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Carthage

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Phoenician Qrt-ḥdšt, ‘new town’; Greek Καρχηδών/ Karchēdṓn, Lat. Carthago). I. History [German version] A. From Phoenician foundation to Roman colony According to Timaeus' report (FGrH 566 F 60), C. was founded in 814/13 or 813/2 BC -- on the site of Tunis' modern suburb of the same name. The colonist were …

Masks

(1,705 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] I. Phoenicia Facial masks and head protomes (also shortened human representations including the neck and shoulder part) are a common type of monument since the 9th/8th cent. BC in the Phoenician-Punic world. They spread from the Levant (here going back to the 2nd millennium, e.g. in Tell Qāṣila, also from Tyrus, Amrīt, Akhzib, Hazor, Sarepta etc.) via Cyprus, Carthage, Sicily (Motya), Sardinia and Ibiza into the far west (Cadiz). The masks (with openings for eyes and mouth) mostly …

Mosaik

(3,105 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Panayides, Aliki Maria (Bern)
[English version] I. Phönikisch-punisch Eine für die spätere Entwicklung des M. grundlegende technische Innovation bei der Fußbodenherstellung, d.h. die Gestaltung der Oberfläche mit Hilfe kleiner, rechteckig oder annähernd quadratisch zugeschlagener Kuben (Tessellae) aus Terrakotta ( opus figlinum, s.u. II.B.) oder Kalkstein bzw. Marmor, die mit engstem Fugenschluß in dem Mörtelbett versetzt und für das Belaufen abgeschliffen werden, ist zum ersten Mal im 5. Jh. v.Chr. in der Region von Karthago (Kerkouane) nachzuweisen [1] und a…

Abdera

(317 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] [1] Stadt auf Kap Bulustra Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attischer Seebund | Kolonisation | Makedonia, Makedones | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Pergamon | Perserkriege | Pompeius | Punische Kriege | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci Stadt auf Kap Bulustra, 16 km nordöstl. der Nestamündung in die Ägäis, 656 v. Chr. vom ion. Klazomenai gegründet und befestigt, Anf. des 6. Jh. v. Chr. von Thrakern zerstört. Archa. Gräber sind arch. nachgewiesen. Im Süden von A. wurde vom ion. Teos aus 545 v. Chr. ei…

Maske

(1,522 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[English version] I. Phönizien Gesichts-M. und Kopfprotomen (ggf. den Hals- oder Schulterabschnitt einbeziehende, abgekürzte Bilder des Menschen) sind eine seit dem 9./8. Jh.v.Chr. häufige Denkmälergattung in der phöniz.-pun. Welt. Sie ist von der Levante (hier bis in das 2. Jt. zurückreichend, u.a. in Tall Qāṣila, sonst aus Tyros, Amrīt, Akhzib, Hazor, Sarepta usw.) über Zypern, Karthago, Sizilien (Motye), Sardinien und Ibiza bis in den Fernen Westen (Cadiz) verbreitet. Die M. (mit Augen- und Mund…

Karthago

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Afrika | Caesar | Christentum | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Handel | Kolonisation | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Phönizier, Punier | Pilgerschaft | Punische Kriege | Punische Kriege | Roma | Roma | Theater | Wein | Straßen (phoinik. Qrt-ḥdšt, “neue Stadt”; griech. Καρχηδών/ Karchēdṓn, lat. Carthago). I. Historischer Überblick [English version] A. Von der phönizischen Gründung bis zur römischen Kolonie Nach dem Bericht des Timaios (FGrH 566 F 60) wurde K. im J. 814/3 oder 813/2 v.Chr. - an der Stelle des h. Vor…

Karthago

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) RWG | Kopka, Alexandra (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) RWG [English version] I. Ausgrabungen (RWG) Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) RWG [English version] A. Von den Anfängen bis zur Niederlassung der “Weissen Väter”1875 (RWG) Legenden von unermeßlichen Reichtümern der punischen Metropole haben zu allen Zeiten Schatzsucher fasziniert, angefangen von den Soldaten des Scipio, die im Jahre 146 v. Chr. die niedergebrannte Stadt geplündert, und den Legionären des Pompejus, die zwei Generationen später nach dem Sieg über den numidischen König Hiarbas bei …

Klassische Archäologie

(17,234 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) RWG | Willers, Dietrich (Bern) RWG | Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen) RWG
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) RWG I. Allgemein (RWG) [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Zu den bes. Eigenheiten der Disziplin gehört das Fehlen eines allg. akzeptierten Begriffs der Kl.A., die an gut einem Drittel der deutschsprachigen Univ. in selbstverständlicher Vereinfachung - oder im Sinne einer Erweiterung des Themenspektrums unter Verzicht auf die Komponente des “klass.” Anspruchs - schlicht Arch. genannt wird. Die bedeutendste Forschungsanstalt des Faches, das Deutsche Archäologische Institut [20; 55; 89], wurde 1829 in Rom als Istituto di corrispondenza archeol…

Phönizier, Punier

(7,502 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[English version] I. Namen und Begriff, Quellen Name und Begriff der Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phönizier (=Ph.) sind in der griech. Welt geprägt worden [1]. Die damit Bezeichneten verstanden sich selbst in erster Linie als Bürger/Angehörige eines städtischen Verbandes, z.B. als Tyrier, Sidonier oder - nach der gemeinsamen Kulturlandschaft - als Kanaanäer [2]. Sie bezogen sich damit auf eine aus der altvorderasiatischen Brz. tradierte polit. oder ethnische Identität. Die unterschiedlichen Bezeichnungen können nu…

Elfenbeinschnitzerei

(786 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
[English version] I. Vorderer Orient und Phönikien Elfenbein, d.h. Zähne von Wildschwein, Flußpferd und vor allem (afrikan. sowie asiat.) Elefant, war seit dem Neolithikum in der “Kleinkunst” als Werkstoff hochbeliebt. In der Br.- und frühen Eisenzeit entwickelten sich die bed. Werkstätten der syr.-phönik. Küstenstädte und daneben Ägyptens erkennbar eigene Stile. E.n fanden durch intensiven Handel weiteste Verbreitung und gehören fast regelmäßig zu den Tributen für die assyr. Könige. Das Repertoire umf…

Silver

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Silver (ἀργύριον/ argýrion, ἄργυρος/ árgyros; Latin argentum) is a precious metal, which in Antiquity was extracted primarily by smelting silver-bearing ores of lead. Four different kinds occur naturally: 1. as pure silver; 2. as silver ore; 3. as a component of galena, the only economically interesting ore of lead; 4. in alloy with gold, i.e. as electrum (Elektron), in which the gold content can amount to less than 30 %. Pure silver is rare and its surface corrodes, so that…

Stucco, Pargetting

(533 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Mouldable, quickly hardening material of gypsum, lime, sand and water, occasionally with stone powder, which was used in many places (in Egypt from the Old Kingdom onwards, c. 2700-2190 BC) to smooth walls and as a base for painting. Figurines, vases and moulds for casting metal were also made from stucco. From the Parthian period onwards (1st cent. BC), figured or geometric stucco reliefs covering long walls are attested. They were modelled by hand or using templates; in the Sassanid and early Islamic periods they were also carved. Nissen, Hans Jörg…

Jewellery

(2,921 words)

Author(s): Rehm, Ellen (Frankfurt/Main) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
Material and motifs indicate that jewellery in antiquity could be thought of as warding off evil or bringing luck. Not only men, women and children, but also idols wore jewellery. Jewellery was also often used as grave goods. [German version] I. Near East Beads made of shell and bone (later also wood) are again and again found in graves from the 7th/6th millennia BC. Gold and silver jewellery is known from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC from the Near East, sometimes with inlaid semiprecious stones, and in a great variety of forms (p…

Throne

(613 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Ceremonially decorated piece of furniture for gods and rulers to sit on, with a high back and often with arm-rests. The sides were often shaped as animals or animal protomae; the legs were often worked in the shape of animal legs. Apart from a few fragments in stone, most thrones were probably made of wood and hence in the area of the Near East have not been preserved, but are known from numerous depictions. Thrones were presumably usually provided with metal (gold) or ivory embellishments (cf. the numerous surviving examples from Egypt). Nissen, H…

Melite

(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…

Cult image

(3,473 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General comments In the Near East, idols which functioned as cult images (CI) could be found in central temples, peripheral sanctuaries, private houses, and sometimes on open-air sanctuaries and cult alcoves. Their material consistency, appearance, and size varied depending on their origin and the context of their use. Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Egypt CI of gods already existed in earliest times. They could be anthropomorphic (anthr.), theriomorphous, or of mixed shape, and were created as in…

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Stele

(787 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Stelae are standing stone slabs with reliefs or inscriptions on one or more sides; in Egypt wooden stelae also survive. In early Mesopotamia their shape can be natural, elsewhere they usually have rounded tops, less often squared tops. From the end of the 4th millennium BC, funeral stelae were used in Egypt at or in tombs (or cenotaphs) as cult places. In the 1st millennium, funeral stelae (mostly wooden) were also placed in the burial chamber: they bear images (…

Ivory carvings

(904 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Middle East and Phoenicia Ivory, i.e. tusks of the boar, the hippopotamus and particularly the (African as well as Asian)  elephant, was extremely popular from the Neolithic period onwards as a material in ‘craftwork’. In the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the important workshops of the Syrian-Phoenician coastal towns and also of Egypt developed styles that were recognizably their own. Ivory carvings (IC) were widespread through intensive trade and almost always formed part of t…
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