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Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with …

Lacedaemonius

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λακεδαιμόνιος; Lakedaimónios). Athenian, son of Cimon [2] and Isodice (Plut. Cimon 16). He served as hípparchos around 445 BC (IG I3 511; [1. 45-49]). In the summer of 433 L., as stratēgós, was sent to Corcyra with ten ships to assist the allied island in its conflict with Corinth (Thuc. 1,45,2f.; Plut. Pericles 29; ML 61). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. R. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens, 1988. Davies 8429, XIII G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War, 31989, 76f. Traill, PAA 600810.

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also attributes the division of the L…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Polyanthes

(79 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πολυάνθης/ Polyánthēs) from Corinth commanded a squadron in a sea battle off the Achaean coast in 413 BC (Thuc. 7,34,2). Bribed by  Timocrates with Persian gold in 395, P. and Timolaus steered an anti-Spartan and probably also democratic course, which resulted in the Corinthian League (StV 225) (Xen. Hell. 3,5,1; Paus. 3,9,8; Hell. Oxy. 2,3). Corinthus (II B); Peloponnesian War (with map) Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984  H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 83.

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Paches

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πάχης/ Páchēs). Athenian, son of Epicurus, sent in late autumn 428 BC as a  stratēgós with 1000 hoplites against the disloyal city of Mytilene, which he captured after several months of siege (Thuc. 3,18,3-3,28; Diod. Sic. 12,55,5-10). After operations off the Ionian coast, he also subjugated Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus (Thuc. 3,28,3; 35,1-2), all on Lesbos [1. 171f.]. On his return, P. was indicted in Athens (at the instigation of Cleon [1]). (The accusation, expressed in Anth. Pal. 7,614, of …

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Onetor

(113 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνήτωρ/ Onḗtōr). Respected Athenian, eldest son of Philonides, from the deme of Melite, born c. 415 BC. Isocrates (Isoc. Or. 15,93) praises the financial expenditures of his pupil O. for the polis (especially liturgies; Heliodorus FGrH 373 F6 mentions a choragic votive offering). According to Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 30,10), his wealth amounted to more than 30 talents. His sister's second husband was Aphobus, which is why O. became involved in the court case concerning Demosthenes' [2] guardians proceedings and …

Malecidas

(90 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μαλεκίδας/ Malekídas, also Μαλκίτης/ Malkítēs). Theban, Boeotarch during the Theban hegemony (IG VII 2408), who, after the death of Pelopidas in 364 BC, led an army of 7,000 hoplites and 700 cavalry, together with Diogeiton, against Alexander [15] of Pherae. Alexander was forced to relinquish his control over the Thessalian cities and obliged to supply troops (Plut. Pel. 35). M. is apparently identical with the Boeotarch Malgis, mentioned by Pausanias (9,13,6) in connection with the Battle of Leuctra. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Heg…

Hestiodorus

(44 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἑστιόδωρος; Hestiódōros). Son of Aristoclides, Athenian strategos, besieged Potidaea from 432/1 BC accepting the city's capitulation in winter 430/29 (Thuc. 2,70,1). He died shortly afterwards in the battle for Spartolus (Thuc. 2,79). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1381 Traill, PAA 423910.

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

International treaties

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] I. General International treaties (IT) are official and binding agreements under international law between two or more subjects of international law, which are legally binding for the entire citizenship in question. They were stipulated orally or in writing; they took the form of unilateral, bi- or multilateral agreements, and always implied the recognition of the other party under international law. IT were often the result of preliminary negotiations; they required ratification by…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.
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