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(368 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] ( Rugii, Rogi; Ῥυγοί/ Rhygoí). East Germanic tribe mentioned by various ancient authors [1. 1213 f.] whose oldest places of residence were probably south-western Norway and the Vistula delta. Tac. Germ. 43,6 is the first to mention them and localizes them between the Oder and the Vistula. In the course of time, they moved south and, in the 1st half of the 5th cent. AD, they appeared on the central Danube and belong to the empire of the Hunni, albeit with their own king. Either startin…


(85 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Vandal tribe originally from the area of modern Silesia (Ptol. 2,11,18: Σιλίγγαι/ Silíngai). In AD 406 they crossed the Rhenus (Rhine) - as did other Vandali - along with the Alani and Suebi and moved into Gallia and further into Hispania. For the year 411, the tribe is documented in Hispania Baetica (Hydatius, Continuatio 49, in: Chron. min. 2,18). In 416-418 they were attacked and destroyed by the Visigoths on Roman orders. Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) Bibliography TIR M 33 Praha, 1986, 78.


(124 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Gothic * Hulmarugeis, 'Island Rugians'). Germanic people on the islands in the southern Mare Suebicum (modern Baltic) near the mouth of the Oder, close neighbours of the Rugi, who were settled in Pomerania. An etymological relationship between the name U. and the island of Rügen is not confirmed. The U. were driven from their homeland by the Goti advancing out of Scandinavia (Iord. Get. 26). In Old Norse poetry they are found as the Holmrygir; they are also mentioned by the author of the Old English poem Widsith [1. 64], who can be dated to the 6th cent. AD. Waldherr, Gerhar…


(276 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Roman auxiliary fort in Raetia (Raeti), modern Künzing (Lower Bavaria). No traces of earlier Celtic settlement have been found. Around AD 90, an auxiliary fort was built on a slightly raised loess terrace on a loop of the Danube on the right side of the river. The four-phase construction (phase three = first stone construction featured up to five fosses) was occupied - possibly with a brief interruption between AD 135 and c. 150 -- by a garrison until the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD (name: It. Ant. 249…


(178 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, formed in the 3rd/4th cents. AD out of the Hermunduri; first mentioned in c. AD 400 (Vegetius Renatus, De mulomedicina 3,6,3). The core settlement of the T. was to the north of the Thuringian Forest as far as the middle reaches of the Albis (modern Elbe). In the 5th cent. the tribe appears to have consolidated itself in its core territory. Immediate neighbours of the T. were the  Saxones to the north and the Alamanni to the south. Originally, their dead were cremated and buried in…


(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…


(210 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐινδόλικοι/ Ouindólikoi). Celtic people on the Upper Bavarian-Upper Swabian plateau, probably also in Vorarlberg and Tyrol. According to an inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium (Tropaea Augusti; cf. CIL V 7817; Plin. HN 3,136 f.; CIL V 4910: Vindolici), there were at least four sub-tribes of the V.; according to Plin. HN 1,133 many sub-tribes made up the V. Str. 4,6,8 counts the Licattii (Licates, with Damasia), the Clautenatii (Κλαυτηνάτιοι/ Klautēnátioi), the Vennones who were probably rather Raetian, the Estiones (Ἐστίωνες/ Estíōnes, with Cambodunum [1]/m…


(198 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia (Τεουρνία/ Teournía). Celtic settlement (Plin. HN 3,146; Ptol. 2,13,3; Late Antiquity Tiburnia; Eugippius 17,21: metropolis Norici), modern St. Peter im Holz (Carinthia, Austria). Traces of settlement on the Holzer mountain 4 km to the west of Spittal in the valley of the Dra(v)us (modern Drau) extend back to the 11th cent. BC. Under Claudius [III 1], T. became a municipium ; its territory encompassed the western part of modern Carinthia as far as the Tauern mountains. Urba…


(240 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort site in Raetia (Tab. Peut. 4,4; Raeti, Raetia), modern Straubing (in Lower Bavaria). Despite the Celtic root of the name no pre-Roman settlement is known. From the early Flavian period (69-79), four forts altogether were built at a strategically important position on the southern bank of the Danube (lower terrace) to the southeast of the Allachbach; in the neighbourhood an extended vicus developed as well as a river port (until the Trajanic or early Hadrianic period). Traces of six training camps have been fo…


(149 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σάλας; Sálas). River in Germania magna (Strab. 7,1,3), the modern Thuringian Saale, a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. The name derives from the salt deposits found in the areas through which the river runs. It has been argued that the Franconian Saale, which flows into the Main, was referred to in Tac. Ann. 13,57; this, however, must be the Werra. In the pre-Roman Iron Age, the Thuringian-Saale region was mostly a settlement area of the Celts, although southern fringes of the Jas…


(187 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Virda). River which flows from the Allgäu Alps northwards, approximately parallel to the Licca (modern Lech), through the Alpine foothills, modern river Wertach. After 133 km, it joins the river Licca in Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg) (cf. Ven. Fort. 641; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 2,13). For the name, Celtic ('powerful', 'speedy') or Roman (from Latin viridis = 'green', after the colour of the water) origins might be assumed; from the 10th/11th cent., Werthahe/-a, Wertha. Segments of the valley of the V. form …


(928 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Roman camp with civilian settlement on the Istrus (Danuvius/Danube), in Pannonia superior; the modern Vienna. The etymology of the place-name V. is disputed, but a Celtic origin may be assumed; the modern name Vienna/Wien probably refers to the Slavic (?) name of the Wien river. The first literary occurrence is in Ptol. 2,14,3 (Οὐι[νδ]όβονα/ O ui[nd] óbona; cf. Tab. Peut. 5,1: Vindomana; It. Ant. 34,25; 34,28; Not. Dign. Occ. 34,25; Aur. Vict. Caes. 16,14; (Ps.-)Aur. Vic…


(234 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούαδοι/ Koúadoi, Κουάδοι/ Kouádoi). The Q., first mentioned in Tac. Ann. 2,63,6, were part of the Suebi (Elbe Germani). They and the Marcomanni migrated eastwards from the Main after 9 BC (southern Moravia, Lower Austria north of the Danube, southern Slovakia). Beginning in AD 19, the territory they ruled stretched inter Marum et Cusum, i.e. between the modern River Morava and the Regnum Vannianum (Vannius). Until the Marcomanni Wars they largely lived in peaceful coexistence with Rome with growing dependence on Rome and distinct romanizati…


(758 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] East Germanic tribe or ethnic group. Information about their early history and origin (possibly from southwestern Sweden and northern Denmark [1]) is hypothetical. Late references to wars with the Goti and Langobardi (Iord. Get. 26 f.; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,7 ff.) are also problematic. According to Plin. HN 4,99 f., V. designates a group of tribes (possibly identical with the Vandilii: Tac. Germ. 2,4). They probably belonged to the cult-based grouping of tribes called the Lugii [1] and were related to the…


(112 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic people, mentioned in the inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium ( Tropaea Augusti ; CIL V 7817; Plin. HN 3,136) after the Trumpilini and Camunni and before the Vennonetes/Vennones and the Isarci; since tribes are listed there in the order of their subjugation to Rome, the V., like the Camunni, may have been subjugated in 16 BC by the Roman pro-consul P. Silius [II 7] (cf. Cass. Dio 54,20,1). Their main area of settlement was in the Vinschgau/Venosta valley, extended eastw…


(196 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Township at the foot of Mount Isel on a cone of debris and alluvial deposits above the River Sill on the route of the Brenner pass (It. Ant. 256; 258 f.; 275; 279 f., possibly identical with the Vetonia in Tab. Peut. 4,2), modern Wilten (a southern district of Innsbruck). Traces from the La Tène period (La Tène culture) where a settlement existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. AD, probably beneath the modern White Canon Abbey (buildings about 500 m2 in area; Mansio ?). To the north of V., three three-aisled horrea ('stor…


(225 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Italic-Roman trade centre (Noric iron) on the Magdalensberg (1058 m) in Carinthia in Austria, on the eastern edge of the Zollfeld with a sanctuary on the peak of the mountain. The identity of V. with an indigenous Celtic centre, occasionally identified with Noreia, has yet to be proven. About the middle of the 1st cent. AD, the settlement centre was relocated to the nearby Zollfeld. From the time of Claudius [III 1] a municipium ('Claudium V.', Plin. HN 3,16), until the second hal…


(141 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐιστούλα/ Ouistoúla). The main river in modern Poland (Amm. Marc. 22,8,38: Bisula; Plin. HN 4,81; 97; 100: Vistla, Visculus; derived from Indo-European *vis = 'to flow': Germanic *Wistlo, Slavonic Visla), German Weichsel, Polish Wisła. The V.'s source rivers, the Black and White Vistula, rise in the Jablunka mountains in the western Beskids, accurately given in Ptol. 2,11,4; 3,5,5 as in the east of the Asciburgium mountains. Its wide-branching delta (modern Bay of Gdansk) formed a natural gateway…

Regina Castra

(446 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Legionary fortress on the Danube opposite the mouth of the river Regen, modern Regensburg (Tab. Peut. 4,4; It. Ant. 250,1: Regino; Not. Dign. Occ. 35,17; It. Ant. 259,3; 6: ad castra; milestones [1; 2]: a legione; CIL V 32909: D( omo) Regino; name for the appendant civilian settlement, only passed down in the Medieval period, but possibly going back to a Celtic root: Radaspona). Built in the 70s of the 2nd cent. AD as the garrison quarters of the legio III Italica (CIL III…

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…
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