical papyri are devoted to such diseases. P. Ebers alone contains more than 100 recipes for blindness. Some of these prescriptions involve Dreckapotheke, while others, for example, use liver - rich in vitamin A and a valuable remedy for xerophthalmia. Eye surgery seem to have been rarely performed and Egy…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Archagathus

(345 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρχάγαθος; Archágathos). [German version] [1] Son of Agathocles [2] (end of the 4th cent. BC) Before his return to Sicily in 308/7 BC  Agathocles [2] gave the command of the African troops to his eldest son A. despite his poor military ability. Since the latter fragmented the invasion army, the Carthaginians soon achieved significant successes and encircled A. in Tunes (Diod. Sic. 20,57-61). Even Agathocles could not reverse the situation in Africa after his return and fled to Sicily while abandoning the army. Therefore, embittered soldiers killed A. (Diod. Sic. 20,68). Meister, Klau…

Archiatros

(357 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (ἀρχιατρός; archiatrós). In the original use of the name during Hellenistic times, archiatros was the title of the king's personal physician. The term first appeared in connection with the Seleucids (IDelos 1547, cf. TAM V 1,689). A similar title, wr sinw, ‘supreme physician’, is documented in pre-Ptolemaic Egyptian texts; it is missing from early Ptolemaic papyri purely by accident. Dating to 50 BC, documentations are extant from Egypt (Athenagoras, SB 5216) and Pontus (IDelos 1573) [2. 218-226]. A physician known at t…

Antiochis

(559 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Ἀντιοχίς; Antiochís). [German version] [1] Tenth Attic phyle Tenth Attic phyle following the reform of the phyles by  Cleisthenes (IG II2 1700 ff.); its eponymous hero was  Antiochus, a son of Heracles. In the 4th cent. BC, A. encompassed one asty deme, six mesogeia demes, and also six paralia ones; with 28 bouleutai, they were stronger represented than either of the other two trittyes. In 308/7 BC, three demes changed over into the Macedonian phyles of Antigonis or Demetrias ( Atene,  Colonae,  Thorae), but returned to A. after the abolishment…

Pneumatists

(494 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (πνευματικοί/ pneumatikoí, Latin pneumatici). Greek medical sect, founded by Athenaeus [6] of Attaleia under the influence of Stoicism. Galen (De causis contentivis 2) makes Athenaeus a pupil of Posidonius [2], which might indicate a date in the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. However, Cornelius Celsus [7] who wrote in Rome in the mid-1st cent. AD, seems not to have been aware of this sect at all, and its most famous representatives - Agathinus, Herodotus [3], Antyllus [2] and Archi…

Mustio

(169 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (also Muscio) Translator and adapter into Latin of two gynaecological treatises by  Soranus of Ephesus.One of these, now lost in Greek, was a shorter manual of questions and answers; the second the celebrated Gynaikeîa (‘Gynaecology). Some MSS of M.'s compendium end with an appendix listing vaginal pessaries. Although not a faithful translation of Soranus, M.'s adaptation does offer help in the constitution of the Greek text, and it was the most popular treatise on gynaecology to survive from Antiquity into the …

Thessalus

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεσσαλός/ Thessalós). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Greek territory of Thessaly Eponym of the Greek territory of Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia; Plin. HN 4,28), son of Haemon [1] (Rhianus FGrH 265 F 30), of the Heraclid Aeatus (Charax FGrH 103 F 6) or of Iason [1] and Medea (Diod. Sic. 4,54 f.). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Of Athens, son of Peisistratus [4] Athenian, son of Peisistratus [4]. Not named in Herodotus, T. first appears in Thucydides (1,20,2; 6,55,1) as a childless full brother of Hippias [1] and Hipparchus [1] from t…

Dogmatists

(632 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Philosophers Originally a sceptical expression to designate those who adopt as their own a view ( dógma; cf. S. Emp. P.H. 1,13) ─ especially a philosophical or scientific view ─ which, in sceptical thinking, cannot be justified let alone proven (S. Emp. P.H. 1,3). Also applied by the Pyrrhonians in an extended sense to those Academicians who adopted views such as that nothing can be known (cf. the ἰδίως/ idíōs in S. Emp., ibid.). Because of the close link between empiricism and Scepticism in medicine, the term ‘Dogmatists’ was often also applied…

Onasander

(561 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
(Ονάσανδρος; Onásandros). [German version] [1] Physician on Cos, c. 250 BC Public physician of Cos in c. 250 BC. As a resident of Cos without citizens' rights, he apprenticed with a public physician ( archiatrós ) in Halasarna, became his assistant and followed him to Cos when he was chosen public doctor there. There he opened his own practice but continued to treat his old patients from Halasarna, at times for nothing. The inscription documenting his career is one of the most informative ones about physicians to survive from antiquity. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography  R. Herzog, Dec…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Archigenes

(340 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀρχιγένης; Archigénēs) of Apamea. Physician, student of  Agathinus, lived under Trajan (AD 98-117) and died at the age of 63 (Suda s. v. Archigenes). He was an eclecticist and had close ties to the Hippocratic view that disease is caused by the dyscrasia of hot, cold, moist and dry. A. was predominantly influenced by the Pneumatists and wrote extensively about the study of the pulse. Galen (8,625-635) criticized his list of eight different pulse qualities as too tenuous. Some of t…

Epaenetus

(233 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Επαίνετος; Epaínetos) [German version] [1] Medicinal plant expert Medicinal plant expert and author of toxicological works, who lived between the 1st cent. BC and the 3rd cent. AD. His views on the dangerous characteristics of wolfbane, hemlock, opium, mandrake, henbane, poisonous mushrooms, black chamaeleon (a plant whose leaves can change colour), of bull's blood, of litharge and of lumpsucker as well as his remedies against these poisons are reported in detail in Ps.-Aelius Promotus' De venenis (ed. princeps, S. Ihm, 1995).  Medicine;  Toxicology Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Agathinus

(219 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀγαθῖνος; Agathînos) of Sparta (Ps.-Gal. 19,353). Greek doctor of the first cent., student of Athenaeus of Attaleia, teacher of Archigenes and the Pneumatist  Herodotus. Even though he was mostly counted among the Pneumatists, some believed that he had founded his own, the Episynthetic or Eclectic School. The handed-down fragments of his writings allow connections to the Empiricists and Methodists to be recognized. He wrote about medicines (a fragment about stinking hellebore is i…

Andromachus

(676 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀνδρόμαχος; Andrómachos). [German version] [1] Possessor of a dorea (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Documented between 253 and 249 BC in Egypt as possessor of a δωρεά ( dōreá) of 10,000 arourai. ‘Father’ of  Ptolemaeus Andromachou (?) [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Strategos of Syria and Phoenicia (end of 3rd cent. BC) Aspendian, commanded the phalanx in 217 BC at Raphia, later strategos of Syria and Phoenicia. PP 2, 2150. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [3] Ptolemaean official (1st half of 2nd cent. BC) Son of  Eirene, grandson of  Ptolemaeus Agesarchou; c. 197/8…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Callimorphus

(80 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Military doctor, who according to Lucian (Quomodo historia 16,24 = FGrH II 210), wrote, in a highly tragic and stilted style, a history of the Parthian Wars of Lucius Verus in the years AD 162-166 that bore the title Parthica. Unless this was a figment of Lucian's imagination, it appears that he served in the Parthian War, either in the legio VI Ferrata, or in an ala contariorum (a troop division of pike-bearers). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Penis

(165 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, lat. mentula (for synonyms, see [1]). Its anatomy, including the glans, scrotum, and testicles, was established by 250 BC, but its physiology, especially its capacity as to achieve an erection, was harder to explain. Galen ( De usu partium 15,3) called it a 'nerve-like part', and in De motibus dubiis discussed the possible effects of imagination on the process. Although circumcision (Circumcisio) was seen as essentially Jewish, infibulation was widely practised. Medical and surgical texts offer a variety of treat…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Iatraleiptes

(106 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Masseur, a profession that seems to have become fashionable in the 1st cent. AD (e.g. CIL 6,9476) but the linking of medicine and gymnastics extends as far back as Herodicus [1] of Selymbria (5th cent. BC). Trimalchio was treated by three aliptae (Petron. Sat. 28). Pliny considers this entire branch of medicine a form of quackery (HN 29,4-5). Vespasian however guaranteed all who practiced this art various privileges (FIRA 1,77) and Pliny the Younger managed to persuade Trajan to confer Roman (and Alexandrian) citizenship to his Egyptian iatraleiptes Harpocrates, w…

Pelops

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πέλοψ; Pélops). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus Son of Tantalus (Cypria fragment 13 EpGF; in Hyg. Fab. 82 from his liaison with Dione), husband of Hippodamia [1], father of Atreus, Thyestes, Pittheus and other children (Pind. O. 1,88f. with schol.). P.'s original homeland was Asia Minor (cf. Pind. Ol. 1,24; Hdt. 7,8).  P.'s father Tantalus chops him into pieces, cooks him and serves him up to the gods. Demeter is the only one who fails to notice the horrendous deed and eats part of his shoulder (A…

Alcamenes

(438 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀλκαμένης; Alkaménēs). [German version] [1] of Abydus Greek physician Greek physician of the 5th and 4th cents. BC. According to Aristotle or his student Meno, A. blamed illnesses on the residue of undigested food: presumably, it rises to the head where it accumulates only to be distributed throughout the body as a harmful substance (Anon. Londiniensis 7,42). A. assumed a position contrary to the opinions of Euryphon of Cnidus, who ascertained that the head is less involved in the origin of illnesses. It is not certain whether A. was his student.  Anonymus Londiniensis Nutton, Vivian (…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Anatomy

(1,960 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Egypt and ancient Orient Anatomy in the sense of a systematically gained body of knowledge on the basis of dissections appears to have been a Greek invention. We do know that Babylonian (and later also Etruscan) hepatoscopy entailed the removal of an animal liver, but aside from the relatively differentiated terminology for this organ and the assignment of certain emotions to the main organs, Babylonian texts are silent about the topic of anatomy [17]. The beginnings of anatomical r…

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Aristoxenus

(833 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀριστόξενος; Aristóxenos). [German version] [1] Musician, Musical theoretician, philosopher, biographer, from Tarentum from Tarentum, musician, musical theorist, philosopher, biographer, known as μουσικός. According to Suda son of Mnesias or of the musician Spintharus, pupil of his father, of a certain Lamprus of Erythrae, of the Pythagorean Xenophilus and finally of Aristotle. In Mantinea A. turned to philosophy. Claims to have heard in Corinth the story of Damon and Phintias from the tyrant Dionysius II …

Antidotarium

(264 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] The term originally designated treatises about antidotes, for instance Gal. de antidotis, 14,1-209 (trans. and comment. by [1, cf. 6]) and Philomenus (ed. by [2]), but, in medieval Latin, it referred to all writings about composite medications. It is unclear when exactly the shift in meaning occurred, since most collections of medications in late antiquity show neither titles not authors. The earliest documentation of the title is found in a MS from the 11th cent., which, however,…

Hospital

(590 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] In Late Antiquity, a hospital was a place within an environment of religious character, where one cared for people in need including old and sick ones. In the early MA, along the great routes of pilgrimage, chains of small inns developed. Many Benedictine monasteries had their own hospital wards, which may also have catered for the needs of a large part of the public. As of the 11th cent., hospitals were constructed in cities, again under the influence of eastern Mediterranean cu…

Abas

(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [German version] [1] Figure from Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece: a) Argus. Son of Lynceus and Hypermestra. By Aglaea, daughter of Mantineus, father of the twins Acrisius and Proetus (Apollod. 2,24; Hes. fr. 129 M-W; cf. Paus. 2,16,2; 10,35,1) and Idomene, mother of Bias and Melampus by Amythaon (Apollod. 2,24). Lynceus gave A. the shield, consecrated by Danaus to Hera, and for whose festival he had established the agon ἄσπις ἐν Ἄργει (Hyg. Fab. 1…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Epidemic diseases

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] I. Prehistory and early history Epidemic diseases (ED), or in the broadest sense, diseases that attack a large number of living beings simultaneously have been documented archaeologically since the middle of the Bronze Age, that is, since c. 2800 BC. Their appearance has been linked to population growth and the resulting ease with which disease can spread from animals to humans and from person to person [9. 251]. In Egypt, smallpox appears to have been known since c. 1250 BC, although papyri with medicinal content do not refer to this or any other compara…

Anonymus Londiniensis

(480 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] The papyrus inventory no. 137 of the British Library in London is the most important surviving medical papyrus. It was written towards the turn of the 1st to the 2nd cent. and is divided into three parts: columns 1-4,17 contain a list of definitions that concern the páthē of body and soul (cf. the discussion in Gal. Meth. med. 1); columns 4,21-20,50, present different views about the causes of diseases; columns 21,1-39,32 deal with physiology. The text as well as many internal characteristics indicate that these chapters, thou…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Pleistonicus

(351 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Πλειστόνικος; Pleistónikos). Doctor fl. c. 270 BC; he was a pupil of Praxagoras of Cos (Celsus, De medicina, proem. 20) and one of the 'classics' of Greek medicine in the so-called Dogmatic tradition (Dogmatists [2]; Gal. Methodus medendi 2,5; Gal. De examinando medico 5,2). It is difficult to assess his individuality, as, according to tradition- i.e. fundamentally in Galen - his views are transmitted as being in agreement with those of Praxagoras or other Dogmatists. Like his master…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Glaucias

(360 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γλαυκίας; Glaukías). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina Bronze sculptor from Aegina. According to Pausanias, he created statues of the boxers Glaucus, Philo and Theagenes in Olympia, whose victories or honours occurred in the 1st quarter of the 5th cent. BC. According to the description, they were depicted in motion, some of them at shadow-boxing; small bronze statues give at least an idea of this. He created a monument for Gelon of Syracuse after his chariot victory in 488 BC; parts of the base with inscriptions are preserved. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overb…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Agnellus [of Ravenna]

(294 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Iatrosophist and commentator of medical texts around AD 600, Milan. Ambr. G 108 f. contains his commentaries on Galen's De sectis, Ars medica, De pulsibus ad Teuthram and Ad Glauconem, just as they were recorded by Simplicius (not the famous Aristotle commentator!). The first mentioned is in many places in agreement with a commentary which is ascribed to Iohannes Alexandrinus or Gesius, as well as Greek passages of text, which are associated with Iohannes and Archonides (?). As controversial as the question …

Humanism

(10,894 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) | Hinz, Manfred (Passau RWG) | Burmeister, Karl Heinz (Bregenz RWG) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Kreyszig, Walter (Saskatoon/Wien RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) I. Renaissance (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Renaissance Humanism (RH) is understood as a literary and philological movement which first established itself with Petrarch in the courts and city oligarchies of Italy (and to a lesser extent in the universities).  Its objective was to imitate and restore Classical Latin (essentially Cicero's for prose and Vergil's for metric texts), in view of a newly arisen, non-clerical, urban bourgeois educated class for both production…

Aetius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀέτιος; Aétios). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Troezen Son of Anthas, mythical king of Troezen; his successors colonized Halicarnass and Myndus in Caria (Paus. 2,30,8 f.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Doxographer of 1st cent. AD Doxographer of 1st cent. AD. Although historically elusive, A. played a central role in the doxographic tradition of antiquity, because he wrote the only detailed doxographic manual to have been handed down fairly complete ( Doxography). Large parts of the work can be quite accur…

Alexion

(162 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Physician and friend of Cicero's Physician and friend of Cicero's (Cic. Att. 15,1-3) who died suddenly in 44 BC from an undefinable illness. Cicero's grief about the loss of the summus medicus did not deter him from inquiring about whom A. had remembered in his testament. Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. AD (Ἀλεξίων; Alexíōn). Greek grammarian of the 2nd half of the 1st cent. AD, called χωλός ( chōlós; the limping one): he authored an epitome of the Symmikta by  Didymus, which was cited by Herennius Philo and used by He…

Flavius

(4,130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian gentile name, derived from the individual cognomen Flavus (‘the blond one’) through the suffix of affiliation -ius, abbreviated form Fl. The bearers of the name that was already common in the Republican period were initially politically unimportant; F. [I 5] was the first one to attain to Roman nobility. In the Imperial period the name was spread further in the Roman empire as a result of the granting of citizenship by the Flavian Emperors Vespasian, Titus and Domitian (AD 68-96). In Late Antiquity (4th-6th cents.) F. was initially gentilicium of the family of  Consta…

Charmis

(123 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Χάρμις; Chármis) Greek physician from Massilia, who went to Rome c. AD 55. Thanks to his cold-water cures he soon made a name there, and gained many wealthy patients (Plin. HN 29,10). For one treatment he invoiced a patient from the provinces for HS 200,000 (Plin. HN 29, 22), and demanded a similarly exorbitant price of 1,000 Attic drachmas for a single dose of an antidote (Gal. 14,114,127). During his lifetime C. invested HS 20 million in public construction projects in Massilia, and at h…

Lead poisoning

(406 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Even though the analysis of skeletons has shown that lead played a larger role in the classical period than in prehistoric times, the measured values are lower than expected in view of the considerable rise in lead production between 600 BC and AD 500 and its use in the manufacture of household goods and water pipes [1; 2; 3]. As the symptoms of lead poisoning (LP) are very similar to other diseases, there are hardly any descriptions which can be taken as referring to it unambiguo…

Medicine

(6,211 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Magic formulae - such as spells, apotropaea, and prophylacterics - and rational elements, i.e. empirically derived treatment methods with plant, mineral, or animal substances, characterize the image of medicine in a Mesopotamia. The treatment of diseases - seen as either caused by demons, or as a punishment sent by the gods, or as the result of being bewitched, as well as the result of natural causes - was the domain of two different experts, the asû, more versed in herbal lore, evident from as early as the mid-3rd millennium BC, and the spe…

Caelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Plebeian family name (in MSS frequently confused with  Coelius), attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (ThlL, Onom. 24-26). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. praetor or propraetor in Gallia Cisalpina in 90 BC praetor or propraetor in Gallia Cisalpina in 90 BC (Liv. per. 73; MRR 2,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., C. see C.  Coelius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C., M. People's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC People's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC, against whom Cato -- perhaps as censor in 184 BC -- directed a speech (ORF I4 46-48) [1. 86]. Elver…

Dentistry

(659 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. I. Sources The main source for Mesopotamian dentistry consists in two chapters from the medical manual ‘When the top of a person's head is feverishly hot’ (1st millennium BC; cf.  Medicine I) and there are also isolated texts of prescriptions. The oldest textual evidence is a cuneiform tablet from the ancient Babylonian period ( c. 18th to 16th cents. BC). The majority of the texts is accessible only in cuneiform autographs; for partial translations cf. [1]. Böck, Barbara (Madrid) [German version] B. Dental diseases and treatment Various periodont…

Aretaeus

(401 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀρεταῖος; Aretaîos) of Cappadocia. Greek Hippocratic physician who was influenced by Pneumatic theory. [13] therefore assigned him to the middle of the 1st cent. AD. A.'s name was first mentioned in the late 2nd. cent as the author of a text about prophylactics in Ps.-Alex. Aphr. De febribus 1, 92, 97, 105. However, Galen repeats A.'s story of a leper that appeared in Morb. chron. 4,13,20 without any reference to the source in Subfig. emp. 10 = Deichgräber 75-9. Thirty years later…

Galen of Pergamum

(3,449 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γαλήνος; Galḗnos) [German version] A. Life AD 129 to c. 216, Greek doctor and philosopher. As the son of a prosperous architect named Aelius or Iulius Nicon (not Claudius, as older accounts have it), G. enjoyed a wide education, especially in philosophy. When he was 17, Asclepius appeared to Nicon in a dream which turned G. towards a medical career. After studying with Satyrus, Aiphicianus and Stratonicus in Pergamum, G. went to Smyrna c. 149 to learn from Pelops, a pupil of the Hippocratic Quintus. From there he journeyed to Corinth to find Numisianus, another pupi…

Polybus

(651 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πόλυβος; Pólybos). [German version] [1] Name of numerous peripheral figures in Greek mythology Name of numerous peripheral figures in Greek mythology, e.g. a Trojan, son of  Antenor [1] (Hom. Il. 11,59), killed by Neoptolemus [1] (Quint. Smyrn. 8,86); an Ithacan, suitor of Penelope, killed by Eumaeus (Hom. Od. 22,243 and 284), also his father (Hom. Od. 1,399); a Phaeacian (Hom. Od. 8,373); a mythical king of Thebes (Hom. Od. 4,126). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Corinth Mythical king of Corinth, husband of Merope [4] or Periboea [4]. They bring …

Theodas

(102 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Θεοδᾶς; Theodâs) from Laodicea. Greek physician c. 125 AD; he and Menodotus [2] were pupils of the sceptic Antiochus [20]; he was a leading representative of the School of the Empiricists. He wrote (1.) Chief points (Κεφάλαια), which Galenus and a later (otherwise unknown) Theodosius commented on; (2.) On the parts of medicine (Περὶ τῶν τῆς ἰατρικῆς μερῶν), in which he emphasised the significance of autopsy, historíē ('research') and analogy; (3.) an Introduction to medicine (Εἰσαγώγη). His works were  still being copied in the 3rd cent. in Egypt. Only…

Training (medical)

(600 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Although most healers in Antiquity learned their trade from their fathers or as autodidacts, some also went to study with a master (e.g. Pap. Lond. 43, 2nd cent. BC), or travelled to medical strongholds to receive training. Remains of these teaching centres are to be found in Babylonia [1] and in Egypt, where the ‘House of Life’ in Sais, rebuilt by Darius c. 510 BC, may have served as such a centre and scriptorium [2]. If, in the Greek world, the Hippocratic tradition (Hippocrates) emphasized the superiority of healers trained at Cos, Cnidus …

Surgery

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Egyptian The high prestige widely accorded to Egyptian medical practitioners for their surgical skills (Hdt. 3,129), was well-earned. Skeletal finds show the successful treatment of bone fractures, esp. in the arms, and rare cases of trepanation. However, there is no reliable indication of surgical intervention in body cavities [1; 2]. The great diversity of knives, spoons, saws and needles reflects a highly-developed specialism, rooted in wide-ranging medical practice. Early pap…
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