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Pollis

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πόλλις/ Póllis). Spartan naúarchos ('naval commander') 396/5 BC, he fought in the Aegean Sea against Conon [1] (Hell. Oxy. 12,2 Chambers); in 393/2 BC he was epistoleús of the naúarchos Podanemus in the Corinthian War (Xen. Hell. 4,8,11). As emissary of Sparta in Syracusae, P. was supposed to secure the participation of Dionysius [I 6] I in the war against Athens and was accused of selling the philosopher Plato [1] into slavery in Aegina on the return trip (Plut. Dion 5; Diog. Laert. 3,19). As naúarchos he was defeated in 376 at Naxos by Chabrias (Xen. Hell. 5,4…

Harmostai

(273 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ἁρμοσταί; harmostaí, Ionian ἁρμοστῆρες; harmostêres: Xen. Hell. 4,8,39). [German version] [1] Spartan military commanders Spartan military commanders responsible for the supervision of certain areas. The 20 harmostai of the Lacedaemonians, mentioned in the scholia to Pindar (Ol. 6,154), cannot be identified with certainty as supervisory officials over the poleis of the perioikoi and should rather be regarded as ‘governors’ residing outside the Spartan polis area [1. 11f.; 2. 62f.]. The harmostḗs (IG V 1,937), documented in the early 4th cent. for Cythera, proba…

Nabis

(677 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νάβις; Nábis). Son of Damaratus; controversial representative of the last phase of the Spartan reform movement. After the death of Machanidas (207 BC), N. - apparently a member of a branch of the Eurypontidae - first became regent of Sparta. He consolidated his power by removing the young king Pelops (Diod. Sic. 27,1) and then took the title of king himself (Syll.3 584). Polybius (13,6,1-7,11) and later authors depict N. as a cruel tyrant (Diod. Sic. 27,1; Liv. 33,44,8; 34,32,3; Plut. Titus 13; Paus. 4,29,10). At first, his rule was suppor…

Panthoedas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πανθοίδας; Panthoídas). Spartan commander who was sent to Byzantium in 403/2 BC with instructions to get rid of the Spartan ruler Clearchus [2] who had usurped power (Diod. Sic.14,12,4-7). He is probably the same person as P. the harmost (governor) who was killed in 377 BC at Tanagra in the battle against the Thebans under Pelopidas (Plut. Pelopidas 15,6). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Spartiatae

(338 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σπαρτιᾶται; Spartiâtai). Full citizens of Sparta, who attained this status at 20 years of age, and who from the 5th cent. BC saw themselves as homoioi [II] (peers), distinct from the perioikoi , and from the hypomeiones, who enjoyed only limited rights as citizens. The conditions for assuming this status included pure Spartan blood, completion of the agoge and participation in the syssitiai (Banquet [II. B]), to which they had to contribute. Their economic basis were the klaroi ( kleros ), which were worked by helots. The notion that all o…

Ephoroi

(670 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἔφοροι; éphoroi). ‘Custodians’; annual officials in Sparta and a number of Peloponnesian and Dorian poleis and colonies (e.g. Thera, Cyrene, Heraclea on the Siris). The most significant institution of this kind was that of the five Spartan ephoroi, who arrived at their decisions by majority and whose chairman (Plut. Lysander 30) gave his name to his year of office. According to ancient tradition, the Spartan ephorate was held to be an institution of Lycurgus (Hdt. 1,65), and it was later ascribed to king Theopompus …

Hetairia

(601 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(ἑταιρία/ hetairía, also ἑταιρεία/ hetaireía). [German version] [1] In Crete a sub-category of citizenry In Crete a sub-category of citizenry, with communal meals ( andreia or syssitia: Aristot. Pol. 1272a 12ff.; Ath. 4,143a-b = Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2) and a common cult of Zeus Hetaireîos (Hsch. s.v. ἑταιρεῖος/ hetaireîos), but neither an association of family members nor part of a phyle, as was the hetairia in Thera or Cyrene (ML 5, l. 16). Acceptance into the hetairia took place after those fit for military service had left the   agélai and it was a prerequisit…

Xenelasia

(294 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ξενηλασία; xenēlasía). 'Expulsion of aliens' (Xenoi), traditionally incorrectly represented as a measure often repeated by the Spartans to protect their city from outside influences (Xen. Lac. 14,4), traced to Lycurgus [4] in the tradition in Plutarch (Lycurgus 27,7; Agis 9; Mor. 238d) and explained by scholars e.g. by an alleged internal change in Sparta in the 6th cent. BC. The first xenelasia is supposed to have been the expulsion of Maeandrius [1] of Samos (Hdt. 3,148); however, that was not a general prohibition of residence for fore…

Gymnasiarchy

(238 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γυμνασιαρχία; Gymnasiarchía). Supervision of a  gymnasium by a gymnasiarchus, whose functions varied in scope and importance depending on the place and time. In Athens the gymnasiarchy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC was a one-year   leitoūrgía (λειτουργία; And. 1,132; Dem. Or. 20,21), the task being to train a certain number of runners for torch competitions at the Great Panathenaea, Hephaistia, Promethia and festivals of Pan and to supply them with all their requisites. At the end of the 4th cent. the gymnasiarchy be…

Eurybiades

(130 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυβιάδης; Eurybiádēs). Spartan commander of the fleet of the Greek confederation of 481 BC at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480. After the Persians had overcome Leonidas' position at Thermopylae, E. took timely measures to lead the Greek fleet through the narrow sound of Euripus into Attic waters (Hdt. 8,4-21). At Salamis, against the vigourous protests of most leaders of the Greek naval contingents, he followed Themistocles' plan to give battle to the Persian fleet in…

Therimenes

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Θηριμένης; Thēriménēs). Spartiate, in the late summer of 412 BC led a fleet taking help to the naúarchos Astyochus in Asia Minor; at Miletus he forced Athenian forces into retreat (Thuc. 8,26,1-29,2) and in the autumn negotiated for Sparta a second subsidy treaty with Persia. During his return in 411 he was killed in a shipwreck (Thuc. 8,36,2-38,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischagoras

(108 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχαγόρας; Ischagóras). Spartan, was unable, in 423 BC, to carry out his task of bringing reinforcements to  Brasidas in Thrace because of countermeasures by Perdiccas of Macedonia. He managed to reach the war zone there with a few companions, and with the aid of Brasidas had Spartans installed as commanders in some of the poleis (Thuc. 4,132). Having signed the Peace of Nicias in 421 and overseen the execution of its provisions in Thrace, in the same year he gave his oath for the…

Cleora

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεόρα; Kleóra). Spartan, wife of Agesilaus [2] II, mother of Archidamus [2] III (Xen. Hell. 3,4,29; 5,4,25; Plut. Agesilaus 19). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agiatis

(103 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάτις; Agiátis). Rich Spartan woman, heiress of the Spartan Gylippus, who died c. 241 BC. First married to the reform king  Agis [4] IV. After his death,  Leonidas II forced her to marry his still very young son, the later reform king  Cleomenes III. According to Plut. Cleom. 1,1-3; 22,1-3, who portrays her as beautiful and full of character, she is supposed to have convinced her second husband to take up Agis' reform plans by telling him stories about them. The significance of this emotional element for the initiatives of Cleomenes III is difficult to judge. Welwei, Karl…

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Damaratus

(262 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαμάρατος, Δημάρητος; Damáratos, Dēmárētos). Spartan king, Eurypontid, son and successor (around 510 BC) of King Ariston. The turning-point in his life was brought about by the enmity with Cleomenes I, whose intention to establish a Spartan satellite regime in Athens, with the help of an army campaign in 506 he thwarted at Eleusis (Hdt. 5,74f.). We do not know whether Athenian investigations became known to the Persian satrap in Sardeis [3. 273-276]. In 491 D. plotted against Cleome…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Mamertini

(463 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Former Oscan mercenaries, predominantly from Campania, hired by Agathocles [2] of Syracuse. After his death (289 BC), they conquered the town of Messana between 288 and 283 BC. They called themselves M. after the war god Mamers, the Oscan form of Mars (Diod. Sic. 21,18,1; Cass. Dio fr. 40,8; Fest. 150,30-35), plundering a wide area and enforcing tributes (Pol. 1,7,2-5; 8,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 23,1). After the M. had conquered wide areas of Northern Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,13,1-2), they c…

Sthenelaidas

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σθενελαίδας; Sthenelaḯdas). Spartiate, one of the éphoroi and the leader of the apella , who in 432 BC, with reference to the complaints of Spartan sýmmachoi (Peloponnesian League) and despite the warnings of the king Archidamus [1] II, called for an active containment of the power of Athens. Unusually, he held the vote not by acclamation but by calling for those for and against to stand in separate places, and was thus able to carry through the resolution that Athens had broken the 446 BC peace treaty (…

Epitadeus

(183 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάδευς; Epitádeus). An ephor from Sparta; according to Plutarch (Agis 5), out of anger against his son, he passed a law making it permissible to give away or pass on house and   kleros at will, no doubt with the aim of increasing the number of Spartiates. Plutarch dates this  rhetra vaguely to 404 BC, but cites this law as the reason for significant differences in wealth amongst the Spartiates in c. 250 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 1270a 15-34) seems to see the deplorable state of affairs in Sparta's cosmos in the mid-4th cent. BC as a consequence of this…

Anchimolus

(73 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγχίμολος; Anchímolos). In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,5 and schol. Aristoph. Lys. 1153 (Anchimolios in Hdt. 5,63,2) high-ranking Spartan, who in 511 BC was supposed to expel the  Peisistratids from Athens and landed with hoplites at Phalerum. In expectation of the invasion  Hippias had, however, called upon 1,000 Thessalian horsemen for help and prepared the landing-point for their attack. A. fell, the rest of his hoplites fled. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agis

(919 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἆγις; Âgis). [German version] [1] I, eponymous hero of the  Agiads A. I, eponymous hero of the  Agiads, son of Eurysthenes and father of Echestratus, according to another version father of the legendary lawgiver Lycurgus (Hdt. 7,204; Paus. 3,2,1). The institution of the perioikia and of the  Helots by him (Ephorus, FGrH 70 F 117) is historical fiction. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king (427-400 BC) A. II, Eurypontid, Spartan king 427/26-400 BC, son of Archidamus [1] II and stepbrother of Agesilaus [2] II, in 426 and 425 led troo…

Xenares

(141 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ξενάρης; Xenárēs). Spartiate, probably identical to the son of Cnidis who, as harmost ( Harmostaí [2]) in Heraclea [1] Trachinia in the winter of 420/19 BC, fell in battle against the Aenianes, the Dolopes and other tribes in that territory (Thuc. 5,51,2). As éphoros in 421/20 BC, X. and his colleague in office Cleobulus [3] rejected the alliance between Sparta and Athens concluded after the Peace of Nicias [1]. After unofficial negotiations with the Boeotians and the Corinthians, the two managed to conclude a special a…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Proegoros

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προήγορος/ proḗgoros, Doric προάγορος/ proágoros, 'spokesman'; from pro-agoreúein, 'speak publicly for somebody'). Spokesman of a group or legation (Xen. Hell. 1,1,27; 2,2,22; Xen. An. 5,5,7). In the Sicilian poleis of Acragas (IG XIV 952: 2nd cent. BC), Tyndaris (Cic. Verr. 2,4,85) and possibly also Tauromenium (IG XIV 423) the term for an official. In Catane even, according to Cicero (Verr. 2,4,50), the proḗgoros was the highest magistrate, though this may be exaggerated. In Sardeis , stratēgoí and proḗgoroi feature (as leading officials) in the prescri…

Dercylidas

(305 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδας; Derkylídas). Spartan; regarded as a talented and cunning military commander. He won Abydus and Lampsacus in 411 BC without a battle (Thuc. 8,61f.), was harmost in Abydus in 407/6 (Xen. Hell. 3,1,9) and in 399 in Sparta's war against the Persian satrap Tissaphernes in Asia Minor he relieved the unpopular Thibron, who was unable to keep discipline in the army, including the former mercenaries (including Xenophon) of Cyrus the Younger (Xen. Hell. 3,1,8-10). In 399 in a ‘l…

Agesilaus

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίλαος; Agēsílaos). [German version] [1] I, legendary Spartan king (c. 900 BC) A. I, legendary Spartan king, Agiad, considered the son of Doryssus and father of Archelaus (Hdt. 7,204), ‘ruled’ according to Alexandrian chronographers 929/28-886/85 BC, for a shorter time according to Pausanias (3,2,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king, Eurypontid (400-359 BC) A. II, Spartan king, Eurypontid, 444/43 BC. When his brother Agis [2] II died in the summer of 400 and Agis' son Leotychidas was excluded from succession, …

Melesippus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελήσιππος; Melḗsippos). Spartiate, son of Diacritus, member of the last Spartan delegation to Athens in 431 BC before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 1,139,3). In the same year, during the advance of the army of Archidamus [1], he was again sent to Athens for negotiations, but was turned back at the city gates. On leaving Attica, he is said to have prophesied that that day would mark the beginning of great misfortune for the Hellenes (Thuc. 2,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Erianthes

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐριάνθης; Eríanthēs). Theban commander of the Boeotian triremes at Aigospotamoi. His statue, therefore, stood on the Spartan victory monument in Delphi (Paus. 10,9,9) [1. 14f.]. After the capitulation of Athens, his demand to destroy the city was rejected in Sparta (Xen. Hell. 2,2,19; Plut. Lys. 15). When the Thebans in 395 BC endeavoured to form an alliance with Athens, they attempted to interpret the action by E. as having been carried out by him without authority (Xen. Hell. 3,5,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.-F. Bommelaer, Lysandre de S…

Pasiteilidas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιτειλίδας; Pasiteilídas). Spartiate, son of Hegesander and harmost under Brasidas in Torone, where he was taken prisoner in 422 BC during the Athenians' capture of the city under Cleon [1]. From there he was presumably taken to Athens (Thuc. 4,132,3; 5,3,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Leotychidas

(368 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λεωτυχίδας; Leōtychídas). [German version] [1] Eurypontid Eurypontid (Hdt. 8,131; Eurypontidae), considered to be the ancestor of L. [2]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of Sparta, 5th cent. BC Eurypontid; became king in Sparta after Damaratus was deposed; in 491 BC, he participated in the actions of Cleomenes [3] I in Aegina (Hdt. 6,73), and for that reason was almost delivered up to the Aeginetans (Hdt. 6,85f.). In 479, L. commanded the Hellenic fleet, followed a request for help by the Samians, …

Gerousia

(995 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(γερουσία; gerousía, ‘Council of Elders’). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman In Sparta the gerousia was probably originally an assembly of representatives from leading families. There it gained its institutional character from early on and consisted of the two kings and 28   gérontes (γέροντες), who were appointed for life and were at least 60 years old. Election took place on the basis of the volume of the acclamation in the   apélla (ἀπέλλα), with ‘electoral officials’ in a closed room deciding who got the strongest applause (Plut. Lycurgus …

Alcibiades

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκιβιάδης; Alkibiádēs). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of 6th cent. BC) Athenian, who in 510 BC supported  Cleisthenes when he initiated the expulsion of the Peisistratids from Athens (Isoc. Or. 16,26). [1; cf. 2]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 Traill, PAA, 121620. 2 Davies, 600,III u. V. [German version] [2] ‘the Elder’ Athenian, around 461 BC Son of the previous (cf. Pl. Euthd. 275a/b); after the deposition of  Cimon (462/1 BC) and the break between Athens and Sparta he laid down demonstratively the inherited title of a Lacedaimonian proxenos (Thuc. 5,43,2; 6,8…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut. Pel. 13; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 240; cf. Xen. Hell. 5,4,13; Diod. Sic. 15,27). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Megalopolis, end of the 3rd cent. BC L. from Megalopolis ( Megale Polis); in 223/2 BC L. wanted to l…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pelops

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πέλοψ; Pélops). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus Son of Tantalus (Cypria fragment 13 EpGF; in Hyg. Fab. 82 from his liaison with Dione), husband of Hippodamia [1], father of Atreus, Thyestes, Pittheus and other children (Pind. O. 1,88f. with schol.). P.'s original homeland was Asia Minor (cf. Pind. Ol. 1,24; Hdt. 7,8).  P.'s father Tantalus chops him into pieces, cooks him and serves him up to the gods. Demeter is the only one who fails to notice the horrendous deed and eats part of his shoulder (A…

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Thrasydaeus

(171 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Θρασυδαῖος/ Thrasydaîos). [German version] [1] From Elis, c. 400 BC T. from Elis. Leader of anti-Spartan democrats in the war between Elis and Sparta (402-400 BC), after initial successes in 400 he had to conclude a peace in which the Eleans abandoned dependent towns with the exception of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,21-31; Diod. 14,17,4-12; 34,1; Paus. 3,8,3-5). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Perhaps from Pharsalus, second half of the 4th cent. BC In the 340s BC T., who may have been from Pharsalus (cf. Syll.3 240 H), was a Thessalian tetrarch under Philippus […

Presbeia, Presbeis

(467 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (πρεσβεία/ presbeía, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, 'embassy', 'emissary'). The terms presbeía and présbeis in this sense are known only from the 5th cent. BC on, but there is evidence of 'diplomatic traffic' in Greece considerably earlier than this in Homer, in the form of the sending of 'messengers' (Hom. Il. 4,384; 5,804; 10,286). The term présbeis is explained by the fact that originally it was generally 'elders' ( présbys: 'old') who were sent out as emissaries, though by the 5th cent. this was no longer the custom (Aristoph. Ach. 599 ff.). Présbeis acted on behalf of their…

Mandrocleidas

(148 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μανδροκλείδας; Mandrokleídas). [German version] [1] Spartiate, tried to keep Pyrrhos from further raids in Laconia, 272 BC Spartiate (Μανδρικλείδας/ Mandrikleídas in good MSS). Plutarch (Plut. Pyrrhus 26,24) passes down a memorable statement by M. who is said to have attempted in 272 BC to convince Pyrrhus of the Spartan will to resist him so as to prevent further plundering raids in Laconia by his troops [1. 128f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Spartiate, supporter of Agis's reforms in 243/2 BC Spartiate (probably not identical to M. [1]), talented fo…

Aegidae

(222 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγεῖδαι; Aigeîdai). Designated by Herodotus (4,149) as ‘great phyle in Sparta’, but also (4,147) brought in connection with Cadmean Thebes. In Aristotle (fr. 532 Rose) the A. appear as φρατρία Θηβαίων ( phratría Thēbaíōn) and in Pindar (I. 7,15) as ‘Thebans’ (cf. Androtion FGrH 324 F 60; schol. Pind. Pyth. 5,101). According to the Schol. of Pindar I. 7,18 they are supposed to have originally been Phlegraei. Whether here ‘Phlegyans’ are meant [1. 28] is uncertain. Supposedly the A. migrated with the Heraclidae t…

Panteus

(62 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Παντεύς; Panteús). Spartan, who in 223 BC successfully commanded two Spartan units under Cleomenes [6] III in the attack on Megalopolis (Plut. Cleomenes 23,5-6). After the battle of Sellasia, he fled to Egypt with Cleomenes , where he committed suicide after the latter's failed attempt to free himself from internment (ibid. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Prytanis

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις; Prýtanis). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sparta Mythical king of Sparta, allegedly son of Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), who was considered to be progenitor of the Eurypontid dynasty. The genealogy is fictitious, however, like the one of the Agiads before the 6th cent. BC. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC, the youngest son of Paerisades [1] I. After the death of his brother Satyrus [2] I, he fought against his eldest brother Eumelus [4] (D…

Menedaeus

(74 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μενεδάϊος/ Menedáios). Spartan, in 426 BC a member of Eurylochus's [2] war council in Acarnania. After Eurylochus's defeat and death at Olpae, he became commander of the Peloponnesian troops there. In a secret agreement the Athenian commander Demosthenes [1] granted him free passage in return for surrender of the Ambraciots (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and His Use of Military Surprise, 1993.

Cleandridas

(92 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεανδρίδας; Kleandrías). Spartan; allegedly fought in 470 BC against Tegea (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10,3) and in 446 as advisor of king  Pleistoanax he was bribed by Pericles on a campaign to Attica. Sentenced to death, C. fled (Diod. Sic. 13,106,10; Plut. Pericles 22f.) and became a citizen of Thurii, where he functioned as general after 443 (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10). The embellishment of the bribery affair probably only occurred after his son  Gylippus was convicted of embezzlement [1. 145]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 K. L. Noethlichs, Bestechu…

Gerontes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γέροντες; gérontes). ‘Elders’, in the Homeric epic not only the aged advisers of a city-king (Hom. Il. 3,149) but also high-ranking dignitaries ( Basileus, I. B. Homeric) with leadership functions in war and peace (Hom. Il. 2,404-408). From the advisory assemblies in early Greek pre-city settlements and defensive communities, committees with distinct competencies and criteria of admission developed along with city structures. An indication of this process is the trial scene in Hom. Il. 18,497-508, in which gerontes resolve a dispute over compensation [1…

Megistonous

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεγιστόνους/ Megistónous). Spartan who supported the reforms of his stepson Cleomenes [6] III (Plut. Cleomenes 7,1; 11,1). As the Spartan commander at Orchomenus (Arcadia) he was defeated and captured by Aratus [2] of Sicyon after Cleomenes' coup (227 BC) at a time which has not been exactly determined (Plut. Aratus 38,1), and was sent by him to Cleomenes as a go-between (Plut. Cleomenes 19,5; Plut. Aratus 41,5). M. died in 224 while trying to prevent Argos being captured by Aratus and Antigonus [3] Doson (Plut. Cleomenes 21,1-3; [1. 374f.]). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bo…

Libys

(110 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates who, together with them abducts Dionysius who is disguised as a drunken boy. As a punishment all pirates are transformed into dolphins by the wine god, except the helmsman Acoetes ( Acoetes [1]) who wants to keep them from the outrage (Ov. Met. 3,605-691; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Brother of Lysander, Spartan nauarch 403 BC Brother of Lysander, as Spartan nauarch he blockaded Piraeus in 403 BC in order to combat the revolt of Thrasybulus and his suppo…

Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Polytropus

(77 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πολύτροπος/ Polýtropos). Commander of a detachment of mercenaries recruited in Corinth, which fought for Sparta in 370/369 BC against the newly founded koinón of the Arcadians (see also Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; [1. 80 ff.]) and occupied the polis of Orchomenus [3] because it did not wish to join the Arcadians' League. P. fell in action against Mantinean troops (Xen. Hell. 6,5,11-14; cf. Diod. Sic. 15,62,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Beck, Polis und Koinon, 1997.

Sperthias

(126 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Hdt. 7,134,2: Σπερθίης/ Sperthíēs; Plut. Mor. 235f: Σπέρτις/ Spértis; 815e: Σπέρχις/ Spérchis). A high-ranking Spartan (Spartiatae) who is supposed to have offered himself and the Spartan Boulis in Susa as atonement for the ambassadors of Darius [1] I who had allegedly been killed in Sparta in 491 BC, but refused to prostrate himself before Xerxes who nevertheless set him free (Hdt. 7,134,2-136). Whether Persian ambassadors had appeared in Sparta in 491 BC, however, remains questionable [1.…

Cnemus

(84 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνῆμος; Knêmos). Spartan nauarchos (fleet commander) in 430/29 BC, destroyed Zacynthus in 430, conducted operations in Acarnania in 429 and was defeated at Oeniadae (Thuc. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. Sic. 12,47,4f.). C.'s formations suffered heavy losses in 429 at Stratus and Naupactus against the Athenians under Phormion. In the late autumn of 429 an assault that C. and his ‘adviser’  Brasidas had planned against Piraeus was called off; Salamis was laid waste instead (Thuc. 2,83-94; Diod. Sic. 12,49). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischolaus

(41 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχόλαος; Ischólaos). Spartan, fought in the Corinthian War against Chabrias in Thrace (Polyaen. Strat. 2,22), fell in battle in Scritis against the Arcadians during the winter of 370/69 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24-26; Diod.Sic. 15,64,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lampito

(87 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λαμπιτώ; Lampitṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, 5th cent. BC Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, wife of king Archidamus [1] II, mother of the later king Agis [2] II (Hdt. 6,71; Plut. Agesilaus 1; Pl. Alc. 1,123c); Aristophanes (Lys.) uses the name for a typical female representative of Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] c. 300 BC Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] (Ath. 13,593e-f; Diog. Laert. 5,76). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgo

(604 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Horrific monster Female monster in Greek mythology. According to the canonical version of the myth (Apollod. 2,4,1-2),  Perseus must get the head of  Medusa, the mortal sister of Sthenno and Euryale (Hes. Theog. 276f.; POxy. 61, 4099), the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto (cf. Aeschylus' drama Phorcides, TrGF 262). The three sisters live on the island of Sarpedon in the ocean (Cypria, fr. 23; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 11), although Pindar (Pyth. 10,44-48) located them among the Hyperboraeans ( Hyperborei). Their connection to the s…

War guilt, problem of

(489 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Indications of public indignation at peace-breakers in Homer (Hom. Od. 24,424-437) and the emergence of the Roman fetiales rite as the opening of a bellum iustum (International law) show that even in the Archaic period wars were not regarded as a normal state of affairs and that WG was discussed [1. 127]. WG acquired greater political significance in the course of expansionist aspirations. The actions and causes which triggered battles between the Greeks and 'Barbarians' form a leitmotiv in the work of He…

Charillus

(57 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Χάριλλος; Chárillos, in Hdt. 8,131 Χαρίλαος; Charílaos). Historically uncertain Spartan king, Eurypontid; according to Sosibius (FGrH 595 F 2), ruled 874-811 BC and with King Archelaus conquered the perioikic city of Aegys (Paus. 3,2,5), but defeated by the Tegeans (Paus. 8,5,9). This data arises from constructions based on legend.   Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgopas

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γοργώπας; Gorgṓpas). Spartiate, in 389/8 BC. Epistoleús of the nauarch Hierax, who assigned to him the defence of the polis Aegina under the siege of Athens. He operated successfully against Athenian forces and against Attic coastal regions, accompanied the new nauarch Antalcidas to Ephesus in 388, and got into difficulties in a battle against an Athenian squadron on his return. He won the counter attack in a night battle at Cape Zoe, but was not up to the surprise attack of the Atheni…

Cleombrotus

(315 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Κλεόμβροτος; Kleómbrotos). [German version] [1] Agiad, Spartan commander in Salamis Agiad ( Agiads), brother of Leonidas I who died at Thermopylae in 480 BC and guardian of the latter's son Pleistarchus. As commander of the Peloponnesian forces, C. directed the fortification of the Isthmus of Corinth before the battle of Salamis, but died late that year or in the winter of 480/79 (Hdt. 5,41; 7,205,1; 8,71; 9,10; Paus. 3,3,9). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. I. Spartan king 380-371 BC Agiad, after the banishment of his father Pausanias in 394 BC under …

Stephanephoria

(184 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (στεφανηφορία/ stephanēphoría) was the term for the 'wearing of a garland' as a symbol of sacred or magisterial dignity, widespread in the Greek poleis of Asia Minor and often connected with eponymity (Eponyms in chronology). Eponymous stephanephoria is known primarily in Miletus (Syll.3 57; LSAM 50); it was carried out by the aisymnetai of the molpoi [1. 68, 7729]. In their name lists, which, with only a few interruptions, extend from 525/4 BC to AD 31/2 [2. no. 122-128], Alexander [4] and Augustus also appear (cf. [3. 167]). In Priene stephanephoria was at times t…

Dorieus

(553 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Δωριεύς; Dorieús). [German version] [1] Spartan, son of Anaxandridas II Spartan, Agiad, son of Anaxandridas II and his first wife, older brother of the kings Leonidas and Cleombrotus, younger half-brother of Cleomenes I, who was born before D., but to the second wife of Anaxandridas, whom he due to the initial infertility of his first wife had additionally married at the direction of the ephors and gerontes. After Cleomenes as the eldest son had succeeded to the throne (Hdt. 5,41f.; Paus. 3,3,9f.), D. organized ─ allegedly due to outrage over this ruling ─ a colonist campaign to Libya c. 51…

Kosmoi

(181 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne)
(κόσμοι; kósmoi). [German version] [1] Official in Cretan cities Name of the highest official in Cretan poleis, before the 3rd cent. BC, also attested as ho kósmos (singular) or hoi kosmíontes (plural). Kosmoi had political and military leadership functions in addition to their representative and judicial duties. The department of the kosmoi could include up to 10 officials and a ‘leader’ ( startagétas = stratēgós; later prōtókosmos). It made political decisions and was subject to the control of the people. If they performed their office well, the kosmoi could be elected to the co…

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Thorax

(592 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(θώραξ; thṓrax). [German version] [1] Cuirass Cuirass. As a part of Greek hoplite armour, the thorax protected the chest and the back. In the Geometric and Archaic Periods, it was commonly a bell-shaped armour made of bronze; it consisted of two hip-length plates that widened towards the bottom and were attached to each other at the sides. This thorax offered excellent cover against blows from lances and swords or shots from arrows, but it was extremely heavy and cumbersome and limited the soldiers' mobility to a great extent. It was therefore replaced…

Klarotai

(34 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλαρῶται; klarôtai). Non-free country-dwellers in Crete, who worked the klâroi ( klêros ) of full citizens in exchange for the payment of fees (Ath. 6,263e-f; Poll. 3,83). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apella, Apellai

(407 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] This word only occurs in the plural (ἀπέλλαι; apéllai) and is explained by Hesychius as σηκοί ( sēkoí; precincts) or by their function as ἐκκλησίαι ( ekklēsíai; people's assemblies) or ἐφαιρησίαι ( ephairēsíai; voting assemblies). The Labyad inscriptions in Delphi use apellai to refer to the  Apollo festival of the phratry during the religious month of Apellaios (Michel, RIG 995 = Schwyzer, DGE 323). Inscriptions from Gytheum (Laconia, 1st cent.) add the augmentative attribute μεγάλαι ( megálai; IG V 1, 1144, l.20 f.= SGDI 4567 = Michel, RIG 185; IG V 1, …

Paredros, Paredroi

(710 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
(πάρεδρος/ páredros, plural πάρεδροι/ páredroi, 'assessor' of political office-holders or deities). A. Politics [German version] 1. Athens (a) In the 5th and 4th cents. BC two paredroi were appointed each by the eponymous árchōn , the polémarchos and the basileús (see árchōn basileús) as assistants and deputies ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 56,1). Their position had an official character, as they were subordinate to the dokimasía and they were liable to account. (b) In the 4th cent. BC a pair of paredroi for each ten eúthynoi of the Council (see eúthynai ) of the 500 were chosen from the bouleutaí

Teleclus

(83 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τήλεκλος; Tḗleklos). King of Sparta, who according to legend played an important role a generation before the beginning of the first Messenian War. As a person he is probably historical; he is supposed to have conquered Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (Paus. 3,2,6) and settled several places in Dentheliatis (Denthalii) with Laconic colonists (Str. 8,4,4). His killing by Messenians allegedly led to the first of the Messenian Wars (Paus. 4,4,2-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 85-87, 102-106.

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Proxenia, proxenos

(228 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προξενία/ proxenía, πρόξενος/ próxenos). The term proxenía denotes the function of a 'public guest' ( próxenos), i.e. one citizen's representing one Greek community in another 'state'. It is a specifically Greek institution, traceable to the protection of foreigners (Xenoi; Aliens, the position of [III]) and first attested in a late 7th cent. BC resolution of the 'people' ( dâmos) of Corfu  (ML 4). In the 5th cent. BC, proxenía moreover became an Athenian instrument of control in the Delian League, where próxenoi represented Athenian interests, reporting if n…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] I. Individual chief magistrates Designation for holders of the highest power or official authority. The original meaning 'ruler' is given expression in the epic name Prýtanis (Hom. Il. 5,678), in Zeus' appellation in Aeschylus (Prom. 169), as well as in the verb form applied to the Roman emperor and empress ( prytaneúein; Phil. in Flaccum 126; Procop. Arc. 17,27). In the course of the institutionalization of the organs of the polis and during the 'Great' Greek Colonizati…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Chilonis

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Χιλωνίς; Chilōnís). [German version] [1] Legendary wife of king Theopompus Legendary figure, said to be the wife of king  Theopompus, whom she is supposed to have freed from imprisonment by Messenians (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,34; Quint. Inst. 2,17,20; Plut. Lycurgus 7,2; Mor. 779e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Cleonymus, 3rd cent. BC Wife of  Cleonymus, son of Cleomenes II; she committed adultery with Acrotatus, later to be king; after the death of Cleonymus, who had left Sparta because of her, and joined Pyrrhus, she apparently married Acrotatus (Syll.3 …

Cleonymus

(376 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Κλεώνυμος; Kleṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, put two important proposals forward in 426/5 BC Athenian politician; in the year 426/5 BC he put forward two important proposals: one concerned  Methone in Thrace, the other the collection of tributes from the  Delian League (IG I3 61,32-56; 68). C. was probably a member of the council in that year. In 415 he was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of an investigation into the religious scandals ( Herms, mutilation of the; And. 1.27). Aristophanes derided him as a glutt…

Pasippidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιππίδας; Pasippídas). Spartiate and naval commander in the eastern Aegaean in 410/409 BC probably in the role of naúarchos; he was charged with conspiring in Thasos to stage an uprising against a group favouring Sparta and the harmost Eteonicus. He fled, but as early as 409 was sent as a legate to Persia (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32; 1,3,13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Plataeae in 479 (Hdt. 9,73-75; Plut. Cato maior 29,2). He fell in 465/4 as a stratēgós and one of the commanders of the colonists who advanced from Ennea…

Hippitas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱππίτας; Hippítas). Confidant of the Spartan king Cleomenes III, whom he accompanied to Alexandria after the battle of Sellasia, where he had himself killed willingly after the latter's failed uprising against Ptolemy IV in 219 BC (Pol. 5,37,8; Plut. Cleomenes 37,6-13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis entrusted to him to the Athenians so its inhabitants would not be exposed to retaliation (Thuc. 5,21; 34). Unimpressed by the instructions of the leading committees in Sparta he instigated considerable new tensions between Sparta and Athens.  Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous poleis which could be r…

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and…

Astyochus

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀστύοχος; Astýochos). Spartan nauarch in 412/11 BC. In the summer of 412 his attempt to gain Lesbos failed (Thuc. 8,22f.); his operations between Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae and Clazomenae were luckless (8,31-33). Dissatisfied with his administration, Sparta sent ‘advisors’ with extraordinary powers to his headquarters in Milet in the winter of 412/11 (Thuc. 8,39,1f.). After advances as far as Cnidus and Rhodes he signed the third Spartan-Persian contract in the spring of 411, in whic…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Eleutherolakones

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐλευθερολάκωνες; Eleutherolákōnes). League of Laconian coastal settlements; as former perioikoi settlements, they were placed under the protection of the Achaean Confederacy following the defeat of Nabis by the Romans in 195 BC. After the failure of the Achaean uprising in 146 BC, they were permitted to unite in the koinòn tôn Lakedaimoníōn (κοινὸν τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων) (Liv. 35,13,2; 38,31,2) [2. 51]. In 21 BC, Augustus reorganized the league [1. 60], which was thenceforth known as koinòn tôn Eleutherolakṓnōn (Str. 8,366; Paus. 3,21,6f.; IG V 1 1161; 116…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly 556 with schol. = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 34 b) means 'war against divinity', whereas Thucydides (1,112,5; with the addition of καλούμενος/ kaloúmenos, 'so-called') uses it to describe the Spartans' intervention in Delphi in 448 on the pretext of protecting the sanctuary of Apollo [1. 1-14]. Accordingly there was no idea of a religious campaign for a deity [2. 67-87].…

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Cinadon

(106 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κινάδων; Kinádōn). In 398 BC, C. a hypomeion (‘Inferior’), thus presumably the son of Spartan parents but without full citizens' rights, sought widespread support for a revolt to overthrow the ruling class of the Spartiatae, by approaching  Helots, Neodamodes, hypomeiones and  Perioikoi. No details about his planned reforms are known. C. was betrayed, lured into a trap and killed after naming his fellow conspirators under torture. In Xenophon's version (Hell. 3,3,4-11), C. generalizes, exaggerating the tensions within Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bib…
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