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(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…


(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of the cavalry. An anecdotally coloured representation of the battle is recorded in Diod. Sic. 16,26,6. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Phleius Pythagorean from Phleius, who together with Phanton, Polymnastos and Diocles, who also came fro…


(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)


(5,221 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | I.A. | Folkerts | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Et al.
I. Mesopotamia [German version] A. Numerical systems Before systems for representing numbers in writing were (further) developed, counting stones, known as calculi or tokens, were used in arithmetic. As first-order representations they enabled operations such as increasing, decreasing, combining, separating, and distributing. Their relationship to the numerical notations recorded in the oldest ‘texts’ ( c. 3300 BC; Uruk) is still discussed [2]. The numerical signs in these texts do not represent absolute numbers but context-dependent units of count…


(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cutter (Diog. Laert. 8,1; Apul. Flor. 15; cf. Porph. Vita Pythagorica 1; [1]), sometimes as a merchant from the Tyrrhenian island of Lemnos who had settled on Samos (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29a = Porph. ibid…


(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …
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