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Hadramaut

(211 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Arabic Ḥaḍramaut, Ḥaḍramōt, Ḥaḍramūt; Ἁδραμύτα; Hadramýta, Theophr. Hist. pl. 9,4). Ancient southern Arabian kingdom with capital Sabota, i.e. Šabwa(t) in the west; its residents are the easternmost people of Arabia Felix, the so-called Chadramōtítai (Str. 16,4) or Atramitae (Plin. HN 6,155). In ancient times H. was not only the valley of that name with its catchment areas but comprised the entire region up to the Arabian Sea. The kingdom of H. is attested from the 7th cent. BC in Ancient Southern Arabic inscription…

Minaei

(679 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Μιναῖοι; Minaîoi). Eratosthenes mentions the M., who lived beside the Erythraean Sea, as the first of the four nations of South Arabia (Strabo 16,768). According to Plin. HN 6,157 the Minaei were descendants of Minos, king of Crete. Ptol. 6,7,23 still presents the M. as an important nation. In Ancient South Arabian inscriptions the people and the kingdom of M. were called mn or mnm, Maīn or Maīnum. The heartland of the M. was the large oasis of the River Maḏāb, which extended north-west of Mārib ( Mariaba) and since the Islamic period has been called al-Ǧauf. The kingdom…

Spolia

(4,945 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Rebecca
Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) From Ancient Greek spolás: leather jerkin, Latin spolia: clothing and weapons robbed from an opponent in war, booty [34]; applied in the Middle Ages traditionally and, in this sense, generally to plunder (Serv. Aen. 11,80; Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 18,375,8; Rabanus Maurus, De Universo 20,2). Against the background of antiquarian research in Rome, by the 16th cent. at the latest spolia or spoglie could refer to re-used elements of ancient architecture from 'plundered' buildings [46. 20, 24,…

Yaṯrib

(160 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
(Qurʾan 33,13; Ἰάθριππα/ Iáthrippa in Steph. Byz. 321,13; corrupted as Λαθρίππα/ Lathríppa in Ptol. 6,7,31), modern Medina. [German version] I. Pre-Islamic period Ancient oasis settlement of economic significance in western central Arabia on the Incense Road. The Babylonian king Nabonidus set out from Tayma c. 550 BC on campaigns in the course of which he also conquered Y. Y. is mentioned in 3rd-cent. BC name lists in the Minaean capital Qarnāwu (Minaei). From the 1st century AD until the advent of Islam, there were powerful Judaeo-Arabian tribes in Y. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg…

Maesaimanes

(133 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαισαιμανεῖς/ Maisaimaneîs, var. Μναισαιμανεῖς/ Mnaisaimaneîs, Ptol. 6,7,21). A people settling in north-western Arabia directly west of the Zamēs mountain range in the neighbouring area of the Thamydenians; definitely identifiable with the Batmizomaneis (var. Banizomeneis, Diod. Sic. 3,44,2) mentioned in Agatharchides (De mari Erythraeo 92) in the same region and with the Marsimani - named in the annals of Sargon II of Assyria from 715 BC after the Tamudi - who lived in the desert, owed tribute to no king and b…

Cockfighting

(455 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Stefan (Hagen)
[German version] A. Spread and popularity Cockfighting is attested from the 5th cent. BC to the Roman Imperial period (earliest evidence in Pind. Ol. 12,14, latest in Hdn. 3,10,3). It was especially popular with the Greeks [1. 117; 2. 82-92]: fighting cocks were considered an ideal example of the will to win (Ael. VH 2,28); it is in that light that they are depicted on the Panathenaean prize amphorae [3. 34] ( Panathenaean amphorae); in Aesch. Eum. 861 they symbolize martial anger (the cock as ‘the bi…

Mariaba

(509 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαρίαβα; Maríaba). Capital of the Sabaean kingdom in the south-west of Arabia Felix, today the town of Mārib (15° 26′ N, 45° 16′ O). M. is mentioned as the metropolis of the Sabaeans in Str. 16,768, according to Eratosthenes, and in Str. 16,778, according to Artemidorus. It can be found as Mariba in Plin. HN 6,160 as well as in R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Ptol. 6,7,37 lists the metropolis Μαράβα/ Marába (variant Μάρα/ Mára, Βάραβα/ Báraba). The name form Marsyaba (Str. 16,782) is surely a contamination of Mariaba and Saba. Sabaean inscriptions also render the…

Mapharitis

(335 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαφαρῖτις/ Mapharîtis, Peripl. m.r. 22). A region in the interior of south western Arabia Felix. In its capital Sawe (Σαυή), three travel days from the port of Muza, resided a prince by the name of Cholaebus (Χόλαιβος), in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Compare the contemporary Sabaean inscription Sharabi-as-Sawā 1 (squeeze of inscription in [1] and [2]), according to which Kulayb Yuhamin, the tribal leader of Maāfirum, had a temple built below the city of Śawām. At the time, …

Malichu insula

(108 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Plin. HN 6,175 after Juba). Island off the west coast of Arabia Felix in the southern Red Sea. It served as the next point of orientation for seafarers after passing Exusta ( Catacecaumene [2]). M. can probably be identified with the island of Ḥạnīš al-kubrā (13° 43' N, 42° 45' E); it rises to a height of 407 m. When Ptol. 6,7,44 mentions Malichou (Μαλίχου / Malíchou, Var. Μαλιάχου δύο / Maliáchou dýo, i.e. the two islands of Malichus), this may refer to the two Ḥanīš Islands, i.e. the main island and its smaller, northern neighbour, Ḥanīš aṣṣ̄ụġrā. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg…

Catacecaumene

(223 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
(Κατακεκαυμένη; Katakekauménē, ‘burnt earth’). [German version] [1] Volcanic zone in western Asia Minor Volcanic zone, characterized by ash-like soil and black rocks, in western Asia Minor (Mysia and eastern Lydia: Xanthus FGrH 765 F 13; Str. 12,8,18f.), about 40×10 km in size (exaggerated in Str. 13,4,11) on the upper reaches of the Maeander, which flows through the C. (Str. 13,4,5); parallel to it in the south is a volcano-free crystalline schistose zone; separate from that the fault line of the Kogamos va…

Marsyaba

(147 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαρσύαβα/ Marsýaba, var. Μαρσίαβα/ Marsíaba, Μαρσυαβαί/ Marsyabaí Str. 16,782). A town of the tribe of the Rhammanitae (Ῥαμμανῖται; Rhammanîtai) in Arabia Felix, subject to Ilasarus (Ἰλασάρος; Ilasáros). In 24 BC, M. was unsuccessfully besieged for six days by the Roman army ( Aelius [II 11] Gallus); cf. the contemporary Sabaean inscription Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique 4085, according to which the leader of the tribe of the Rhammanitae built an irrigation system for his master Ilšaraḥ. In other campa…

Abraham

(625 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] [1] Biblical figure The biblical A. figure is subject to various interpretations during the early Jewish and rabbinical periods. To traditionally devout circles, A. represents the law-abiding patriarch, who, owing to the timeless nature of Jewish law, was able to observe the Halachic commandments previous to their revelation on Sinai (cf. i.a. Sir 44,19; Jub 15,1; 16,21; 21,5; syrBar 57,2; mQid 4,14; bYom 28b). As A. destroyed his father's graven images, he is regarded as the first r…

Horatius

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name of a patrician gens which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC. Later bearers of the name owe it to the provenance from the eponymous tribus. [German version] [1] Horatii Member of the Horatius gens (Royal period). According to legend (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,13,4-22,10), under King Tullus  Hostilius [I 4], the conflict between Rome and  Alba Longa was decided by a fight between the Horatii triplets and the Curiatii triplets rather than a battle. After two brothers had fallen, the last H. overcame his opponent…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…
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