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Joldelund

(136 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] in the district of North Friesland. A Germanic centre of iron production - surveyed in modern times - from the period of the late Roman Empire and early barbarian invasions ( c. AD 350-450). In the area of a village settlement with several peasant farms, specialized smelting of bog iron ores that occur locally took place in several hundred bloomery furnaces that were found distributed over c. 8 hectares. The raw iron that was extracted was further worked on site at several smithing locations. The necessary charcoal was produced in J. in at least…

Heuneburg

(378 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Princely graves, Princely seats Near Herbertingen-Hundersingen, in the district of Sigmaringen: fortified settlement of the late  Hallstatt culture (6th/5th cents. BC), situated on the upper Danube (ford?), with an open outer settlement and associated burial mounds, some richly fitted out. The H. is one of the most important centres of power ( Prince's seat) of the earlier Hallstatt period in central Europe. Excavations took place i…

Manching

(836 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Oppidum [German version] A. General Large Celtic settlement ( Oppidum) south of Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria) in a strategically favourable position on a dry gravel ridge between the Danube and areas of wetland (Donaumoos) extending from west to east, near a river crossing and formerly accessed by branches of the Danube (harbour?). The level settlement area is almost circular, with a diameter of 2.5 km, comprising 380 ha.; it is traversed by an ancient arterial…

Vix

(152 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A 5th- to 1st-cent. BC Celtic necropolis at the village of V. near Châtillon-sur-Seine (in Burgundy). The best-known grave is that of the 'Princess of V.' in a tumulus with a voluminous wooden chamber; this early 5th-cent. BC princess's tomb (Prince's tomb) is richly furnished with imported Greek and Etruscan goods ( bronze krater, silver phiale/ patera , Greek pottery) and a gold torque (Torques) and a state carriage. Attached to the necropolis was a fortified settlement as a princely seat on the neighbouring Mont La…

Celtic Archaeology

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A. General Celtic archaeology (CA) investigates the material legacy of groups of the population from the Iron Age, mostly in southern and south-western Central Europe, in addition to the  Germanic archaeology, which borders onto it to the north and north-east. This concerns the  Hallstatt culture of the early and the  La Tène culture of the late Iron Age. The equating of this archaeologically knowable cultures with the ethnicity of the  Celts is not constantly and unambiguously poss…

Gundestrup

(239 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] On the G. moor, Ålborg district in northern Jutland, a large dismantled cauldron made of 13 partially gilded silver plates and a frame rack was found in 1891 (diameter almost 70 cm, weight c. 9 kg). The plates in repoussé technique show depictions of gods, scenes of sacrifice, mythical beasts etc. represented in a characteristic form. The questions of dating, origin and function of the G. cauldron have been the subject of controversy and debate from the time when it was found to the present. The cultic nature as…

Germanic archaeology

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A. General Germanic archeology (GA) seeks to study the evolution, development and organization of the tribes and ethnicities of the  Germani by drawing on archaeological sources and methods [5; 7; 8]. Thereby, historical and linguistic knowledge about the Germani can be supplemented and extended. Presently, GA is focussing on two aspects: a) the evolution of the Germani in the undocumented pre-Roman period; b) analysis of archaeological sources on patterns of settlement, everyday li…

Lathe

(157 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] There is indirect evidence through rotary tracks of the lathe in the early Celtic period (6th/5th cents. BC), in the Hallstatt Culture, in bronze knobs, amber beads, rings made of sapropelite, etc. On the Heuneburg works waste from a turner's workshop is preserved. In the 6th cent. BC, turned wooden vessels are also known (lathe works). The lathe itself can only be inferred from ancient or medieval representations and sources; it probably came over the Alps from the Greek-Etrus…

Princely graves, Princely seats

(1,684 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A. General points In most periods of ancient and early European history- as also in other ancient cultures (e.g. Mycenae, Anatolia, Etruria) - some burials can be identified as standing out particularly from the mass of 'normal graves', and these are mainly described as 'princely graves' (PG) [5; 14; 22]. Right through to the early Middle Ages, there is no direct information available about the actual status of these dead, so that PG is only a useful label. Accordingly, other descrip…

Hirschlanden

(122 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] H.-Ditzingen, district of Ludwigsburg: finding-place of a stone statue of a warrior from the late  Hallstatt culture (6th/5th cents. BC). The ‘Stele of H.’, which is approximately life-size (extant H 1.50 m) and totally three-dimensional, represents the naked figure of a man with a conical hat or  helmet, mask (?), neck ring ( Torques),  belt and a typical Hallstatt dagger. It was lying at the edge of the encirclement wall of a burial mound from the late Hallstatt culture that it originally crowned. Its design shows both Graeco-Etruscan and local Celtic elements. …

Dwellings on flood resistant mounds

(248 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] These mound dwellings (German: Wurte) originated as individual farms in the marshes between Denmark and the Netherlands (where they are called terpen) in the Germanic settlement area along the southern North Sea coast in the 2nd/1st cents. BC during regression phases of the North Sea. In the course of subsequent cents., these locations were deliberately elevated into settlement mounds because of the rise in sea level and increasing numbers of storm floods. Mounds of several meters height that could co…

Enamel

(128 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Coloured molten glass decoration applied to metal (mostly bronze). The Celtic  La Tène Culture (late 5th-1st cent. BC) was the heyday for enamel in Central Europe, the knowledge for it possibly originating in the Achaemenid East. The Celts used almost only red enamel (‘blood-enamel’), probably because of its similarity to  Coral.  Jewellery (fibulae, necklaces, parts of belts etc.), bronze vessels, and  weapons (helmets, swords) etc. were decorated with enamel. Workshops for enamel were found in   oppida in particular ( Bibracte). Ename…

Glauberg

(566 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Princely graves, Princely seats The G. is an early Celtic (5th cent. BC) princely seat with a princely grave ( Princes, tombs and residences of; s. also the map) that lies a good 30 km north of Frankfurt/Main on the eastern edge of Wetterau in Hesse. The G. rises as a high plateau c. 150 m over the plain; it comprises an area of c. 8 ha. Initial excavations took place already in the 1930s and were continued in the 1980s and 1990s, only then truly shedding light on the importance of the place. The G. was a…

Aylesford

(124 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Late Celtic burial ground in Kent which gave its name to the A. culture in south-eastern England; cremation burials of the period between 50 BC and AD 50 are typical, and the burial gifts (Celtic lathe-turned ceramics and fibulae) demonstrate the existence of close connections with the Continent, which are possibly an indication of immigration of the  Belgae. The more sumptuous graves (e.g. Lexden) also contained ornamental bronze vessel fittings decorated in the Celtic style, amphorae and silver goblets. …

Nienburg Group

(107 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Prehistoric finds assemblage of the 5th to 3rd cents. BC in central Lower Saxony, named after burial mounds near Nienburg on the river Weser (Germanic archaeology, map). It is the westernmost group of the Jastorf culture. Typical elements of the NG are cremation burials in mounds, certain types of pottery and adornments (earrings). Occasionally Celtic imports occur; there is also evidence for iron working. Celtic archaeology; Funerary architecture III.G; Iron; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Hässler, Ur- und Frühgeschichte in Niedersa…

Bog bodies

(199 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Term for bodies or body parts of dead humans found in bogs, which ended up there for various, usually unclear reasons (e.g. sacrifice, punishment, burial, accident, battle). Most of the several hundred cases are from the bogs of northern Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands and date - in as far as can be determined (by carbon dating, pollen analysis) - predominantly to the later Iron Age (from c. 500 BC) and the Roman Imperial period of the centuries around the birth of Christ. Because of the mostly well-preserved state of the organic substances …

Preist construction

(207 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Method of constructing fortifications from wood, stones and soil widespread through Central Europe during the Iron Age, in which the dry-stone wall fronts had vertical gaps positioned at regular intervals. Basically two types can be distinguished according to their construction: one in which the rear of the wall was similar, and layers of crossbeams were incorporated in the body of the wall, linking the two surfaces (Altkönig-Preist type), and another in which a raised earth ramp …

Viereckschanze

(201 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Square or rectangular enclosure of sides about 80-100 m long with circumvallation and occasionally palisade walls. The interpretation of these structures, found in the Celtic settlement area from France to Bohemia, is still disputed. For the most part they are regarded as 3rd-1st cent. BC Celtic sanctuaries, with shafts for sacrifices and wooden cult buildings. Rich sacrificial finds from recent excavations in France (cf. [1]) - including evidence of animal and human sacrifice, e.…

Jevenstedt

(76 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] in the county of Rendsburg (Schleswig-Holstein). Burial ground of the Germanic pre-Roman Iron Age (6th-4th cents. BC) furnished with painted pottery vessels and iron slag, which indicates a privileged position within the  Jastorf culture and points to early iron production through contacts with the  Hallstatt culture. The presence of iron ore and slag mounds in the area is known, but cannot definitely be assigned.  Germanic archaeology;  Iron Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography H. Hingst, Jevenstedt, 1974.

Votive offerings in springs

(141 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] In Celtic and Germanic cultures, as in the Graeco-Roman sphere, a special significance is attached to spring offerings as well as offerings in water and bogs. The primary archaeological evidence of this are late 4th-cent. BC Celtic finds from a hot spring at Duchov in northern Bohemia and 1st- to 4th-cent. BC Germanic finds from a mineral spring at Bad Pyrmont in Lower Saxony. In both complexes hundreds of examples of fibulae (Pins; some with traces of use) dominate. SO are interpreted as votive gifts in the context of a fertility cult. Celtic archaeol…
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