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Padus

(427 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] The largest river in Italy, present-day Po, which was equated with the mythical Eridanus ( fluminum rex Eridanus, Verg. G. 1,482; sacer Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 12,696; pater Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 4,691); it was known locally as P. and Bodincus (Metrodorus FGrH 184 F 8). It flows for a distance of 570 km from west to east through the whole of Gallia Cisalpina (Pianura Padana) which it divides into Cispadana in the south and Transpadana in the north. (The regional reforms of Augustus created Liguria and Aemilia in …

Igilium

(123 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the promonturium Argentarium, modern Giglio. Settled since the Neolithic, I. belonged to the territory of the colonia of  Cosa and in 49 BC was part of the property of the Domitii, who equipped a fleet against Massilia there (Caes. B Civ. 1,34,3). Regarding maritime traffic cf. the corpus codicariorum (CIL XI 2643). Due to its remoteness and dense forests, I. was used as a refuge by the Romans in the time of Alarich [2] (Rut. Namat. 1,325). Archaeology: a splendid villa near the port, another near Campese; Etruscan and Roman remain…

Lanuvium

(218 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium Town in Latium in the southern foothills of the Alban hills, 18 miles from Rome on the via Appia, modern Lanuvio. Participated in the foedus Cassianum of 493 BC. Loyal to Rome during the Latin War of 340 ( Latin League), L. received the civitas Romana; municipium (338 BC; Liv. 8,14,2), possibly tribus Maecia. Birth-place of the emperors Antoninus Pius and Commodus. The modern settlement is located on top of the ancient town; only the arx (‘castle’), surrounded by a tuff wall, on the hill of…

Salinae

(172 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
A number of towns or townships in Italy had this name, derived from the production of salt there. [German version] [1] Town on the Adriatic coastal road S. is recorded in Tab. Peut. (5,1; cf. Geogr. Rav. 327; [1]) as on the Adriatic coastal road 5 Roman miles north of Ostia Aterni (modern Pescara) and 13 Roman miles south of Hadria on the left bank of the River Salino, which, formed by the confluence of the Tavo and the Fino, marked the border between the Vestini and the Praetuttii, near modern Montesilvano Marina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Place south of Mons Garganus Place…

Rosea Rura

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Plain in Sabine territory near Reate (also Rosea, Varro Rust. 2,7,6; 3,2,9; 3,17,6; Rosia, ibid. 3,2,10; Ager Rosulanus, Serv. Aen. 7,712); the most fertile soils in the whole of Italy were there (Varro Rust. 1,7,10). Fest. 355,3 derives the term from arva rore humida ('land moist with dew'). The region was drained in 272 BC under the censor M'. Curius [4] Dentatus by constructing a canal between Lacus Velinus and the Nar, and was thus made agriculturally useful (Cic. Att. 4,15,5). The RR was used for breeding horses, whi…

Pandateria

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Πανδατερία/ Pandatería). Island in the mare Tyrrhenum (Str. 2,5,19; 5,3,6), modern Ventotene (Latina), west of Cyme [2] and south of Caieta, between the insulae Pontiae (Pontia) and Pithecussae. Iulia [6], Agrippina [2], Octavia [3], the wife of the emperor Nero, and Flavia [3] were exiled there. Extant remains include a villa, an aqueduct, a cistern, a fishpond as well as port facilities. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C.M. Amici, F. Cifarelli et al., Ventotene: documentazione archeologica, in: G.M. De Rossi (ed.), Le isole Pontine attraverso i …

Appenninus

(230 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Chain of mountains; a continuation of the Alps from the Colle di Cadibona above Savona to the Straits of Messina, and forming the backbone of the Italian peninsula. Highest point is the Gran Sasso (2912 m) in the Abruzzi. The highest point of the Apuan mountains in  Liguria is the Auginus (today Cimone, 2165 m), a cult site, like Monte Guragazza above Felsina and Monte Falterona above Arezzo near the sources of the Arno; these mountain ranges divided regiones VII and VIII. The  Tiber has its source halfway up the chain in the territory of the Casuentini. Fu…

Rubico

(222 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥουβίκων; Rhoubíkōn). River whose name, derived from its red colour, is probably preserved in Urgone (dialect form Rigone), a right tributary of the Pisciatello; the latter has its source in the Appennines, flows into the Adriatic 15 km north of Ariminum and today once again bears the name Rubicone. The R. replaced the Aesis in its role as the border river between Italy and the province of Gallia Cisalpina (Cic. Phil. 6,5; Str. 5,1,11; Plin. HN 3,115; App. B Civ. 2,35) in the time…

Foruli

(113 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Vicus of the Sabini, ager Amiterninus, by the source of the Aternus (modern Pescara) on a rock spur (Str. 5,3,1), after 1204 Civitatomassa (Scoppito, L'Aquila). On a side road of the via Salaria (restored in AD 47 as the via Claudia Nova; CIL IX 5959; Tab. Peut. 5,5 erroneously Erulos), 13 miles after Interocrium (modern Antrodoco), 4 miles before Amiternum. Mentioned in 211 BC because of the passing of Hannibal (Liv. 26,11,11); tribus Quirina. Roman remains. Epigraphy: CIL IX p. 417-420; 4395-4435. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Filippi, s.v. F., EV 2…

Umbri, Umbria

(1,309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Uggeri
[German version] I. Geography Central Italian people and the hilly and mountainous region (flysch in the north, Jurassic lime in the south) they inhabited. It is located in the drainage area of the upper and middle Tiber between the Etruscan Appennines and the Chiana Valley with a narrow access to the eastern coastal area. The mountains run from northwest to southeast, between them lie narrow, sparsely populated valleys and a few broader basins (Tiber Valley, the plain around Lake Trasimenus (Lacus …

Rostrata

(37 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Villa near Capena in the region of the Falisci which served as a statio on the via Flaminia between Rome and Ocriculum, 24 Roman miles from Rome (It. Ant. 124). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Setia

(166 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium City in Volsci territory on the Ufens (modern Ufente) river in the Ager Pomptinus , modern Sezze. Founded in 382 BC as a Latin colonia (Vell. 1,14), S. set itself against Rome in the Latin War in 340 (Liv. 8,3) and in the Second Punic War in 209 BC (Liv. 27,9; 29,15,5). In 198 BC slaves together with Carthaginian hostages and prisoners interned in S. revolted (Liv. 32,26,5-18). Parts of the city walls have survive…

Lavinium

(455 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium | Oracles City in Latium ( Latini) on the Numicus, 4 km from the coast, modern Pratica di Mare. In order to create a new home for the Penates of Troy [1], L. was founded by Aeneas [1] according to the Augustan form of the myth and named after his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. L. is mentioned in the first treaty between Rome and Carthage (Pol. 3,22), was the place of exile of Tarquinius Collatinus [2] and the location of the sanctuary of the Latin League of which L. was a member. L. was a municipium and always p…

Anagnia

(190 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town of the  Hernici on a tufa outcrop, which dominates the Sacco valley; sanctuary near the acropolis (modern S. Cecilia; 7th cent. BC), a further one in the valley (Osteria della Fontana, Etruscan graffiti). Roman from 306 BC, first as   praefectura , then   municipium . Travertine walls in opus quadratum; thermae under the church of S. Chiara ( piscina preserved);   villae in the vicinity, of which one is ascribed to Cicero; imperial villa magna; catacombs. From AD 487 bishop's seat. The circus maritimus Anagninus was m…

Florentia

(426 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] City in North-Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome City in North-Etruria, regio VII, on the right bank of the Arnus below  Faesulae, modern Florence. Settlement from the Villanova period [3]. Roman colony, possibly founded in the 40s or 30s of the first cent. BC (Tac. Ann. 1,79,1; [6. 1,213]), tribus Scaptia [5. 84]. The choice of site for its founding was made favourable by a ford over the Arnus, used from the time of the Villanova culture, where the via Cassia (It. Ant. 285; Tab. Peut. 4,2), the via Quinct…

Ferentis, Ferentium

(287 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in southern Etruria ( regio VII), attested in the 8th/6th cents. BC on an outlier of the Poggio San Francesco (305 m), modern Ferento, 9 km north of Viterbo, on an elevation between eastern tributaries of the Tiber. In the Roman period relocated to the Northeast on the other side of the river (306 m; Pianicara). Its territory was distributed under the Gracchi [1. 216]; municipium, tribus Stellatina. The gens Salvia as well as Otho (Tac. Hist. 2,50; Suet. Otho 1,1) and Flavia Domitilla (Suet. Vesp. 3) came from F. The town decayed in the late…

Auginus mons

(18 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Possibly Cimone in the Apennines, worshipped as sacred (Liv. 39,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ferentinum

(293 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Mountain top town (404 m) of the Hernici in Latium adiectum on the via Latina, 24 miles from Anagnia and 7 miles from Frosinone, modern Ferentino (Frosinone) on the Trerus (modern Sacco; It. Ant. 305; Tab. Peut. 6,2). Occupied by Volsci in 413, later returned to the Hernici (Liv. 4,51ff.); in 361 conquered by the consul Licinius Calvus (Liv. 7,9). It remained loyal to Rome during the Hernici uprising in 306 but suffered severe devastation in 211 from Hannibal. After 195 BC in possession of the ius Latii (Liv. 34,42,5). Du…

Truentum

(93 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port of the Praetuttii in Picenum (Picentes) on the right bank of the Truentus at its mouth on the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos; Plin.  HN 3,110; Cic. Att. 8,12b,1: Castrum Truentinum;  cf. Ptol. 3,1,21) to the south of modern San Benedetto del Tronto. At T. the Via Salaria and the Adriatic coast road joined [1]. Archaeological remains: 3rd cent. BC - 7th cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 Miller, 215. V. Galiè, Castrum Truentum e Turris ad Truntum, 1984  A. R. Staffa, Città romane dell'Abruzzo adriatico, in: Journal of Ancient Topography 8, 1998, 33-42.

Fregellae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae Originally, the city of the Opici near the mouth of the river Trerus into the Liris, modern Rocca d'Arce. Until 354 BC, the city of the Volsci, destroyed by the Samnites (Liv. 8,23,6). In 328 BC, colonia Latina (Liv. 8,22,2; cf. 9,28,3). F. was loyal to Rome against Pyrrhus and Hannibal; the city took part in the outbreak of the 2nd war against the Samnites and was recaptured by the Samnites in 320 (Liv. 9,12,5-8), and recolonized by the Romans in 313 (Diod. Sic. 19…
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