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Gallienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. P. Licinius Egnatius G. Augustus, born c. AD 218 near Milan ([Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 33,3), son of the later emperor P. Licinius Valerianus and Egnatia Mariniana. Valerian, who had himself proclaimed emperor in September/October 253, immediately appointed G. Caesar, then Augustus, and had this confirmed by the Senate with a territorial allocation of responsibilities: Valerian went to the east to confront the Persian threat, G. went to the west to defend the Rhine and Danube bo…

Herennianus

(87 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The younger son of  Odaenathus and  Zenobia (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2; 17,2; 24,4; 27; 28; 30). Following the death of his father he and his elder brother Timolaus received the ornamenta imperatoria, while their mother ruled on behalf of the under-age children (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1; 30,2; SHA Aurel. 22,1; 38,1). Later, however, her third son  Vaballathus assumed power. H. was probably killed by Aurelian (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 H 95 PLRE 1, 421 (H. 1).

Quietus

(113 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar T. Fulvius Iunius Q. Pius Felix Augustus, younger son of Fulvius Macrianus [2], who served as a military tribune under Valerianus [2] (SHA Trig. Tyr. 12,10; Zon. 12,24 D.). Elevated together with his brother to Augustus by his father before 17 September, AD 260 (RIC 5,2,582 f.; SHA Gall. 1,3-5; SHA Tyr. Trig. 12,10-12), he stayed behind in the east with the praetorian prefect Ballista. After the defeat of his father and brother by Aureolus in Illyria, Q. was also captured in Emesa by its inhabitants in the autumn of AD 261 and killed there. Franke, Thomas (Bo…

Maeonius

(44 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Murdered the Palmyrene prince Odaenathus and his eldest son Herod in Emesa in AD 266/7 (SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,5; 17,1; SHA Gall. 13,1; different in Sync. I p. 717; Zon. 12,24 D.; Zos. 1,39,2). PIR2 M 71. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Salonina

(78 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Iulia Cornelia S., wife of the emperor Gallienus, elevated to Augusta and mater castrorum in AD 254 (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), perished together with her husband in AD 268 outside of Mediolanum [1] (Zon. 12,25). Her three sons were P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus and Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Tigidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] A powerful praefectus praetorio under the emperor Commodus. Sex.(?) T. Perennis had probably already reached the high rank of praefectus [4] annonae under Marcus [2] Aurelius (his name erased in the Tabula Banasitana ; AE 1971, 534) and was then appointed praefectus praetorio by Commodus along with Tarrutenius Paternus (SHA Comm. 4,7; 14,8; inaccurate in Hdn. 1,8,1); he and the latter disposed of Saoterus, Commodus' influential chamberlain (SHA Comm. 4,5). Shortly afterwards, T. brought about the execution of Paternus (Ca…

Geta

(483 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Hosidius, Lusius, Septimius, Vitorius see  Hosidius, Lusius, Septimius, Vitorius Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar P. Septimius Geta Augustus Son of the emperor Septimius Severus, brother of Caracalla Born in March AD 189 in Rome, the son of L.  Septimius Severus and  Iulia Domna, younger brother of  Caracalla (Cass. Dio 57,2,5; SHA Sept. Sev. 4,2; Get. 3,1 [27 May 189]; [2. 522ff.]). In 197 he went with his father, together with his mother and brother, to the ‘Second Parthian War’…

Magnia Urbica

(63 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of the emperor Carinus (end of the 3rd cent. AD) from Colonia Iulia Gemella Accitana in Hispania (CIL II 3394). She bore the titles of Augusta, mater castrorum and mater senatus ac patriae (CIL VIII 2384; XI 6957). PIR2 M 99. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography H. Cohen, Description Historique des Monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain VI2, 1886, 405-408.

Paccia

(67 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] P. Marciana was from Africa (Leptis Magna?); from c. AD 175 she was the first wife of  Septimius Severus (SHA Sept. Sev. 3,2) and died in about AD 185 ([1. nos. 410, 411]; CIL VIII 19494 = ILS 440). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.M. Reynolds (ed.), The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitana, 1952. A.R. Birley, Septimius Severus, 21988, 52; 75; 225  PIR2 P 20  Raepsaet-Charlier, 590.

Victorinus

(495 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Governor of Britannia Superior, 3rd cent. AD V. was governor of the province of Britannia Superior (Zos. 1,66,2; Zon. 12,29 D.) and may be identical with Pomponius Victori(a)nus, cos. ord. and praefectus urbi in AD 282 (Chron. Min. 1,66 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Birley, 180 f.  PIR2 P 762  PLRE 1, 962, nr. 3 and 963, nr. 2. [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar M. Piavonius V. Invictus Augustus Emperor of Imperium Galliarum from the end of AD 269 to the spring of 271 (RIC 5,2, 379-398; CIL XIII 9040), son of Victoria, from ri…

Tacitus

(2,881 words)

Author(s): Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] (P.?) Cornelius T. Latin historiographer, c. AD 55- c. 120 Latin historiographer, c. AD 55 - c. AD 120. Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) [German version] I. Life (Publius?) Cornelius T. came from Gaul, and had a successful senatorial career under the Flavian emperors (70-96). He was a praetor in 88, consul in 97, proconsul in the province of Asia in 112 (OGIS 487 Mylasa). After the murder of Domitian in 96, controversies emerged as to how senators should relate to an emperor. T. replied to this issue initially with the Agricola, later with his two great works of historiography, the H…

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …

Modestus

(247 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] [1] Sab(inius?) M. Governor of the province of  Moesia inferior in AD 241, documented by coins of the city of Nicopolis [1. 504-518 nos. 2040-2107]. Accordingly he must previously have held the office of suffect consul. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer (ed.), Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands, vol. 1, 1898. PIR S 2  A. Stein, Die Legaten von Moesien, 1940, 100f. [German version] [2] Flavius Domitius M. Praefectus praetorio Orientis, from 369/370 to 378 (?) AD. Praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 369/370 to 378 (?). Originally f…

Ingenuus

(400 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than Gallienus in 260 AD Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than  Gallienus in AD 260 by the Moesian legions after  Valerianus was captured by the Persians and the Sarmatians threatened to invade (S HA Tyr. Trig. 9,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Zon. 12,24, p. 143 D). Gallienus' cavalry leader  Aureolus defeated him at Mursa near Sirmium. I. lost his life while fleeing (Zon. loc. cit..; Aur. Vict. Caes. 32,2; Eutr. 9,8,1; Oros. 7,22,10; Chron. min. 1, 521,45 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Boch…

Macrinius

(384 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] M. M. Avitus Catonius Vindex Cos. suff. c. AD 175 Son of M. [4]. Began his career as an equestrian with the quattuor militiae, receiving the dona militaria from Marcus [2] Aurelius in AD 169. Procurator of Dacia Malvensis. Entered the Senate, legate of Moesia superior, perhaps as praetorian; suffect consul probably in 175; consular governor of Moesia inferior before the year 177. Died at the age of 42, probably during his governorship of Moesia inferior (CIL VI 1449 = ILS 1107). PIR2 M 22. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. M. Decianus Governor of Numidia…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Timagenes

(304 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμαγένης/ Timagénēs). [German version] [1] T. of Alexandria Greek rhetor and historian, 1st cent. BC The Greek rhetor and historian T. arrived in Rome in 55 BC as a prisoner of war of A. Gabinius [I 2] and was ransomed by Sulla's son Cornelius [I 87] Faustus (FGrH 88 T 1). He worked there as a respected rhetor, mentioned in the same breath as Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte and Craton (T 1 and 2). Initially, he was in great favour with Augustus, but later fell into disgrace with the emperor because of his all…

Marinianus

(210 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Jurist, teacher of law in Rome, 4th cent. Jurist from Galatia in Asia Minor, belonging to the group around Symmachus. M was a teacher of law in Rome (Symmachus, Ep. 3,23,2) and in AD 383 vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätantiken Italien, 1987, 64, 98. [German version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul in AD 423 Attested in AD 422 as praetorian prefect of Italia, Illyria and Africa, and in 423 as consul, perhaps patricius. Along with his wife he contributed to the renov…

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…
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