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Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Myndus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μύνδος; Mýndos). City in southwestern Asia Minor on the western coast of the peninsula stretching from  Halicarnassus to M., modern Gümüşlük. Its predecessor was a fortified highland settlement of the Leleges (Old ‘M.’, Plin. HN 5,107) on Mount Boz (3.5 km to the south). In the 5th cent. BC, M. was a member of the Delian League. In about 360, the town was abandoned or relocated to a harbour protected by foothills. The refoundation, probably under  Maussollus, was simultaneously connected with a synoikismós of six settlements around Halicar…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Antioch

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…

Carura

(190 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(τὰ Κάρουρα; tà Károura). [German version] [1] City in SW Asia Minor Town in south-western Asia Minor on the upper course of the  Maeander at the border between Caria and Phrygia (Str. 12,8,17; 14,2,29), near the modern Sarayköy. Thanks to its hot springs, C. was an ancient health resort; a medical school (in the tradition of  Herophilus [1]) was based near the sanctuary of Men Karu (Str. 12,8,20), halfway between C. and Laodicea [4] (2nd/1st cents. BC). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography Miller, 726 W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, 49 Ramsay 1, 164; 16…

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Pactolus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Πακτωλός/ Paktōlós). River in Lydia, originates at the Tmolus mountianrange (Boz Dağları), flows through Sardis and into the Hermus [2]; modern-day Sart Çayı. It was famous for the electron and gold dust washed out near the source (Hdt. 1,93,1; 5,101,2; Plin. HN 5,110), to which the Mermnad kings (Mermnadae) owed their legendary wealth (Archil. fr. 22 D.; Hdt. 6,125). Smelteries were located on the P. in Sardis. By the 1st cent. BC the gold of the P. was exhausted, it seems (Str. 13,1,23; 4,5). Quartz sand containing gold was also found in neighbouring streams. Kaletsch, …

Mausoleum

(600 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαυσ(σ)ωλεῖον; Maus(s)ōleîon; Lat. mausoleum). Monumental tomb for the satrap Maussollus of Caria (died 353 BC) and his wife Artemisia [2] (died 351 BC) near the city of Halicarnassus in Lycia, probably only completed during the time of Alexander. It was counted as one of the Wonders of the World and became eponymous for a standard type of representative funerary architecture. Modern archaeology has focused much on the monument, which was frequently discussed and described in ancient literature (Str. 14,656 ff.; Diod. Sic. 16,45; Plin. HN 36, 30-31 and passim). Scan…

Mastaura

(117 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Μάσταυρα; Mástaura). Town in Lydia on the southern slopes of the Mes(s)ogis (Str. 14,1,47; Plin. HN 5,120; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Anth. Pal. 11,230, with a pun on the place-name), ruins to the north of Nazilli. From the Roman period, municipal institutions and cults are known from inscriptions and coins. In Christian times an episcopal see, it was represented at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Calchedon (451) (Hierocles, Synekdemos 659,8; Not. episc. 1,101; 3,21; 7,91; 8,108; 9,15; 10,156). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensb…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Cares, Caria

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κᾶρες, Καρία; Kâres, Karía). [German version] I. Geography Tribe and region in south-western Asia Minor, its borders defined in the north by the Maeander and the mountain ranges of Mycale and Mesogis, and in the east by the Salbacus range; the Carian south coast stretches from the Triopic promontory to the bay of Telmessus (Str. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). Along its western coast -- characterized by gulfs and long stretched-out peninsulas -- lay the following towns which initially still belonged to Ionia:  Mi…

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confirmed by Rome in 81 BC in thanks for its loyalty in the First Mithridatic War, its territor…

Alabanda

(368 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Ἀλάβανδα; Alábanda). C. 40 km south of the  Maeander valley in the middle Carian plain ( Caria) of Çine, its most important location in antiquity, on two hills lying close together (Str. 14, 2, 26) and in the subsequent plain to the north, on the left bank of the  Marsyas, today Araphisar. First mentioned in 480 BC (city tyrant Aridolis in Greek captivity: Hdt. 7,195 -- unclear how the news at Hdt. 8,136 is to be reconciled with …

Caryanda

(172 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (τὰ Καρύανδα; tà Karýanda). Carian (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 242; Scyl. FGrH 709 T 1f.) harbour town between Myndus and Bargylia (Str. 14,2,20), south of the modern Güllük körfezi, originally on an offshore island (Salih adası?), later relocated to the mainland. C. was a member of the  Delian League and home of the seafarer (Hdt. 4,44,1) and geographer  Scylax. On Salih adası, remains of a walled settlement have been found; the mainland settlement of C., incorporated into  Myndus in the 3rd cent. BC, should be located not far from Salih adası near…

Mocadene

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή; Mokad(d)ēnḗ). Region in eastern Lydia along the upper Hermus in Maeonia [1], on the border with Phrygia; its location was established through inscriptions naming places within it ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, modern Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandus, modern Selendi, and Temenothyrae). It remains doubtful whether to associate Moccadeni, a dḗmos in Asia (incorrectly located in Bithynia in Ptol. Geog. 5,2,18), with Mocadene. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 with map  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Id., s.v.…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Mylasa

(878 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Diadochi and Epigoni | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (τὰ Μύλασα; tà Mýlasa). Main locality of the Cares in the land of Caria, modern Milâs. Place name pre-Greek, ancient cults of Carian Zeus in M. and environs (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,2,23). M. participated in the Ionian Revolt under the Carian Heraclides (the son of Ibanollis, tyrant of M.; Hdt. 5,37,121). In the middle of the 5th cent. BC, M. was a membe…

Hiera Kome, Hierocaesarea

(272 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη; Hierà Kṓmē, Ἱεροκαισάρεια; Hierokaisáreia). Settlement in Lydia on the ancient Pergamon-Sardis road east of the  Hyllus near modern Sazova or Beyova. Hiera Kome (HK) developed around a sanctuary of  Anaetis; this cult, which was introduced under the Persians, was found throughout the Lydian Hermus valley and because of its strangeness (fire worship, Magi priests) was still commented upon by the Greeks in the 2nd cent. AD  (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). In 201 BC a victim of the …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Hyllus

(747 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ὕλλος; Hýllos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Deianira Son of  Heracles and  Deianira; brother of Macaria. Ctesippus, Glenos and Oneites (Hes. fr. 25,19 M-W; Apollod. 2,165 Wagner) or Gleneus and Odites (Diod. Sic. 4,37,1) have been named as his brothers and Euaichme (Hes. fr. 251b M-W) as his daughter. Heracles asks him to burn his body on a pyre on Mount Oeta and to marry Iole (Soph. Trach. 1179-1258; (Ps.-)Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 1481-1491). After his father's death, he and the other Heraclid…

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Caprus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Κάπρος; Kápros). [German version] [1] River is eastern Caria River in the upper catchment area of the  Maeander in eastern Caria, modern Başlı Çay; it passes  Laodicea [4] closely to the east (Plin. HN 5,105) and discharges perennially into the Lycus, which runs about 1.5 km below the town in a north-westerly direction towards the Maeander (Str. 12,8,16; Plin. HN 2,225). Coins of the town depict a river god with the C. legend. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. E. Bean, Kleinasien 3, 1974, 259, 263 Magie 2, 785; 986 Miller, 726 Ramsay 1, 35. [German version] [2] Eastern tributar…

Mes(s)ogis

(88 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μεσ(σ)ωγίς; Mes(s)ōgís). Central range of a chain of mountains stretching westwards from near Celaenae in southwestern Phrygia to the Mycale, and reaching heights of over 1,600 m (Strab. 13,4,12f.), modern Aydın Mountains, the watershed between the Cayster and the Maeander [2], originally the frontier between Lydia and Caria (Ptol. 5,2,15). The best wines of the M. was said to be from grapes grow on Mount Aroma (Strab. 14,1,47; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄρωμα). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 1100ff. Magie, 783.

Icarian Sea

(235 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰκάριος πόντος; Ikários póntos). Southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, from Samos to Mykonos (Plin. HN 4,51) respectively from Icarus, with Corassiae (Corseae, modern Fourni) and Samos, via Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos to Kos (Str. 10,5,13). References: Hom. Il. 2,145 (Ἰκάριος πόντος); Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 694; Auson. epist. 23 ( Icarius pontus); Ov. Fast. 4,283; 566; Plin. HN 4,68; 6,215 ( Icarium); Hdt. 6,96; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 5,2,1-6; 17,2; Diod. Sic. 4,77,6 (Ἰκάριον πέλαγος); Claud. in Eutropium 2,265 ( Icarium pelagus). The Icarian Sea (IS) breaks on the …

Telmissus

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τελμισσός/ Telmissós; by-form Τελμεσσός/ Telmessós: Syll.3 1047,7 f.). City in Caria (Cares) at modern Gürece, about 11 km (Polemon FHG 3, 128 Fr. 35) to the west of Halicarnassus, for the expansion of which T. had to relinquish part of its population c. 361 BC (Callisthenes FGrH 124 F 25; Plin. HN 5,107). With its Apollo sanctuary, still famous in the Roman Imperial period (HN 619), T. formed the League of the Telmisseis [1. 377-380]. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC T. was entirely absorbed into Halicarnassus. On…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Castabos

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κάσταβος; Kástabos). Site in the north-west of the Carian Chersonesus (Bozburun Yarımadası) in the hinterland of the Bay of Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü), to the east above ancient Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü) in the Rhodian  Peraea. On the Pazarlık, a ridge of the Eren Dağı, remains of an Ionic peripteros ( c. 300 BC), a small theatre and further structures belonging to the much-visited sanctuary of  Hemithea (Diod. Sic. 5,62 f.), a goddess of healing whose originally Carian cult, traceable back to the end of the 7th cent. BC…

Alinda

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ἄλινδα/ Álinda). City in northern Caria (Cares; Ptol. 5,2,20). In the Delian League in the middle of the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1, 467 f.); in 341/40 the only fortress remaining to the princess Ada, which in 334 BC she handed over to Alexander [4] the Great, only to receive it back by adopting him (Arr. Anab. 1,23,8; Diod. 17,24,2). After that A. was for a short time renamed Alexandria on the Latmus [1]; the city is supposed to have…

Loryma

(161 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Λώρυμα; Lṓryma). Town on the south coast of Caria (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 247), east of the southern tip of Boz Burun in the heart of the peraea of Rhodes, belonged to Kasara (modern Asardibi), modern Bozuk Kale (‘castle ruin’). On the headland (Str. 14,2,4; 2,14; Larumna, Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104; Ptol. 5,2,8; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) over the approach to the bay lie the ruins of a Rhodian fortress (3rd/2nd cent. BC); on the southeastern side, rock inscriptions for Rhodian Zeus At…

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Mostene

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοστήνη; Mostḗnē). Lydian city (Ptol. 5,2,16), localised according to inscriptions and coins either at the eastern foot of Mount Sipylus near modern Çobanisa or Sancaklıboz or to the south of Thyateira or c. 40 km to the east of Magnesia [3] (modern Asartepe near Urganlı). In AD 17, M. was destroyed by an earthquake (Tac. Ann. 2,47,3). M. was one of 12 or 14 cities of the province of Asia that thanked Tiberius for help in rebuilding with honorary inscriptions and a monument in Rome (copy: Puteoli, CIL X 1624; I…

Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Theangela

(390 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεάγγελα/ Theángela). City in Caria (Cares), to the east of Halicarnassus, most eastern settlement of the Leleges; a precedessor settlement may have been Συάγγελα/ Syángela (S.), at the modern Alazeytin Kalesi to the west above Çiftlik [1. 112-116, 145-147; 2. 89-96], or on Mount Kaplan to the southwest of modern Etrim [3. 17 note 3, 224 note 33a]. In the 6th/5th cent. BC S. was in the hands of the Carian dynastic family of Pigres, who held a command…

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Xystis

(115 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ξυστίς/ Xystís). City in northwestern Caria (Cares IV.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ξ.), like Orthosia [1], Euhippe (at modern Dalama), Coscinus or Coscina (at modern Mount Arı near Dalama) and other places (Plin. HN. 5,109) between the Harpasus [1] and the Marsyas [4], left-bank tributaries of the Maeander [2], modern Körteke. Archaeology: a mountain fortress, presumably of the Leleges (cf. Str 7,7,2; 13,1,59), with pre-Classical and Mediaeval walling. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. J. A. Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, 61 G 3  E…

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Tymnus

(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Marathus(s)a

(63 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαραθοῦσσα; Marathoûssa, ‘fennel island’). The most southerly of the islands off Clazomenae in the south west of the Gulf of Smyrna, modern Hekim or Çiçek Islands. Few remains. Evidence: Thuc. 8,31,3; Str. 14,1,36; Plin. HN 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (ed.), C. Plinius Secundus der Ältere, Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (commentary).

Lydia

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Λυδία; Lydía). [German version] I. Geography Region in western Asia Minor; its southern border with Caria is formed by the Mes(s)ogis and the Maeander, its eastern border with Phrygia by the confluence of the Lycus [18] and the Maeander, the upper course of the Hermus [2] and the Dindymus mountains (modern Murat Dağı) and its northern border with Mysia by the Caicus [1]) and the Temnus (Demirci Dağı) and mountain ranges further west. Aeolis and Ionia are offshore in the west, sharing with L. the clim…

Stratoniceia

(611 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] City on the upper Caicus This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum (Στρατονίκεια/ Stratoníkeia, Στρατονίκη/ Stratoníkē, Latin Stratonice). City on the upper Caïcus near modern Siledik. Possibly a Seleucid polis foundation (named after Stratonice [3]), from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC under Pergamum. It was probably here - not in S. [2] - that Aristonicus [4] was taken prisoner by Perperna [3] in 130 BC (Eutr. 4,20,2; Oros. 5,10,5). In the first half of the 2nd cent. AD, S. had sympolity (Sy…

Caystru pedion

(201 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River plain of the Caystrus (Καΰστρου/Καΰστριον πεδίον; Kaÿ́strou/ Kaÿ́strion pedion). River plain of the  Caystrus [1] from the plain of Kilbis on the upper course of the river (Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, Str. 13,4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Assos) to the west; on its middle or rather lower course was the Ἄσιος λειμών ( Ásios leimṓn; ‘Asian meadow’) with flocks of wild geese, cranes, and swans (Hom. Il. 2,461; Cic. Orat. 163; Str. 14,1,45). Mount Tmolus afforded a view on the surrounding plains, including the Caystrou pedion (CP) (Str. 13,4,5…

Idrias

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰδριάς; Idriás). Mountainous region in Caria with the Marsyas valley east of Mylasa (Hdt. 5,118; Str. 14,5,23), with the like-named Carian city. Its allegedly older name, Chrysaoris (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; s.v. Chrysaoris), is also attributed to the city of Stratoniceia and its countryside (Paus. 5,21,10), probably in the sense that I. lay in an area where the villages had joined together in the Carian league of Chrysaoreis around the sanctuary of Zeus Chrysaoreus; the city of Strat…

Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Curupedion

(72 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούρου or Κόρου πεδίον). Plain in Lydia north of Magnesia on the Sipylos, east of the confluence of the Hyllus [4] and the Hermos [2] (Str. 13,4,5; 13), where Lysimachus was defeated in 281 BC by Seleucus (Porphyrius FGrH 260 F 3,8), and Antiochus [5] III was defeated in 190 BC by the Romans (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389, see n. 4, 481.

Silandus

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σίλανδος/ Sílandos). City in eastern Lydia, at a northern tributary of the Hermus [2] (e.g. river god Hermus in coin images). Under Domitianus [1] (AD 81-96) S. became a civitas , issuing coins (until Severus [2] Alexander); at the same time Mocadene was divided into the territories of the cities of S. and Temenothyrae, the two cities then being called mētropóleis. S. was near modern Kara Selendi (to the west of Selendi). Bishops of S. took part in the Councils of Nicaea in 325 and Cha…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…
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